Miandoab, as its name suggests, is situated in a delta region of the two rivers Zarrineh-Rud and Simineh-Rud. Miandoab enjoys very fertile soil and excellent Mediterranean climate. Due to the establishment of a sugar factory in the early 20th century, there has been large industrial activity compared to nearby towns.
Miandoab is located between the counties of Bukan, Malekan, Mahabad, and Shahin Dezh. In addition, it joins the two provinces of the Iran: West Azerbaijan and East Azerbaijan. Thus, this town has been as a transportation bridge between the two large provinces of Iran, and has attracted political and economical interested for local and international governments. The area of Miandoab county is 2694 square kilometers, is located at 46°6′E latitude and 36°58′N longitude, in the center of the plain areas which are ending at Lake Urmia, and at height of 1314 from the sea level.
The majority of Miandoab's inhabitants are Azeri Turks who are followers of Shia sect of Islam. There is also a small minority of Kurds, Armenians and Jews in and around the city. There is also a small minority of Ahl-e Haqq in Miandoab and surrounding villages. Miandoab used to have a sizable Bahá'í population, but due to the religious persecution by the government of the Islamic Republic, most have migrated to other cities within Iran or overseas.
Miandoab is an agricultural and rather industrial town, has the second rank of agriculture and livestock in the province after Urmia -as the capital-, and has the third rank of industry in the province after Urmia and Khoy. Promisingly, Miandoab has attracted lots of economical interests owing to its position among three provinces. Consequently, it has become one of the main resources of economy at South of the province.