Miao Rebellions (Ming dynasty)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Miao Rebellions (Ming Dynasty))
Jump to: navigation, search
Miao Rebellions (Ming Dynasty)
Date 14th century, 15th century
Location Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Huguang
Result Ming victory
Belligerents
Ming dynasty Miao, Yao and other indigenous rebels
Commanders and leaders
Hongwu Emperor
Grand General of South-Pacifying Post of the Nation- Hala Bashi
Zhengtong Emperor
Li Chen
Strength
Thousands of Han chinese. Chinese Muslim, and Uyghur troops
1,000 Mongol cavalry archers
Thousands of Miao, Yao and other indigenous rebels
Casualties and losses
Tens of thousands of rebels killed, thousands of castrations

The Miao Rebellions (Ming Dynasty) were a series of rebellions of the Miao and other indigenous tribes of southern China. The Ming Dynasty defeated the rebels with overwhelming force. Later in the Qing dynasty, another series of Miao rebellions broke out.

Rebellions[edit]

In one of the first Miao revolts, in the 1370s, several thousand Uyghur warriors from Turpan were sent by the Ming Hongwu Emperor to defeat Miao rebels in Taoyuan County of Changde, Hunan (at the time Hunan was part of Huguang province). The Uyghurs were all given titles and allowed to live in Changde, Hunan. The title of the Uyghur commander was "Grand General of South-Pacifying Post of the Nation"[1] simplified Chinese: 镇国定南大将军; traditional Chinese: 鎮國定南大將軍; pinyin: zhèn guó dìngnán dàjiàng jūn [2][3] The Uyghurs were led by Gen. Hala Bashi, who was awarded titles by the Ming Hongwu Emperor and the surname Jian (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Jiǎn). They live in Taoyuan County of Hunan province to this day.[4] Chinese Muslim troops were also used by the Ming Dynasty to defeat the Miao and other indigenous rebels in the area, and were also settled in Changde, Hunan, where their descendants still live.[1]

On May 4, 1449, the Miao revolted again. The Ming military sent Gen. Wang Ji to destroy the rebels.[5] the Miao rebellions spread through Huguang and Guizhou.[6] Guizhou was ransacked in 1459 by and 1460 by government forces, who looted the town and sold many of the residents into slavery. The eunuch Yuan Rangyang was appointed Grand Defender of Huguang and Guizhou.[7]

Again multiple Miao rebellions broke out in the 1460s. The Miao and Yao rebelled in 1464, and the revolt spread throughout Guangxi, Hunan, Guizhou, Jiangxi and Guangdong.[8] The Miao regrouped and had settled throughout southern China. On the Hunan Guizhou border, more rebellions broke out in 1466. The Ming rallied 1,000 Mongol cavalry archers and 30,000 soldiers in total to defeat the Miao.[9] Ming commander Gen. Li Chen, who was an hereditary general, fought against the indigenous tribes for decades in the 15th century and used brutal tactics against them. He was determined to wage campaigns of extermination against the Miao whenever they rebelled—in 1467 and 1475, among others—and killed thousands of them.[10]

Certain subgroups of Miao are known as Hmong. In the 16th century the Ming dynasty sent ethnic Chinese to settle in the tribal areas of the Hmong and other indigenous tribes in the southwest. The Ming sent 2000 garrison troops to defeat the Hmong rebels, and 40,000 rebels were slaughtered. Yet by 1500 the Hmong were revolting in areas around Hunan province and had fought almost every year in an effort to gain their independence from imperial rule. The fervor and tenacity of these tribes had caused much discord and unrest. The Ming Dynasty constructed the Hmong wall, which was 10 feet high and 100 miles long with military posts. The Hmong in Guizhou used armor made of buffalo skin or mail made of copper and iron, and weapons such as shields, spears, knives, crossbows and poisoned arrows. Two Chinese generals who defected and joined the Hmong gave them gunpowder weapons, such as flintlock rifles, cannons and blunderbusses, and showed the rebels how to make them.[11]

An account of the origins of the Hmong in Sichuan says that the Ming Chinese in Guangdong defeated the ancestors of the Hmong, and forcibly relocated them to Sichuan.[12]

The Chinese naming and classification of the southern tribes was often vague. When the Ming began colonizing the south, the classification of the natives began to grow more accurate.[13]

The Ming commander crushed a Miao rebellion in 1460, and castrated 1,565 Miao boys, which resulted in the deaths of 329 of them. They were then turned into eunuch slaves. The Guizhou Governor who ordered the castration of the Miao was reprimanded and condemned by the Ming Tianshun Emperor for doing it once the Ming government heard of the event.[14][15][16] This event occurred during the rule of the Zhengtong Emperor (Yingzong, Yingcong or Ying Tsung). Since 329 of the boys died, even more were needed to be castrated.[17]

Han Chinese origin Hmong clans[edit]

A large number of the Han Chinese soldiers who also fought the Miao were then settled in the southwest, given land and married many of their Hmong women.[18][19]

A great number of Hmong lineage clans were founded by Chinese men who married Hmong women, these distinct Chinese descended clans practice Chinese burial customs instead of Hmong style burials.[20]

The Hmong children of Hmong women who married Chinese men was the origin of numerous China and South East Asia based Hmong lineages and clans, these were called "Chinese Hmong" ("Hmong Sua") in Sichuan, the Hmong were instructed in military tactics by fugitive Chinese rebels.[21]

Marriages between Hmong women and Han Chinese men is the origin of a lot of Hmong lineages and clans.[22][23]

Hmong women married Han Chinese men to found new Hmong lineages which use Chinese names.[24]

Chinese men who married into Hmong clans have established more Hmong clans than the ritual twelve, Chinese "surname groups" are comparable to the Hmong clans which are patrilineal, and practice exogamy.[25][25][26][27][28]

Hmong women married Han Chinese men who pacified Ah rebels who were fighting against the Ming dynasty, and founded the Wang clan among the Hmong in Gongxian county, of Sichuan's Yibin district.[23][29]

Hmong women who married Chinese men founded a new Xem clan in a Hmong village (among Northern Thailand's Hmong), fifty years later in Chiangmai two of their Hmong boy descendants were Catholics.[30] A Hmong woman and a Chinese man married and founded the Lauj clan in Northern Thailand.[30]

A marriage between a Hmong woman and a Chinese man resulted in northern Thailand's Lau2 clan being founded, another Han Chinese with the family name Deng founded another Hmong clan, Han Chinese men's marriages with Hmong women has led some ethnographers to conclude that Hmong clans in the modern era have possible all or partly have been founded in this matter.[31]

Jiangxi Han Chinese are claimed by some as the forefathers of the southeast Guizhou Miao, and Miao children were born to the many Miao women married Han Chinese soldiers in Taijiang in Guizhou before the second half of the 19th century.[32]

Imperially commissioned Han Chinese chieftancies "gone native", with the Miao and were the ancestors of a part of the Miao population in Guizhou.[33]

The Hmong Tian clan in Sizhou began in the seventh century as a migrant Han Chinese clan.[34]

Non-han women such as Miao women became wives of Han Chinese male soldiers who fought against the Miao rebellions during the Qing and Ming dynasties since Han women were not available.[35][36][37]

The Ming dynasty Hongwu Emperor sent troops to Guizhou whose descendants became the Tunbao.[38] The origin of the Tunbao people traces back to when the Ming dynasty sent 300,000 Han Chinese male soldiers in 1381 to conquer Yunnan and the men married Yao and Miao women.[39]

The presence of women presiding over weddings was a feature noted in "Southeast Asian" marriages, such as in 1667 when a Miao woman in Yunnan married a Chinese official.[40] Some Sinicization occurred, in Yunnan a Miao chief's daughter married a scholar in the 1600s who wrote that she could read, write, and listen in Chinese and read Chinese classics.[41]

The Sichuan Hmong village of Wangwu was visited by Nicholas Tapp who wrote that the "clan ancestral origin legend" of the Wang Hmong clan, had said that several times they were married to a Han Chinese and possibly one of these was their ancestor Wang Wu, there were two types of Hmong, "cooked" who sided with Chinese and "raw" who rebelled against the Chinese, the Chinese were supported by the Wang Hmong clan.[21] A Hmong woman was married by the non-Hmong Wang Wu according to The Story of the Ha Kings in Wangwu village.[42]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Chih-yu Shih; Zhiyu Shi (2002). Negotiating ethnicity in China: citizenship as a response to the state. Psychology Press. p. 133. ISBN 0-415-28372-8. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  2. ^ Zhonghua Minguo guo ji guan xi yan jiu suo (2000). Issues & studies, Volume 36, Issues 1-3. Institute of International Relations, Republic of China. p. 184. Retrieved 26 Dec 2011. According to an account passed down among township residents, Uygur ancestors were called by the emperor to the region to quell Miao rebels during the Ming Dynasty and accepted titles from the emperor who bestowed upon them their own land. The title "Grand General of South-Pacifying Post of the Nation" S & fa also carries a given Han surname, Jian ( fij ), which is currently the largest Uygur group in Changde. According to an expert on Changde Uygurs,6 while Jian is a Original from the University of Michigan
  3. ^ 海峽交流基金會 (2000). 遠景季刊, Volume 1, Issues 1-4. 財團法人海峽交流基金會. p. 38. Retrieved 2 September 2012. 
  4. ^ "Ethnic Uygurs in Hunan Live in Harmony with Han Chinese". People's Daily. 29 December 2000. 
  5. ^ Oriens extremus: Zeitschrift für Sprache, Kunst und Kultur de Länder des Fernen Ostens, Volumes 37-39. O. Harrassowitz. 1994. p. 193. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  6. ^ Oriens extremus: Zeitschrift für Sprache, Kunst und Kultur de Länder des Fernen Ostens, Volumes 37-39. O. Harrassowitz. 1994. p. 193. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  7. ^ Nicola Di Cosmo; Don J. Wyatt (2003). Political frontiers, ethnic boundaries, and human geographies in Chinese history. Psychology Press. p. 280. ISBN 0-7007-1464-2. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  8. ^ John Stewart Bowman (2000). Columbia chronologies of Asian history and culture. Columbia University Press. p. 43. ISBN 0-231-11004-9. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  9. ^ Frederick W. Mote (1988). Frederick W. Mote, ed. The Cambridge History of China: The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644; edited by Frederick W. Mote and Denis Twitchett, Volume 7, Part 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 379. ISBN 0-521-24332-7. Retrieved 26 Dec 2011. Thirty thousand soldiers, including 1000 Mongol cavalry archers much feared for their prowess and ferocity, made their way to Kwangsi by late summer, joined there by a reported 160,000 local troops. 
  10. ^ Frederick W. Mote; Denis Twitchett; John King Fairbank (1988). The Cambridge History of China: The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644, Part 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 380. ISBN 0-521-24332-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  11. ^ Sue Murphy Mote (2004). Hmong and American: Stories of Transition to a Strange Land. McFarland. p. 100. ISBN 0-7864-1832-X. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  12. ^ Tao Tao Liu; David Faure (1996). Unity and Diversity: Local Cultures and Identities in China. Hong Kong University Press. p. 87. ISBN 962-209-402-3. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  13. ^ Barbara Watson Andaya (2006). The Flaming Womb: Repositioning Women in Early Modern Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-8248-2955-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  14. ^ Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1996). The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty. SUNY Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-7914-2687-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  15. ^ Journal of Asian history, Volume 25. O. Harrassowitz. 1991. p. 130. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  16. ^ "Eunuchs". GeneralAnswers.org. 2005. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  17. ^ Taisuke Mitamura (1970). Chinese Eunuchs: The Structure of Intimate Politics. C.E. Tuttle Co. p. 54. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  18. ^ Susan Brownell; Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom (2002). Chinese Femininities, Chinese Masculinities: A Reader. University of California Press. p. 392. ISBN 0-520-21103-0. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  19. ^ Louisa Schein (2000). Minority Rules: The Miao and the Feminine in China's Cultural Politics. Duke University Press. p. 61. ISBN 0-8223-2444-X. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  20. ^ Stephan Feuchtwang (2004). Making Place: State Projects, Globalisation and Local Responses in China. Psychology Press. pp. 141–. ISBN 978-1-84472-010-1. 
  21. ^ a b Nicholas Tapp (2001). The Hmong of China: Context, Angency, and the Imaginary. BRILL. pp. 204–. ISBN 0-391-04187-8.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Tapp2001" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  22. ^ Tao Tao Liu; David Faure (1996). Unity and Diversity: Local Cultures and Identities in China. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 88–. ISBN 978-962-209-402-4. 
  23. ^ a b Tao Tao Liu; David Faure (1 March 1996). Unity and Diversity: Local Cultures and Identities in China. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 88–. ISBN 978-962-209-402-4.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "LiuFaure1996" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  24. ^ Nicholas Tapp (2010). The Impossibility of Self: An Essay on the Hmong Diaspora. LIT Verlag Münster. pp. 100–. ISBN 978-3-643-10258-4. 
  25. ^ a b Narendra Singh Bisht; T. S. Bankoti (1 March 2004). Encyclopaedia of the South East Asian Ethnography. Global Vision Publishing House. pp. 243–. ISBN 978-81-87746-96-6.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "BishtBankoti2004" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  26. ^ David Levinson (1993). Encyclopedia of world cultures. G.K. Hall. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-8168-8840-5. 
  27. ^ Timothy J. O'Leary (1991). Encyclopedia of world cultures: North America. Hall. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-8168-8840-5. 
  28. ^ Melvin Ember; Carol R. Ember (1999). Cultures of the world: selections from the ten-volume encyclopedia of world cultures. Macmillan Library Reference. p. 252. 
  29. ^ Tao Tao Liu; David Faure (1996). Unity and Diversity: Local Cultures and Identities in China. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 86–. ISBN 978-962-209-402-4. 
  30. ^ a b Nicholas Tapp (1989). Sovereignty and Rebellion: The White Hmong of Northern Thailand. Oxford University Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-19-588912-3.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Tapp1989" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  31. ^ Asian Folklore Studies. Nanzan University Institute of Anthropology. 2002. p. 93. 
  32. ^ Mark Bender (10 March 2006). Butterfly Mother: Miao (Hmong) Creation Epics from Guizhou, China. Hackett Publishing. pp. xvii–. ISBN 1-60384-335-3. 
  33. ^ Mark Elvin (1 October 2008). The Retreat of the Elephants: An Environmental History of China. Yale University Press. pp. 216–. ISBN 978-0-300-13353-0. 
  34. ^ Spreading the Dao, Managing Mastership, and Performing Salvation: The Life and Alchemical Teachings of Chen Zhixu. ProQuest. 2008. pp. 70–. ISBN 978-0-549-44283-7. 
  35. ^ Louisa Schein (2000). Minority Rules: The Miao and the Feminine in China's Cultural Politics. Duke University Press. pp. 61–. ISBN 0-8223-2444-X. 
  36. ^ Susan Brownell; Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom (1 January 2002). Chinese Femininities, Chinese Masculinities: A Reader. University of California Press. pp. 392–. ISBN 978-0-520-21103-2. 
  37. ^ Brackette Williams (2 December 2013). Women Out of Place: The Gender of Agency and the Race of Nationality. Routledge. pp. 98–. ISBN 978-1-135-23476-8. 
  38. ^ "Tunbao people spring preformance". English--People's Daily Online. February 27, 2005. 
  39. ^ James Stuart Olson (1 January 1998). An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of China. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 340–. ISBN 978-0-313-28853-1. 
  40. ^ Barbara Watson Andaya (2006). The Flaming Womb: Repositioning Women in Early Modern Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 205–. ISBN 978-0-8248-2955-1. 
  41. ^ Barbara Watson Andaya (2006). The Flaming Womb: Repositioning Women in Early Modern Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 20–. ISBN 978-0-8248-2955-1. 
  42. ^ Nicholas Tapp (2001). The Hmong of China: Context, Angency, and the Imaginary. BRILL. pp. 327–. ISBN 0-391-04187-8. 

See also[edit]