List of visionary tall buildings and structures

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The X-Seed 4000 is one of the tallest structures ever conceived. Shown in this image is the Burj Khalifa (829.8 m (2,722 ft)), tallest structure in the world at the time of completion in 2010, and the X-Seed 4000 project. (4,000 m (13,000 ft))

Visionary structures[edit]

This is a list of buildings and other structures that have been envisioned. A structure is said to be a 'vision' according to the Council on tall buildings and urban habitat.[1] The list does not include proposed or under construction buildings as these are listed at list of future tallest buildings.

Structures[edit]

Name Pinnacle height Year of first proposal Structure type Main use Country Place Year of projected completion Description Floors
The Space Elevator 100,000,000 m (62,000 mi) 1895 Massive space tether Space tourism, space exploration and space colonization Several undetermined undetermined An extraordinarily long cable, anchored on or near the equator, held up by the rotation of the Earth. N/A
The Launch loop 80,000 m (50 mi) 1981 Suspended Maglev Track Space tourism, space exploration and space colonization United States U.S. undetermined undetermined The Launch loop is a concept that has been proposed for the purposes of orbital launch.[2] N/A
Scaled-down Space Elevator 20,000 m (12 mi) 2009 Pneumatic tower Tourism, communications, wind generation and reduced cost space launch.[3] Canada Canada undetermined undetermined A sub-orbital or mini version.[4] The structure would be free standing and actively guyed over its base.[3] N/A
StarTram Generation 2 20,000 m (12 mi) 2001 Suspended Maglev Track Space tourism, space exploration and space colonization United States U.S. undetermined undetermined The StarTram is a proposed concept for orbital launches. It has a long (1000–1500 km) vacuum tube, levitated via strong currents in superconducting cables. N/A
X-Seed 4000 4,000 m (13,000 ft) 1995 Arcology Residential, commercial, retail real estate, as well as heavy industry Japan Japan Tokyo undetermined The X-Seed 4000 is the tallest building ever fully envisioned. Its proposed 4,000 m (13,000 ft) height, 6 km (3.7 mi) wide sea-base, and 800-floor capacity could accommodate five hundred thousand to one million inhabitants. 800
Ultima Tower 3,218 m (10,558 ft) 1991 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and retail real estate United States U.S. San Francisco undetermined The Ultima Tower is a hypothetical super-tall skyscraper, designed by American architect Eugene Tsui in 1991. With a total height of 3,218 metres (10,558 ft), the tower would be 2 miles tall, and comprise 500 stories if built. 500
Dubai City Tower 2,400 m (7,900 ft) 2008 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and retail real estate United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates Dubai undetermined The Dubai City Tower is a proposed 400-floor, 2,400 m (7,900 ft) tall building to be built in Dubai, consisting of six outer buildings entwining a central core. 400
Shimizu Mega-City Pyramid 2,004 m (6,575 ft) 1996 Arcology Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real estate Japan Japan Tokyo undetermined The Shimizu Mega-City Pyramid is a proposed project for construction of a massive pyramid over Tokyo Bay in Japan. The structure would be approximately 14 times higher than the Great Pyramid of Giza, and would house 750,000 people. If built, it will be the largest man-made structure on Earth. N/A
The Dutch Mountain 2,000 m (6,600 ft) 2012 Artificial Mountain Tourism, leisure, commercial and wind generation Netherlands The Netherlands Flevoland undetermined "De Nederlandse Berg", Dutch for "The Dutch Mountain" is a proposal for an artificial mountain by Thijs Zonneveld.[5][6][7] N/A
Millennium Challenge Tower 1,852 m (6,076 ft) 2005 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and retail real estate Kuwait Kuwait (possibly) undetermined undetermined A super-tall skyscraper designed by architect Omero Marchetti as part of his proposed "ethic city" concept. The aims of the project are to reach a nautical mile in height while "not using concrete, orthogonal grids, traditional systems, mortars, [and] cranes."[8] If built, the tower would reach 1,852 metres (6,076 ft). N/A
Times Squared 3015 1,733 m (5,686 ft) 2015 Vertical City Mixed Use United States USA New York City Unknown Times Squared 3015 is a Vertical City envisioned in New York City. N/A
Sky Mile Tower 1,700 m (5,577 ft)[9] 2015 Skyscraper Residential Japan Japan Tokyo 2045 Sky Mile Tower is the central hub of Next Japan, a visionary project that would serve as a combatant for climate change by serving as a dam and supplying water to its 55,000 residents. The complex and Sky Mile Tower's plans are being reviewed by Tokyo's administration as of 7 February 2016. 400
Xtopia N/A N/A N/A N/A China China Shanghai undetermined Xtopia is a concept building for a 300-floor high-rise self-contained community. 300
Edison Tower (Frank Jendrusch Proposal) 1,310 m (4,300 ft) 2015 Skyscraper Mixed Use United States USA New York City 2030 Unknown Information 296
Bionic Tower 1,228 m (4,029 ft) 1997 Arcology Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real estate China China
Hong Kong Hong Kong
Shanghai and Hong Kong have both expressed serious interest undetermined The Bionic Tower is a proposed vertical city, an extremely large building designed for human habitation, designed by architects Eloy Celaya, Mª Rosa Cervera and Javier Gómez Pioz. It would have a main tower 1,228 m (4,029 ft) high, with 300 stories that would house about 100,000 people. 300
Azerbaijan Tower 1,050 m (3,440 ft) 2012 Skyscraper Commercial, retail, and leisure real estate Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Baku 2019 Azerbaijan Tower, 1,050 m (3,440 ft) tall, is a proposed building in Baku, Azerbaijan and is planned as part of the proposed "Khazar Islands" project.[10] 189
Murjan Tower 1,022 m (3,353 ft) 2006 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and retail real estate Bahrain Bahrain Manama undetermined Murjan Tower, 1,022 m (3,353 ft) tall, is a Swedish company's proposal for a super-tall skyscraper in Bahrain. Designed by architect Henning Larsens Tegnestue A/S, it is expected to comprise 200 floors.[11] 200
Mubarak al-Kabir Tower 1,001 m (3,284 ft) 2006 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and retail real estate Kuwait Kuwait Madinat al-Hareer 2026 The Mubarak al-Kabir Tower, 1,001 m (3,284 ft) tall, in Madinat al-Hareer (City Of Silk Kuwait) by Eric Kuhne and Associates[clarification needed] 234
Sky City 1000 1,000 m (3,300 ft) 1989 Arcology Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real estate Japan Japan Tokyo undetermined The Sky City 1000, 1,000 m (3,300 ft) tall, is an arcology project proposal aimed at helping put an end to major congestion and lack of greenspace in the Tokyo, Japan metropolitan area. The plan consists of a building 1,000 m (3,281 ft) tall and 400 m (1,312 ft) wide at the base, and a total floor area of 8 km² (3.1 sq mi). Drawn up by construction firm Takenaka for the city of Tokyo in 1989, its design was the first of the modern super-tall mega-structures to gain serious attention and consideration by any government. 196
Buenos Aires Forum 1,000 m (3,300 ft) 2009 Skyscraper Mixed Use Argentina Argentina Buenos Aires undetermined If built, it would be the tallest building in the world. As of 2015, no construction has been started. 200
Europa Tower (Brussels) 1,000 m (3,300 ft) 1993 Skyscraper Office, observation, restaurant Belgium Belgium Brussels undetermined Europa Tower was a skyscraper project designed by L35 Arquitectos. The tower is articulated in nine modules, the first one is 100 meters high and next ones are 96 meters high[12]. The project was reported in the CERCHA N°19 architecture magazine on July, 1993[13]. N/A
Millennium Tower (Tokyo) 840 m (2,760 ft) 1989 Skyscraper Mixed Use Japan Japan Tokyo 2030 A Skyscraper that is envisioned by Norman Foster. If built, it would be taller than the world's current tallest building, the Burj Khalifa. It would be located in the Tokyo Bay. 170
DIB-200 800 m (2,600 ft) 1993 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and retail real estate Japan Japan Tokyo undetermined DIB-200, 800 m (2,600 ft) tall, is a possible mixed use supertall skyscraper project proposed by Kajima Construction, and designed by Sadaaki Masuda and Scott Howe. 200
Iconic Tower 734 m (2,408 ft) 2015 Skyscraper Hotel, commercial Bangladesh Bangladesh Dhaka undetermined Iconic Tower, 734 m (2,408 ft) tall, is a proposed supertall skyscraper planned for construction in Purbachal New Town, Dhaka, Bangladesh, which will be the tallest and most expensive building in the South Asian continent[14] 130
Dream Tower 665 m (2,182 ft) 2009 Skyscraper Commercial and retail real estate South Korea South Korea Seoul undetermined Dream Tower, 665 m (2,182 ft) tall, is a proposed tower to be built in Seoul, South Korea; it will have 150 floors.[15] 150
Bengaluru Turf Tower 663 m (2,175 ft) N/A Skyscraper Residential India India Bangalore 2022 N/A 157
Philippine Diamond Tower 612 m (2,008 ft) N/A Observation tower Leisure, observation, and broadcast Philippines Philippines Quezon City 2019 N/A Approx. 200
South Pacific Center 610 m (2,000 ft) N/A Skyscraper Leisure, office, and residential Australia Australia Melbourne 1989 N/A 150
Gateway Tower (Chicago) 610 m (2,000 ft) 2015 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and retail real estate United States U.S. Chicago undetermined The Gateway Tower (Chicago) is a proposed super-tall skyscraper, designed by American architectural firm Gensler as a replacement for the Chicago Spire site. With a total height of 610 metres (2,000 ft), the tower would be the tallest in the Western Hemisphere, and comprise 127 stories if built. 127
The Big Bend 608 m (1,995 ft) N/A Skyscraper Residential United States U.S New York City 2023 N/A ?
Lanco Hills Signature Tower 604 m (1,982 ft) N/A Skyscraper Residential India India Hyderabad 2023 N/A 112
Port Tower 593.5 m (1,947 ft) 2006 Skyscraper Commercial, retail, and leisure real estate Pakistan Pakistan Karachi 2018 The Port Tower is a project approved for construction in Karachi, the financial capital of Pakistan. If completed, it would reach a height of 593 m (1,947 ft), representing the independence year of Pakistan (1947). 130
Hudson Spire 550 m (1,800 ft) 2014 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and retail real estate United States U.S. New York undetermined The Hudson Spire is a supertall skyscraper proposed by a developer from Tishman Speyer as part of Manhattan's Hudson Yards development. With a total height of 550 metres (1,800 ft), the tower would be the tallest in the Western Hemisphere. 110
Al Noor Tower 540 m (1,770 ft) 2014 Skyscraper Mixed Use Morocco Morocco Tangier 2018 The Proposed Al Noor tower will become Africa's tallest building if completed. 114
Lodha Project Wadala 530 m (1,740 ft) N/A Skyscraper Residential India India Mumbai 2021 N/A 101
Joyus Housing 486 m (1,594 ft) N/A Skyscraper Residential India India Mumbai 2021 N/A 125
APIIC Tower 450 m (1,480 ft) N/A Skyscraper Residential India India Hyderabad 2023 N/A 101
GIFT Diamond Tower 410 m (1,350 ft) 2002 Skyscraper Commercial India India Gandhinagar 2017 GIFT Diamond Tower is a skyscraper proposed for Gujarat International Finance Tec-City in Gandhinagar in the Indian state of Gujarat. The proposed height is 410 metres (1,345 ft) in height.[16] Diamond Tower and the core CBD of GIFT will comprise a total of 25,800,000 sq ft (2,400,000 m2). 87
Solar updraft tower 400–1,000 m (1,300–3,300 ft) 2001 Power plant Power generation Australia Australia Buronga, New South Wales activity halted, fate unclear Solar updraft tower, Buronga, Australia, planned height between 400 m (1,300 ft) and 1,000 m (3,300 ft), state uncertain. N/A

Abandoned proposals[edit]

Name Pinnacle height Year of first proposal Structure type Main use Country City Year of projected completion Description
Houston Tower 2,092 m (6,864 ft) 1979 Skyscraper Residential, commercial United States U.S. Houston Never begun The Houston Tower was an envisioned skyscraper that would have been nearly 1.3 miles (2.1 km) tall (6864 ft/2092 m) and taken up 16 city blocks in Houston.
Aeropolis 2001 2,000 m (6,600 ft) 1989 Arcology Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real estate JapanJapan Tokyo Never begun The Aeropolis 2001 was a proposed project for construction of a massive 500-story high-rise building over Tokyo Bay in Japan. It was proposed to be a 2,000 m (6,562 ft) high building.
The Illinois 1,609 m (5,279 ft) 1956 Skyscraper Commercial, Residential, and leisure real estate United States U.S. Chicago Never begun The Illinois, envisioned by Frank Lloyd Wright in 1956, was to be a mile high (1609 m / 5280 ft) skyscraper in Chicago.
Sky City One 838 m (2,749 ft) 2013 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real estate ChinaChina Changsha 2013 (cancelled 2014) Cancelled because of lack of funding.
Chicago World Trade Center 762 m (2,500 ft) 1982 Skyscraper Office United States U.S. Chicago Never begun The Chicago World Trade Center, proposed in 1982, was to be a 2,500 foot skyscraper in Chicago. It was ultimately cancelled in 1991
Phare du Monde 701 m (2,300 ft) 1934 Concrete observation tower Leisure and retail real estate FranceFrance Paris 1937 (construction never begun) Phare du Monde, was a project for a 701 metre tall observation tower for the world exhibition in Paris, 1937. It was planned as a concrete tower similar to a modern TV tower, but also with a ramp for drive up access.
India Tower 700 m (2,300 ft) 2008 Skyscraper Retail, residential, and leisure real estate India India Mumbai 2016 (cancelled on October 16th, 2015) The tower was permanently cancelled on October 16th, 2015
Grollo Tower 678 m (2,224 ft) 1997 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and leisure real estate AustraliaAustralia Melbourne 2004 (cancelled 2001) Construction was cancelled on the Grollo Tower (named after the architect) in Melbourne's developing Dockland precinct in April 2001 after Melbourne's Docklands Authority ruled it out of the tender for development of the Batman Hill's precinct due to disagreements over who would pay for infrastructure improvements. The area is now occupied by a mixture of smaller commercial and residential buildings. The Grollo Tower would have been the world's tallest building at the time at 560 m (1837 ft) tall, down from the originally planned 678 m (2,224 ft) height, and still would have been the tallest builing in the southern hemisphere.
PAGCOR Tower 665 m (2,182 ft) 2008 Observation tower Leisure and observation facilities PhilippinesPhilippines Manila Cancelled in 2010 Originally part of the plans for the PAGCOR Entertainment City, the project was scrapped due to various reasons including air traffic regulations due to close proximity to the Ninoy Aquino International Airport
Warsaw Radio Mast 646 m (2,119 ft) Original in 1968, Replacement in 1992 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission PolandPoland Warsaw 1997 (cancelled 1995) Until late 1995, there were plans to rebuild the collapsed 646 m (2,119 ft) Warsaw Radio Mast to its previous height on the same site, using the basements of the old mast. Although some refurbishment of the basements started, work was canceled after violent protests by local residents, who feared harmful radiation effects from the high-power transmitter served by the antenna. A new transmission facility with two smaller masts measuring 330 and 289 m was built as a replacement in 1998-99 at Solec Kujawski.
7 South Dearborn 610 m (2,000 ft) 1999 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and retail real estate as well as communications facilities United States U.S. Chicago 2004 (cancelled in 2000 due to lack of funding) 7 South Dearborn in Chicago was planned in 1999 to be 610 m (2,001 ft).
1 Dubai 600 m (2,000 ft) 2006 Skyscraper Unknown United Arab EmiratesU.A.E Dubai 2010 (cancelled in 2009) 1 Dubai is a proposal in Dubai to planned to be completed, but in 2009, it was cancelled.
Chicago Spire 610 m (2,000 ft) 2005 Skyscraper Residential real estate United States U.S. Chicago 2010 (cancelled 2008) The Chicago Spire designed by Santiago Calatrava was intended to be the tallest building in the western hemisphere as well as the tallest residential building in the world. It was abandoned in 2008 due to financial problems. As of March 11, 2014, as long as the project is funded, it assumed to resume construction.
Miglin-Beitler Skyneedle 610 m (2,000 ft) 1988 Skyscraper Commercial, and Residential real estate United States U.S. Chicago 1994 (cancelled 1992) The Miglin-Beitler Skyneedle in Chicago was to be 610 m (2,001 ft)[17] tall in 1988.
International Business Center 580 m (1,900 ft) 2007 Skyscraper Commercial real estate South Korea South Korea Seoul 2013 (cancelled 2008) International Business Center was a proposed skyscraper to be constructed in Seoul, South Korea for a height of 580 m (1,900 ft), it was to have 130 floors planned to be completed in 2013.
Crown Las Vegas 575 m (1,886 ft) 2006 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and retail real estate United States U.S. Las Vegas 2006 (cancelled in 2009) Crown Las Vegas in Las Vegas was proposed to be 575 m (1,886 ft), but it was cancelled in 2009 after 2 major redesigns.
Kowloon MTR Tower 574 m (1,883 ft) 2003 Skyscraper office ChinaChina Hong Kong 2003 (cancelled 2005) Now built as the International Commerce Center.
Grollo Tower 560 m (1,840 ft) 2001 Skyscraper Residential and Commercial real estate AustraliaAustralia Melbourne 2001 (cancelled in 2004) Revised version of the Grollo Tower shown above.
New York Stock Exchange Tower 546 m (1,791 ft) 1997 Skyscraper Office United States U.S. New York 2004 (cancelled 2001) The 546 m tall, 140 story tower was cancelled in 2001 due to 9/11.
Grant USA Tower 533.4 m (1,750 ft) 1970 Skyscraper Commercial, retail, and leisure real estate United States U.S. Newark, New Jersey 1986 (cancelled 1986) The Grant U.S. Tower was planned by developer Harry Grant, who started New York Apple Tours. The building was to be completed in 1986 in Newark, New Jersey and to be the tallest hotel, tallest building and tallest structure. Harry Grant went bankrupt and the building never broke ground.[18]
Television City Tower 510 m (1,670 ft) 1985 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real estate United States U.S. New York 1988 (cancelled 1985) The 510 m tall, 150 story, Helmut Jahn-designed tower proposed by Donald Trump in New York, United States was cancelled in 1988 due to serious local opposition.
Eaton's / John Maryon Tower 503 m (1,650 ft) 1971 Skyscraper Commercial and leisure real estate CanadaCanada Toronto 1976 (cancelled 1972) Eaton's / John Maryon Tower was a planned 503 m (1,650 ft) (686m to spire) tall building in Toronto in 1971.
10 Columbus Circle 500 m (1,600 ft) 1986 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real estate United States U.S. New York 1987 (cancelled 1986) The 500 m tall, 137 story, 10 Columbus Circle in New York, United States was cancelled in 1987.
Dragon Tower 500 m (1,600 ft) 1996 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real estate Indonesia Indonesia Jakarta 2002 (cancelled 1998) The 500 m tall, 101 story, Dragon Tower in Jakarta, Indonesia was cancelled in 1998 due to the Asian financial crisis.
Kaisa Feng Long Center 500 m (1,600 ft) 2011 Skyscraper Hotel / office ChinaChina Shenzhen 2012 (cancelled 2011)
Brisbane Central Tower 450 m (1,480 ft) 1987 Skyscraper Unknown AustraliaAustralia Brisbane 1987 (cancelled in 1993)
Minuzzo Tower 450 m (1,480 ft) 1993 Skyscraper Unknown AustraliaAustralia Brisbane 1993 (cancelled in 1995)
CBD-1 445 m (1,460 ft) 1993 Skyscraper Unknown AustraliaAustralia Sydney 1995 (cancelled in 1997)
Psary, Poland broadcast tower 440 m (1,440 ft) 2009 Reinforced concrete and steel television tower DVB-T signal transmission PolandPoland Psary, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship undetermined At Bodzentyn, Poland a 440 metres tall tower is proposed for distributing DVB-T signals from the satellite station to TV broadcasting sites.[19] It will be, if built, the tallest man-made structure in Europe outside Russia.
Bank of the Southwest Tower 429 m (1,407 ft) 1997 Skyscraper Office United States U.S. Houston 1982 (cancelled 1984) The 86 story tower was cancelled in 1984 due to an oil bust in Texas.
Palace of Soviets 415 m (1,362 ft) 1932 Skyscraper Bureaucratic administrative center and conference hall Soviet Union U.S.S.R. Moscow 1947 (cancelled 1942) The Palace of Soviets in Moscow, planned in 1932, was to be 415 m (including a 100 m Lenin statue), and would have been the tallest building in the world at the time if completed. Construction was halted during World War II, during which the uncompleted structure was partially dismantled; its foundations were later to serve as the world's largest open-air swimming pool before being razed in 1995.
The Monument to the Third International 400 m (1,300 ft) 1919 Grand Monument Conference hall, bureaucratic administrative center, information administrative center Soviet Union U.S.S.R. Moscow None given During the Russian October Revolution of 1917, Vladimir Tatlin designed a structure named The Monument to the Third International, which was to serve as the international headquarters of the Komintern. Better known as the Tatlin Tower, the structure was to rise to a height of 400 m (1,312 ft), which would have made it by far the tallest building in the world at that time, but time & resource shortages as well as the social upheavals that resulted from the Russian Civil War, economic mismanagement, and political repressions halted the project.
Millennium Freedom Tower 376.8 m (1,236 ft) 1998 Observation tower Leisure and observation facilities United States U.S. Newport, Kentucky 2000 (above ground construction never begun) The Millennium Freedom Tower was a project to be located in Newport, Kentucky, United States was originally proposed in 1998 to be dedicated on Dec 31, 1999. The original height was a proposed 1,234 feet (376 m) and was later lowered to 1,103 ft (306 m). Pilings were driven in 1998, but construction never continued above ground.[20]
Watkin's Tower 358 m (1,175 ft) 1890 Iron latticed observation tower Leisure and retail real estate United KingdomU.K. Wembley 1894 (construction halted 1896) Watkin's Tower in Wembley, London was planned in 1891 to surpass the Eiffel Tower by 50 m (164 ft), but construction stopped before that height was reached due to unstable land and insufficient funds. The tower remnants were dismantled in the 1900s, and the site was redeveloped as Wembley Stadium.
Scandinavian Tower 325 m (1,066 ft) 1997 Skyscraper Residential Sweden Sweden Malmö 2004 The Scandinavian Tower was intended to be the tallest skyscraper in Europe.[21] It was abandoned in 2004 in favor of Malmö Tower.
World Science Tower N/A 1964 Guyed mast Leisure facilities United States U.S. Larkspur, Colorado N/A The World Science Tower was going to be one of the world's tallest buildings, proposed in 1964. It was to be located near Larkspur, Colorado, U.S. It would have had an amusement park at its base.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2017-11-13. 
  2. ^ PDF version of Lofstrom's 1985 launch loop publication (AIAA 1985) Archived September 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ a b "A free-standing space elevator structure: a practical alternative to the space tether". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  4. ^ "Canadian Mini Space Elevator Paper Available - The Space Elevator Reference". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  5. ^ "Die Berg Komt Er - Wie zijn wij". diebergkomter.nl. Retrieved 29 May 2015. 
  6. ^ "Pruned: A Mountain for the Netherlands". pruned.blogspot.nl. Retrieved 29 May 2015. 
  7. ^ "Die Berg Komt Er - Over de berg". diebergkomter.nl. Retrieved 29 May 2015. 
  8. ^ "Top 8 Skyscrapers That Will Push the Limits of Design". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  9. ^ Mafi, Nick (3 February 2016). "This Is What Tokyo Will Look Like in 2045—Including Its Mile-High Skyscraper". Architectural Diges. Condé Nast. Retrieved 12 February 2016. 
  10. ^ "World's Tallest Building May Be In Azerbaijan". Huffington Post. February 3, 2012.  [1]
  11. ^ "Murjan Tower 1, Manama". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  12. ^ https://unbuiltskyscrapers.wordpress.com/2018/05/25/europa-tower/
  13. ^ http://www.arquitectura-tecnica.com/cercha/pdf/19.pdf (Page 12)
  14. ^ Asif Showkat Kallol. "Govt to float tender for Iconic Tower construction". dhakatribune.com. Retrieved June 1, 2017. 
  15. ^ "KORAIL Tower, Seoul, South Korea | Emporis.com". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  16. ^ "Sky-high plans - Money Matters - livemint.com". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  17. ^ "Miglin-Beitler Skyneedle, Chicago". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  18. ^ "Grant U.S. Tower, Newark / Emporis.com". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  19. ^ "Kielce: Najwyższa w Polsce budowla powstanie w Górach Świętokrzyskich! Wieża będzie miała 440 metrów wysokości i na stałe zmieni krajobraz - 20 lipca 2010". 20 July 2010. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  20. ^ "Emporis Buildings accessed February 21, 2008". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  21. ^ "Scandinavian Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2009-05-25.