List of visionary tall buildings and structures
This is a list of buildings and other structures that have been envisioned. A structure is said to be a 'vision' according to the Council on tall buildings and urban habitat. The list does not include proposed or under construction buildings as these are listed at list of future tallest buildings.
|Name||Pinnacle height||Year of first proposal||Structure type||Main use||Country||Place||Year of projected completion||Description||Floors|
|The Space Elevator||100,000,000 m (62,000 mi)||1895||Massive space tether||Space tourism, space exploration and space colonization||Several||undetermined||undetermined||An extraordinarily long cable, anchored on or near the equator, held up by the rotation of the Earth.||N/A|
|The Launch loop||80,000 m (50 mi)||1981||Suspended Maglev Track||Space tourism, space exploration and space colonization||U.S.||undetermined||undetermined||The Launch loop is a concept that has been proposed for the purposes of orbital launch.||N/A|
|Scaled-down Space Elevator||20,000 m (12 mi)||2009||Pneumatic tower||Tourism, communications, wind generation and reduced cost space launch.||Canada||undetermined||undetermined||A sub-orbital or mini version. The structure would be free standing and actively guyed over its base.||N/A|
|StarTram Generation 2||20,000 m (12 mi)||2001||Suspended Maglev Track||Space tourism, space exploration and space colonization||U.S.||undetermined||undetermined||The StarTram is a proposed concept for orbital launches. It has a long (1000–1500 km) vacuum tube, levitated via strong currents in superconducting cables.||N/A|
|X-Seed 4000||4,000 m (13,000 ft)||1995||Arcology||Residential, commercial, retail real estate, as well as heavy industry||Japan||Tokyo||undetermined||The X-Seed 4000 is the tallest building ever fully envisioned. Its proposed 4,000 m (13,000 ft) height, 6 km (3.7 mi) wide sea-base, and 800-floor capacity could accommodate five hundred thousand to one million inhabitants.||800|
|Ultima Tower||3,218 m (10,558 ft)||1991||Skyscraper||Residential, commercial, and retail real estate||U.S.||San Francisco||undetermined||The Ultima Tower is a hypothetical super-tall skyscraper, designed by American architect Eugene Tsui in 1991. With a total height of 3,218 metres (10,558 ft), the tower would be 2 miles tall, and comprise 500 stories if built.||500|
|Dubai City Tower||2,400 m (7,900 ft)||2008||Skyscraper||Residential, commercial, and retail real estate||United Arab Emirates||Dubai||undetermined||The Dubai City Tower is a proposed 400-floor, 2,400 m (7,900 ft) tall building to be built in Dubai, consisting of six outer buildings entwining a central core.||400|
|Shimizu Mega-City Pyramid||2,004 m (6,575 ft)||1996||Arcology||Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real estate||Japan||Tokyo||undetermined||The Shimizu Mega-City Pyramid is a proposed project for construction of a massive pyramid over Tokyo Bay in Japan. The structure would be approximately 14 times higher than the Great Pyramid of Giza, and would house 750,000 people. If built, it will be the largest man-made structure on Earth.||N/A|
|The Dutch Mountain||2,000 m (6,600 ft)||2012||Artificial Mountain||Tourism, leisure, commercial and wind generation||The Netherlands||Flevoland||undetermined||"De Nederlandse Berg", Dutch for "The Dutch Mountain" is a proposal for an artificial mountain by Thijs Zonneveld.||N/A|
|Millennium Challenge Tower||1,852 m (6,076 ft)||2005||Skyscraper||Residential, commercial, and retail real estate||Kuwait (possibly)||undetermined||undetermined||A super-tall skyscraper designed by architect Omero Marchetti as part of his proposed "ethic city" concept. The aims of the project are to reach a nautical mile in height while "not using concrete, orthogonal grids, traditional systems, mortars, [and] cranes." If built, the tower would reach 1,852 metres (6,076 ft).||N/A|
|Times Squared 3015||1,733 m (5,686 ft)||2015||Vertical City||Mixed Use||USA||New York City||Unknown||Times Squared 3015 is a Vertical City envisioned in New York City.||N/A|
|Sky Mile Tower||1,700 m (5,577 ft)||2015||Skyscraper||Residential||Japan||Tokyo||2045||Sky Mile Tower is the central hub of Next Japan, a visionary project that would serve as a combatant for climate change by serving as a dam and supplying water to its 55,000 residents. The complex and Sky Mile Tower's plans are being reviewed by Tokyo's administration as of 7 February 2016.||400|
|Xtopia||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||China||Shanghai||undetermined||Xtopia is a concept building for a 300-floor high-rise self-contained community.||300|
|Edison Tower (Frank Jendrusch Proposal)||1,310 m (4,300 ft)||2015||Skyscraper||Mixed Use||USA||New York City||2030||Unknown Information||296|
|Bionic Tower||1,228 m (4,029 ft)||1997||Arcology||Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real estate|| China
|Shanghai and Hong Kong have both expressed serious interest||undetermined||The Bionic Tower is a proposed vertical city, an extremely large building designed for human habitation, designed by architects Eloy Celaya, Mª Rosa Cervera and Javier Gómez Pioz. It would have a main tower 1,228 m (4,029 ft) high, with 300 stories that would house about 100,000 people.||300|
|Azerbaijan Tower||1,050 m (3,440 ft)||2012||Skyscraper||Commercial, retail, and leisure real estate||Azerbaijan||Baku||2019||Azerbaijan Tower, 1,050 m (3,440 ft) tall, is a proposed building in Baku, Azerbaijan and is planned as part of the proposed "Khazar Islands" project.||189|
|Murjan Tower||1,022 m (3,353 ft)||2006||Skyscraper||Residential, commercial, and retail real estate||Bahrain||Manama||undetermined||Murjan Tower, 1,022 m (3,353 ft) tall, is a Swedish company's proposal for a super-tall skyscraper in Bahrain. Designed by architect Henning Larsens Tegnestue A/S, it is expected to comprise 200 floors.||200|
|Mubarak al-Kabir Tower||1,001 m (3,284 ft)||2006||Skyscraper||Residential, commercial, and retail real estate||Kuwait||Madinat al-Hareer||2026||The Mubarak al-Kabir Tower, 1,001 m (3,284 ft) tall, in Madinat al-Hareer (City Of Silk Kuwait) by Eric Kuhne and Associates[clarification needed]||234|
|Sky City 1000||1,000 m (3,300 ft)||1989||Arcology||Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real estate||Japan||Tokyo||undetermined||The Sky City 1000, 1,000 m (3,300 ft) tall, is an arcology project proposal aimed at helping put an end to major congestion and lack of greenspace in the Tokyo, Japan metropolitan area. The plan consists of a building 1,000 m (3,281 ft) tall and 400 m (1,312 ft) wide at the base, and a total floor area of 8 km² (3.1 sq mi). Drawn up by construction firm Takenaka for the city of Tokyo in 1989, its design was the first of the modern super-tall mega-structures to gain serious attention and consideration by any government.||196|
|Buenos Aires Forum||1,000 m (3,300 ft)||2009||Skyscraper||Mixed Use||Argentina||Buenos Aires||undetermined||If built, it would be the tallest building in the world. As of 2015, no construction has been started.||200|
|Europa Tower (Brussels)||1,000 m (3,300 ft)||1993||Skyscraper||Office, observation, restaurant||Belgium||Brussels||undetermined||Europa Tower was a skyscraper project designed by L35 Arquitectos. The tower is articulated in nine modules, the first one is 100 meters high and next ones are 96 meters high. The project was reported in the CERCHA N°19 architecture magazine on July, 1993.||N/A|
|Millennium Tower (Tokyo)||840 m (2,760 ft)||1989||Skyscraper||Mixed Use||Japan||Tokyo||2030||A Skyscraper that is envisioned by Norman Foster. If built, it would be taller than the world's current tallest building, the Burj Khalifa. It would be located in the Tokyo Bay.||170|
|DIB-200||800 m (2,600 ft)||1993||Skyscraper||Residential, commercial, and retail real estate||Japan||Tokyo||undetermined||DIB-200, 800 m (2,600 ft) tall, is a possible mixed use supertall skyscraper project proposed by Kajima Construction, and designed by Sadaaki Masuda and Scott Howe.||200|
|Iconic Tower||734 m (2,408 ft)||2015||Skyscraper||Hotel, commercial||Bangladesh||Dhaka||undetermined||Iconic Tower, 734 m (2,408 ft) tall, is a proposed supertall skyscraper planned for construction in Purbachal New Town, Dhaka, Bangladesh, which will be the tallest and most expensive building in the South Asian continent||130|
|Dream Tower||665 m (2,182 ft)||2009||Skyscraper||Commercial and retail real estate||South Korea||Seoul||undetermined||Dream Tower, 665 m (2,182 ft) tall, is a proposed tower to be built in Seoul, South Korea; it will have 150 floors.||150|
|Bengaluru Turf Tower||663 m (2,175 ft)||N/A||Skyscraper||Residential||India||Bangalore||2022||N/A||157|
|Philippine Diamond Tower||612 m (2,008 ft)||N/A||Observation tower||Leisure, observation, and broadcast||Philippines||Quezon City||2019||N/A||Approx. 200|
|South Pacific Center||610 m (2,000 ft)||N/A||Skyscraper||Leisure, office, and residential||Australia||Melbourne||1989||N/A||150|
|Gateway Tower (Chicago)||610 m (2,000 ft)||2015||Skyscraper||Residential, commercial, and retail real estate||U.S.||Chicago||undetermined||The Gateway Tower (Chicago) is a proposed super-tall skyscraper, designed by American architectural firm Gensler as a replacement for the Chicago Spire site. With a total height of 610 metres (2,000 ft), the tower would be the tallest in the Western Hemisphere, and comprise 127 stories if built.||127|
|The Big Bend||608 m (1,995 ft)||N/A||Skyscraper||Residential||U.S||New York City||2023||N/A||?|
|Lanco Hills Signature Tower||604 m (1,982 ft)||N/A||Skyscraper||Residential||India||Hyderabad||2023||N/A||112|
|Port Tower||593.5 m (1,947 ft)||2006||Skyscraper||Commercial, retail, and leisure real estate||Pakistan||Karachi||2018||The Port Tower is a project approved for construction in Karachi, the financial capital of Pakistan. If completed, it would reach a height of 593 m (1,947 ft), representing the independence year of Pakistan (1947).||130|
|Hudson Spire||550 m (1,800 ft)||2014||Skyscraper||Residential, commercial, and retail real estate||U.S.||New York||undetermined||The Hudson Spire is a supertall skyscraper proposed by a developer from Tishman Speyer as part of Manhattan's Hudson Yards development. With a total height of 550 metres (1,800 ft), the tower would be the tallest in the Western Hemisphere.||110|
|Al Noor Tower||540 m (1,770 ft)||2014||Skyscraper||Mixed Use||Morocco||Tangier||2018||The Proposed Al Noor tower will become Africa's tallest building if completed.||114|
|Lodha Project Wadala||530 m (1,740 ft)||N/A||Skyscraper||Residential||India||Mumbai||2021||N/A||101|
|Joyus Housing||486 m (1,594 ft)||N/A||Skyscraper||Residential||India||Mumbai||2021||N/A||125|
|APIIC Tower||450 m (1,480 ft)||N/A||Skyscraper||Residential||India||Hyderabad||2023||N/A||101|
|GIFT Diamond Tower||410 m (1,350 ft)||2002||Skyscraper||Commercial||India||Gandhinagar||2017||GIFT Diamond Tower is a skyscraper proposed for Gujarat International Finance Tec-City in Gandhinagar in the Indian state of Gujarat. The proposed height is 410 metres (1,345 ft) in height. Diamond Tower and the core CBD of GIFT will comprise a total of 25,800,000 sq ft (2,400,000 m2).||87|
|Solar updraft tower||400–1,000 m (1,300–3,300 ft)||2001||Power plant||Power generation||Australia||Buronga, New South Wales||activity halted, fate unclear||Solar updraft tower, Buronga, Australia, planned height between 400 m (1,300 ft) and 1,000 m (3,300 ft), state uncertain.||N/A|
|Name||Pinnacle height||Year of first proposal||Structure type||Main use||Country||City||Year of projected completion||Description|
|Houston Tower||2,092 m (6,864 ft)||1979||Skyscraper||Residential, commercial||U.S.||Houston||Never begun||The Houston Tower was an envisioned skyscraper that would have been nearly 1.3 miles (2.1 km) tall (6864 ft/2092 m) and taken up 16 city blocks in Houston.|
|Aeropolis 2001||2,000 m (6,600 ft)||1989||Arcology||Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real estate||Japan||Tokyo||Never begun||The Aeropolis 2001 was a proposed project for construction of a massive 500-story high-rise building over Tokyo Bay in Japan. It was proposed to be a 2,000 m (6,562 ft) high building.|
|The Illinois||1,609 m (5,279 ft)||1956||Skyscraper||Commercial, Residential, and leisure real estate||U.S.||Chicago||Never begun||The Illinois, envisioned by Frank Lloyd Wright in 1956, was to be a mile high (1609 m / 5280 ft) skyscraper in Chicago.|
|Sky City One||838 m (2,749 ft)||2013||Skyscraper||Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real estate||China||Changsha||2013 (cancelled 2014)||Cancelled because of lack of funding.|
|Chicago World Trade Center||762 m (2,500 ft)||1982||Skyscraper||Office||U.S.||Chicago||Never begun||The Chicago World Trade Center, proposed in 1982, was to be a 2,500 foot skyscraper in Chicago. It was ultimately cancelled in 1991|
|Phare du Monde||701 m (2,300 ft)||1934||Concrete observation tower||Leisure and retail real estate||France||Paris||1937 (construction never begun)||Phare du Monde, was a project for a 701 metre tall observation tower for the world exhibition in Paris, 1937. It was planned as a concrete tower similar to a modern TV tower, but also with a ramp for drive up access.|
|India Tower||700 m (2,300 ft)||2008||Skyscraper||Retail, residential, and leisure real estate||India||Mumbai||2016 (cancelled on October 16th, 2015)||The tower was permanently cancelled on October 16th, 2015|
|Grollo Tower||678 m (2,224 ft)||1997||Skyscraper||Residential, commercial, and leisure real estate||Australia||Melbourne||2004 (cancelled 2001)||Construction was cancelled on the Grollo Tower (named after the architect) in Melbourne's developing Dockland precinct in April 2001 after Melbourne's Docklands Authority ruled it out of the tender for development of the Batman Hill's precinct due to disagreements over who would pay for infrastructure improvements. The area is now occupied by a mixture of smaller commercial and residential buildings. The Grollo Tower would have been the world's tallest building at the time at 560 m (1837 ft) tall, down from the originally planned 678 m (2,224 ft) height, and still would have been the tallest builing in the southern hemisphere.|
|PAGCOR Tower||665 m (2,182 ft)||2008||Observation tower||Leisure and observation facilities||Philippines||Manila||Cancelled in 2010||Originally part of the plans for the PAGCOR Entertainment City, the project was scrapped due to various reasons including air traffic regulations due to close proximity to the Ninoy Aquino International Airport|
|Warsaw Radio Mast||646 m (2,119 ft)||Original in 1968, Replacement in 1992||Guyed mast||VHF-UHF transmission||Poland||Warsaw||1997 (cancelled 1995)||Until late 1995, there were plans to rebuild the collapsed 646 m (2,119 ft) Warsaw Radio Mast to its previous height on the same site, using the basements of the old mast. Although some refurbishment of the basements started, work was canceled after violent protests by local residents, who feared harmful radiation effects from the high-power transmitter served by the antenna. A new transmission facility with two smaller masts measuring 330 and 289 m was built as a replacement in 1998-99 at Solec Kujawski.|
|7 South Dearborn||610 m (2,000 ft)||1999||Skyscraper||Residential, commercial, and retail real estate as well as communications facilities||U.S.||Chicago||2004 (cancelled in 2000 due to lack of funding)||7 South Dearborn in Chicago was planned in 1999 to be 610 m (2,001 ft).|
|1 Dubai||600 m (2,000 ft)||2006||Skyscraper||Unknown||U.A.E||Dubai||2010 (cancelled in 2009)||1 Dubai is a proposal in Dubai to planned to be completed, but in 2009, it was cancelled.|
|Chicago Spire||610 m (2,000 ft)||2005||Skyscraper||Residential real estate||U.S.||Chicago||2010 (cancelled 2008)||The Chicago Spire designed by Santiago Calatrava was intended to be the tallest building in the western hemisphere as well as the tallest residential building in the world. It was abandoned in 2008 due to financial problems. As of March 11, 2014, as long as the project is funded, it assumed to resume construction.|
|Miglin-Beitler Skyneedle||610 m (2,000 ft)||1988||Skyscraper||Commercial, and Residential real estate||U.S.||Chicago||1994 (cancelled 1992)||The Miglin-Beitler Skyneedle in Chicago was to be 610 m (2,001 ft) tall in 1988.|
|International Business Center||580 m (1,900 ft)||2007||Skyscraper||Commercial real estate||South Korea||Seoul||2013 (cancelled 2008)||International Business Center was a proposed skyscraper to be constructed in Seoul, South Korea for a height of 580 m (1,900 ft), it was to have 130 floors planned to be completed in 2013.|
|Crown Las Vegas||575 m (1,886 ft)||2006||Skyscraper||Residential, commercial, and retail real estate||U.S.||Las Vegas||2006 (cancelled in 2009)||Crown Las Vegas in Las Vegas was proposed to be 575 m (1,886 ft), but it was cancelled in 2009 after 2 major redesigns.|
|Kowloon MTR Tower||574 m (1,883 ft)||2003||Skyscraper||office||China||Hong Kong||2003 (cancelled 2005)||Now built as the International Commerce Center.|
|Grollo Tower||560 m (1,840 ft)||2001||Skyscraper||Residential and Commercial real estate||Australia||Melbourne||2001 (cancelled in 2004)||Revised version of the Grollo Tower shown above.|
|New York Stock Exchange Tower||546 m (1,791 ft)||1997||Skyscraper||Office||U.S.||New York||2004 (cancelled 2001)||The 546 m tall, 140 story tower was cancelled in 2001 due to 9/11.|
|Grant USA Tower||533.4 m (1,750 ft)||1970||Skyscraper||Commercial, retail, and leisure real estate||U.S.||Newark, New Jersey||1986 (cancelled 1986)||The Grant U.S. Tower was planned by developer Harry Grant, who started New York Apple Tours. The building was to be completed in 1986 in Newark, New Jersey and to be the tallest hotel, tallest building and tallest structure. Harry Grant went bankrupt and the building never broke ground.|
|Television City Tower||510 m (1,670 ft)||1985||Skyscraper||Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real estate||U.S.||New York||1988 (cancelled 1985)||The 510 m tall, 150 story, Helmut Jahn-designed tower proposed by Donald Trump in New York, United States was cancelled in 1988 due to serious local opposition.|
|Eaton's / John Maryon Tower||503 m (1,650 ft)||1971||Skyscraper||Commercial and leisure real estate||Canada||Toronto||1976 (cancelled 1972)||Eaton's / John Maryon Tower was a planned 503 m (1,650 ft) (686m to spire) tall building in Toronto in 1971.|
|10 Columbus Circle||500 m (1,600 ft)||1986||Skyscraper||Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real estate||U.S.||New York||1987 (cancelled 1986)||The 500 m tall, 137 story, 10 Columbus Circle in New York, United States was cancelled in 1987.|
|Dragon Tower||500 m (1,600 ft)||1996||Skyscraper||Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real estate||Indonesia||Jakarta||2002 (cancelled 1998)||The 500 m tall, 101 story, Dragon Tower in Jakarta, Indonesia was cancelled in 1998 due to the Asian financial crisis.|
|Kaisa Feng Long Center||500 m (1,600 ft)||2011||Skyscraper||Hotel / office||China||Shenzhen||2012 (cancelled 2011)|
|Brisbane Central Tower||450 m (1,480 ft)||1987||Skyscraper||Unknown||Australia||Brisbane||1987 (cancelled in 1993)|
|Minuzzo Tower||450 m (1,480 ft)||1993||Skyscraper||Unknown||Australia||Brisbane||1993 (cancelled in 1995)|
|CBD-1||445 m (1,460 ft)||1993||Skyscraper||Unknown||Australia||Sydney||1995 (cancelled in 1997)|
|Psary, Poland broadcast tower||440 m (1,440 ft)||2009||Reinforced concrete and steel television tower||DVB-T signal transmission||Poland||Psary, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship||undetermined||At Bodzentyn, Poland a 440 metres tall tower is proposed for distributing DVB-T signals from the satellite station to TV broadcasting sites. It will be, if built, the tallest man-made structure in Europe outside Russia.|
|Bank of the Southwest Tower||429 m (1,407 ft)||1997||Skyscraper||Office||U.S.||Houston||1982 (cancelled 1984)||The 86 story tower was cancelled in 1984 due to an oil bust in Texas.|
|Palace of Soviets||415 m (1,362 ft)||1932||Skyscraper||Bureaucratic administrative center and conference hall||U.S.S.R.||Moscow||1947 (cancelled 1942)||The Palace of Soviets in Moscow, planned in 1932, was to be 415 m (including a 100 m Lenin statue), and would have been the tallest building in the world at the time if completed. Construction was halted during World War II, during which the uncompleted structure was partially dismantled; its foundations were later to serve as the world's largest open-air swimming pool before being razed in 1995.|
|The Monument to the Third International||400 m (1,300 ft)||1919||Grand Monument||Conference hall, bureaucratic administrative center, information administrative center||U.S.S.R.||Moscow||None given||During the Russian October Revolution of 1917, Vladimir Tatlin designed a structure named The Monument to the Third International, which was to serve as the international headquarters of the Komintern. Better known as the Tatlin Tower, the structure was to rise to a height of 400 m (1,312 ft), which would have made it by far the tallest building in the world at that time, but time & resource shortages as well as the social upheavals that resulted from the Russian Civil War, economic mismanagement, and political repressions halted the project.|
|Millennium Freedom Tower||376.8 m (1,236 ft)||1998||Observation tower||Leisure and observation facilities||U.S.||Newport, Kentucky||2000 (above ground construction never begun)||The Millennium Freedom Tower was a project to be located in Newport, Kentucky, United States was originally proposed in 1998 to be dedicated on Dec 31, 1999. The original height was a proposed 1,234 feet (376 m) and was later lowered to 1,103 ft (306 m). Pilings were driven in 1998, but construction never continued above ground.|
|Watkin's Tower||358 m (1,175 ft)||1890||Iron latticed observation tower||Leisure and retail real estate||U.K.||Wembley||1894 (construction halted 1896)||Watkin's Tower in Wembley, London was planned in 1891 to surpass the Eiffel Tower by 50 m (164 ft), but construction stopped before that height was reached due to unstable land and insufficient funds. The tower remnants were dismantled in the 1900s, and the site was redeveloped as Wembley Stadium.|
|Scandinavian Tower||325 m (1,066 ft)||1997||Skyscraper||Residential||Sweden||Malmö||2004||The Scandinavian Tower was intended to be the tallest skyscraper in Europe. It was abandoned in 2004 in favor of Malmö Tower.|
|World Science Tower||N/A||1964||Guyed mast||Leisure facilities||U.S.||Larkspur, Colorado||N/A||The World Science Tower was going to be one of the world's tallest buildings, proposed in 1964. It was to be located near Larkspur, Colorado, U.S. It would have had an amusement park at its base.|
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