|2nd United States Secretary of Homeland Security|
February 15, 2005 – January 21, 2009
|President||George W. Bush
|Preceded by||Tom Ridge|
|Succeeded by||Janet Napolitano|
|Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit|
June 10, 2003 – February 15, 2005
|Appointed by||George W. Bush|
|Preceded by||Morton Greenberg|
|Succeeded by||Michael Chagares|
|U.S. Attorney for the District of New Jersey|
|Appointed by||George H. W. Bush|
|Preceded by||Samuel Alito|
|Succeeded by||Faith Hochberg|
November 28, 1953 |
Elizabeth, New Jersey, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Meryl Justin (1988–present)|
|Children||Philip; Emily (2)|
|Alma mater||Harvard University, London School of Economics and Political Science|
Michael Chertoff (born November 28, 1953) was the second United States Secretary of Homeland Security under Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama (for one day) and co-author of the USA PATRIOT Act. He previously served as a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, as a federal prosecutor, and as Assistant U.S. Attorney General. He succeeded Tom Ridge as United States Secretary of Homeland Security on February 15, 2005.
Since leaving government service, Chertoff has worked as senior of counsel at the Washington, D.C., law firm of Covington & Burling. He also co-founded the Chertoff Group, a risk-management and security consulting company, which employs several senior officials not only from his time as Secretary of Homeland Security (like Hon. Paul A. Schneider, former deputy secretary of DHS), but also from the time of the Obama administration (like Mark Weatherford, former deputy under-secretary of DHS), as well as Michael Hayden, a former director of the National Security Agency and the Central Intelligence Agency.
Chertoff was born on November 28, 1953 in Elizabeth, New Jersey. His father is Rabbi Gershon Baruch Chertoff (1915–96), a Talmud scholar and the former leader of the Congregation B'nai Israel in Elizabeth. His mother is Livia Chertoff (née Eisen), an Israeli citizen and the first flight attendant for El Al. His paternal grandparents are Rabbi Paul Chertoff and Esther Barish Chertoff.
Chertoff went to the Jewish Educational Center in Elizabeth as well as the Pingry School. He later attended Harvard College, graduating in 1975, although he spent his sophomore year at the London School of Economics and Political Science in the United Kingdom. He then attended Harvard Law School, where he was a research assistant on John Hart Ely's book Democracy and Distrust. After graduating magna cum laude in 1978, Chertoff went on to clerk for appellate judge Murray Gurfein for a year before clerking for United States Supreme Court Justice William J. Brennan, Jr. from 1979 to 1980. He worked in private practice with Latham & Watkins from 1980 to 1983 before being hired as a prosecutor by Rudolph Giuliani, then the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York, working on Mafia and political corruption–related cases. In the mid-1990s, Chertoff returned to Latham & Watkins for a brief period, founding the firm's office in Newark, New Jersey.
In 1990, Chertoff was appointed by President George H. W. Bush as United States Attorney for the District of New Jersey. Among his most important cases, in 1992 Chertoff put second-term Jersey City mayor Gerald McCann in federal prison for over two years on charges of defrauding money from a savings and loan scam. Chertoff was asked to stay in his position when the Clinton administration took office in 1993, at the request of Democratic Senator Bill Bradley. He was the only U.S. Attorney not replaced and stayed with the U.S. Attorney's office until 1994, when he entered private practice, returning to Latham & Watkins as a partner.
Despite his friendly relationship with some Democrats, Chertoff took an active role in the Whitewater investigation against Bill and Hillary Clinton, serving as the special counsel for the Senate Whitewater Committee studying allegations against the Clintons.
In 2000, Chertoff worked as special counsel to the New Jersey Senate Judiciary Committee, investigating racial profiling in New Jersey. He also did some fundraising for George W. Bush and other Republicans during the 2000 election cycle and advised Bush's presidential campaign on criminal justice issues. From 2001 to 2003, he headed the criminal division of the Department of Justice, leading the prosecution's case against suspected terrorist Zacarias Moussaoui.
Chertoff also led the prosecution's case against accounting firm Arthur Andersen for destroying documents relating to the Enron collapse. The prosecution of Arthur Andersen was controversial, as the firm was effectively dissolved, resulting in the loss of 26,000 jobs. The Supreme Court overturned the conviction and the case has not been retried. At the Department of Justice, he also came under fire as one of the chief architects of the Bush administration's legal strategies in the War on Terror, particularly regarding the detention of thousands of Middle Eastern immigrants.
On March 5, 2003, Chertoff was nominated by President Bush to a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit vacated by Morton I. Greenberg. He was confirmed by the Senate 88–1 on June 9, 2003, with Senator Hillary Clinton of New York casting the lone dissenting vote, and received his commission the following day. Mrs. Clinton explained that her vote was in protest of the way junior White House staffers were "very badly treated" by Chertoff's staff during the Whitewater investigation.
Secretary of Homeland Security and subsequent career
In late 2004, Bernard Kerik was forced to decline President Bush's offer to replace Tom Ridge, the outgoing Secretary of Homeland Security. After a lengthy search to find a suitable replacement, Bush nominated Chertoff to the post in January 2005, citing his experience with post-9/11 terror legislation. He was unanimously approved for the position by the United States Senate on February 15, 2005.
Hurricane Katrina occurred while Chertoff was Secretary of Homeland Security. The Department was criticized for its lack of preparation; though, most criticism was directed toward the Federal Emergency Management Agency. However, there was also criticism that DHS in general, and Chertoff in particular, responded poorly to the event, ignoring crucial information about the catastrophic nature of the storm and devoting little attention to the federal response to what became the most costly disaster in American history.
Chertoff was the Bush administration's point man for pushing the comprehensive immigration reform bill, a measure that stalled in the Senate in June 2007.
He went on to form The Chertoff Group (TCG) on February 2, 2009 to work on crisis and risk management. The firm is also led by Chad Sweet; the Chief of Staff of Homeland Security while Chertoff was Secretary and former Director of Operations for the CIA. They also employ Charles E. Allen, Larry Castro, Jay M. Cohen, General Michael V. Hayden and other former government employees.
Construction of border fence
In April 2008, Chertoff was criticized in a New York Times editorial for waiving the Endangered Species Act, the Clean Water Act, and other environmental protection legislation to construct a 700-mile (1,100 km) fence along the Mexico–United States border. The Times wrote: "To the long list of things the Bush administration is willing to trash in its rush to appease immigration hard-liners, you can now add dozens of important environmental laws and hundreds of thousands of acres of fragile habitat on the southern border."
According to New York Times columnist Adam Liptak, Chertoff had excluded the Department of Homeland Security from having to follow laws "protecting the environment, endangered species, migratory birds, the bald eagle, antiquities, farms, deserts, forests, Native American graves and religious freedom."
A report issued by the Congressional Research Service, the non-partisan research division of the Library of Congress, said that the unchecked delegation of powers to Chertoff was unprecedented: "After a review of federal law, primarily through electronic database searches and consultations with various CRS experts, we were unable to locate a waiver provision identical to that of §102 of H.R. 418—i.e., a provision that contains 'notwithstanding' language, provides a secretary of an executive agency the authority to waive all laws such secretary determines necessary, and directs the secretary to waive such laws."
Actions regarding illegal immigration
In September 2007, Chertoff told a House committee that the DHS would not tolerate interference by sanctuary cities that would block the "Basic Pilot Program," which requires some types of employers to validate the legal status of their workers. He said that the DHS is exploring its legal options and intends to take action to prevent any interference with the law.
At the Global Creative Leadership Summit in 2009, Chertoff described globalization as a double-edged sword. Although globalization may help raise the standard of living for people around the world, Chertoff claims that it can also enable terrorists and transnational criminals.
Michael Chertoff co-signed the preface to the report "National Security and the Accelerating Risks of Climate Change" published in 2014 where he stated that "projected climate change is a complex multi-decade challenge. Without action to build resilience, it will increase security risks over much of the planet. It will not only increase threats to developing nations in resource-challenged parts of the world, but it will also test the security of nations with robust capability, including significant elements of our National Power here at home."
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Michael Chertoff.|
- Michael Chertoff fast facts, CNN library
- Covington & Burling (2009). Michael Chertoff. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
- Chertoff Group Team Retrieved October 17, 2013.
- Kitaeff, Jack Jews in Blue: The Jewish American Experience in Law Enforcement
- Marek, Angie C."A New Sheriff in Town", U.S. News & World Report, July 10, 2005. Accessed May 16, 2008. "A rabbi's son, he was born in blue-collar Elizabeth, N.J. Worshipers from Elizabeth's former Congregation Bnai Israel remember Chertoff's father, Gershon Chertoff, as a man with a vast collection of books and a keen interest in current events. Michael's grandfather Paul Chertoff, also a rabbi, was a professor of the Talmud, the collected writings that constitute Jewish civil and religious law."
- "Pittsburgh PostGazette Jan 12, 1966". News.google.com. 1966-01-12. Retrieved 2013-08-28.
- U.S. Attorney's Office District of New Jersey, A Rich History of Service[dead link]
- "Chertoff called 'consummate professional'". MSNBC via Associated Press. 2005-01-11. Retrieved 2008-10-15.
- Eskow, Richard (May 5, 2011). "Green Alert: Banks Use Bush Terror Team, Threat Tactics to Push Debit Card Fees". Huffington Post. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
- Ratner, Lizzy (2005-01-16). "Hillary's Nemesis, Mean Mike Chertoff, Is Up for Homeland". The New York Observer. Retrieved 2008-10-15.
- "Bush names new US security chief". BBC. 2005-01-11. Retrieved 2008-10-15.
- Executive Summary, Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina, 2006-2-15, Retrieved 2007-6-11
- Christopher Cooper and Robert Block. 2006. Disaster : Hurricane Katrina and the Failure of Homeland Security. New York: Times Books, 2006.
- Chertoff, Bush Look for Next Move on Immigration June 8, 2007
- "Bush Homeland Security Officials to Stay on Till Weds.", Washington Post, 2009-01-19 (accessed 2009-01-21).
- Editorial (April 3, 2008). "Michael Chertoff’s Insult". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-10-15.
- Liptak, Adam (2008-04-08). "wer to Build Border Fence Is Above U.S. Law". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-10-15.
- "Plaintiffs’ Exhibit 2" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
- DHS - EVerify "DHS website" December 1, 2007
- Chertoff Warns Sanctuary Cities on Illegals "NewsMax" September 6, 2007
- "Chertoff Used Cleaning Company That Hired Illegal Immigrants". Fox News. December 11, 2008.
- "UPI.com". UPI.com. 2008-12-11. Retrieved 2013-08-28.
- Hsu, Spencer S. (December 11, 2008). "Cleaning Service Used by Chertoff Calls Immigration Laws Unfair". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
- Global Futures, Global Risks 2009 Global Creative Leadership Summit.
- DHS.gov[dead link]
- 12/30/09 9:33pm 12/30/09 9:33pm. "Why Is Michael Chertoff So Excited About Full-Body Scanners?". Gawker.com. Retrieved 2013-08-28.
- RonPaul.com on November 17, 2010 (2010-11-17). "Ron Paul to TSA: Stop Irradiating Our Bodies!". Ron Paul .com. Retrieved 2013-08-28.
- CNA Military Advisory Board, May 2014. "National Security and the Accelerating Risks of Climate Change" http://www.cna.org/sites/default/files/MAB_2014.pdf
- Michael Chertoff at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.
|U.S. Attorney for the District of New Jersey
|Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit
|United States Secretary of Homeland Security