Michael D. Higgins
Michael D. Higgins
Mícheál D. Ó Huiginn
|9th President of Ireland|
11 November 2011
|Preceded by||Mary McAleese|
|Minister for Arts, Culture and the Gaeltacht|
15 December 1994 – 26 June 1997
|Preceded by||Bertie Ahern|
|Succeeded by||Síle de Valera|
12 January 1993 – 17 November 1994
|Preceded by||John Wilson|
|Succeeded by||Bertie Ahern|
February 1987 – February 2011
June 1981 – February 1982
23 February 1983 – 3 April 1987
|Constituency||National University of Ireland|
1 June 1973 – 26 May 1977
|Constituency||Nominated by the Taoiseach|
|Born||Michael Daniel Higgins
18 April 1941
Limerick City, Ireland
|Political party||Independent (2011–present)|
|Fianna Fáil (Before 1968)
Labour Party (1968–2011)
|Children||4, including Alice|
|Residence||Áras an Uachtaráin|
Higgins is a politician, poet, sociologist, author and broadcaster. He served as a Teachta Dála (TD) for the Galway West constituency and was Minister for Arts, Culture and the Gaeltacht from 1993 to 1997. He was the President of the Labour Party from 2003 until 2011, when he resigned following his election as President of Ireland.
He made the first state visit by an Irish president to the United Kingdom in April 2014.
Higgins was born on 18 April 1941 in Limerick. His father, John Higgins, was from Ballycar, County Clare, and was a Lieutenant with the Charleville Company, 3rd Battalion, 2nd Cork Brigade of the Irish Republican Army. John, along with his two brothers Peter and Michael, had been active participants in the Irish War of Independence.
When his father's health grew poor, with alcohol a contributing factor, his mother sent Higgins, aged five, and his four-year-old brother to live on his unmarried uncle and aunt's farm near Newmarket on Fergus, County Clare. His older twin sisters remained in Limerick. He was educated at Ballycar National School, County Clare, and St. Flannan's College, Ennis.
As an undergraduate at University College, Galway (UCG), he served as Vice-Auditor of the College's Literary and Debating Society in 1963–64, and rose to the position of Auditor in the 1964–65 academic year. He also served as President of UCG Students' Union in 1964–65. In 1967, Higgins graduated from Indiana University Bloomington with a Master of Arts degree in Sociology. He also briefly attended the University of Manchester.
In his academic career, he was a Statutory Lecturer in the Department of Political Science and Sociology at University College Galway and was a Visiting Professor at Southern Illinois University. He resigned his academic posts to concentrate fully on his political career.
His wife, Sabina Coyne, is an actress and a native of Cloonrane, a townland in County Galway near Ballindine, County Mayo. She grew up on a farm there in a family of five girls and two boys. She developed an interest in theatre and trained using Stanislavski's system.
Higgins met Coyne in 1969 at a party in the family home of journalist Mary Kenny. Higgins proposed over Christmas 1973 and they were married the year after. They have four children: Alice Mary, twins John and Michael Jr., and Daniel; Alice Mary was elected to Seanad Éireann in 2016. He has two Bernese mountain dogs named Bród and Shadow.
Political career, 1973–2011
Seanad and Dáil Éireann
Higgins originally joined Fianna Fáil in UCG while a mature student; he switched to the Labour Party shortly thereafter. He was a Labour candidate in the 1969 and 1973 general elections but was unsuccessful on both occasions. One of the people who canvassed for him was future leader of the Labour Party and Tánaiste, Eamon Gilmore, who was then a UCG student. Higgins was appointed in 1973 to the 13th Seanad Éireann by Taoiseach Liam Cosgrave. He was first elected to Dáil Éireann at the 1981 general election as a Labour Party TD. He was re-elected at the February 1982 election; he lost his seat at the November 1982 election (blaming his loss in part on his opposition to the Eight Amendment), but returned to the Seanad on the NUI panel. He served as Mayor of Galway on two occasions, 1982–1983 and 1991–1992. Within the Labour Party during the 1980s he was one of the main figures along with Emmet Stagg who opposed going into coalition.
Higgins returned to the Dáil at the 1987 general election and held his seat until the 2011 general election. In 1993, he joined the Cabinet as Minister for Arts, Culture and the Gaeltacht. During his period as Minister he scrapped the controversial Section 31 of the Broadcasting Act, re-established the Irish Film Board and set up the Irish language television station, Teilifís na Gaeilge (subsequently renamed TG4). In 2000, he was appointed to the Labour Party front bench. In 2003, Higgins succeeded to Proinsias De Rossa's symbolic position of the President of the Labour Party, while continuing as the party's spokesman on foreign affairs.
With a presidential election looming in 2004 Higgins indicated his willingness to run as a Labour Party candidate. The party decided on 16 September 2004 against running a candidate in the election.
In October 2010, he announced he would not be standing at the 2011 general election. He had until this point been living in a modest two-bed apartment at Grattan Hall on Mount Street, Dublin. He also has a family home in Galway.
2011 presidential campaign
In September 2010 Higgins indicated that he was interested in receiving the Labour Party's nomination for the 2011 presidential election. He said prior to the election campaign, and repeated during it, that he would serve only one seven-year term as President, and would not seek a second term of office, despite being entitled to do so.
He was selected as candidate for the presidency at a special convention in Dublin on 19 June 2011, beating former senator Kathleen O'Meara and former party adviser Fergus Finlay. His candidacy was endorsed by Hollywood actor Martin Sheen, who described Higgins as a "dear friend". Higgins assisted his rival David Norris by urging his party colleagues on Dublin City Council not to obstruct Norris's attempts to get onto the ballot at the last moment "in the interests of democracy", adding that the nomination criteria were "outdated".
Higgins was confronted by former Tara mines workers while canvassing in Meath. The workers were upset about their pensions being cut. Higgins was also pursued by his past links to the Fianna Fáil party, and admitted on 13 October that he had been elected chairman of the UCG Fianna Fáil university cumann in 1966. While at university in the United States he had, he admitted, smoked marijuana. However, media reports said he was "spared the intense grilling Miriam O'Callaghan meted out to some of the others" during the Prime Time debate. Higgins promised he would be a neutral president if elected and not be a "handmaiden" to the government. The Labour Party's budget for the campaign was within €320,000.
On 29 October 2011, two days after the presidential election was held, Higgins was declared the winner with a total of 1,007,104 votes, far more than any Irish politician in the history of the republic. Thousands of people lined the streets of Galway to welcome him home the following day. International media coverage of his win reported his humble background, poetry, intellect and short stature (he stands 163 cm (5 ft 4 in)), with The Washington Post noting "local satirists sometimes depict him as an elf, hobbit or leprechaun talking in riddles and verse". He is the first President of Ireland to have served in both Houses of the Oireachtas having previously been a member of Dáil Éireann (Lower House) and Seanad Éireann (Upper House).
Before his inauguration he and his family met his predecessor Mary McAleese and her husband Martin for lunch at Áras an Uachtaráin on 3 November. That night, he presented an award to Niall Tóibín, and received his own standing ovation as he entered the Irish Film Institute. On 5 November, he attended an important football game, featuring his beloved Galway United versus Monaghan United in the second leg in the League of Ireland promotion/relegation play-off at Terryland Park, wrapped in the scarf of his favourite team, and being greeted by a large banner hanging from a stand declaring "Welcome home to Galway, Mr President".
Higgins was inaugurated as President of Ireland at Dublin Castle on 11 November 2011 giving a speech as part of the ceremony. The ceremony had a humanist element, alongside Christian, Jewish and Muslim ones.
Higgins receives an annual salary of €250,000. After assuming office, the President wrote to the Department of Public Expenditure and Reform to request that his salary be reduced by 23.5 percent from €325,000 to about €250,000.
Higgins travelled to Derry to attend the final of the all-island school choir of the year competition on 13 November 2011, for his first official presidential engagement in Northern Ireland.
In December 2011, Higgins hosted a children's tea party at Áras an Uachtaráin, during which the children became acquainted with Santa Claus. He attended the Bon Secours Hospital in Galway on 13 December for surgery on the kneecap that was broken in a fall during a visit to Buenaventura, Colombia in 2010.
Higgins made his first official trip abroad when he went to London on 21 February 2012. While there he was given a tour of the Olympic Stadium by Sebastian Coe and attended a production of Juno and the Paycock at the Lyttelton Theatre. He made his first official visit to his alma mater NUI Galway on 24 February where he opened an autism centre. On 21 March 2012, President Higgins was announced as sole patron of the RTÉ National Symphony Orchestra. Addressing a conference organised by youth organisation Foróige on 24 March 2012, President Higgins described homophobia and racism in Ireland as a "blight on society".
In January 2012, President Higgins agreed to become the Patron of Clans of Ireland, including its Order of Merit. On the President's behalf, Leo Varadkar, Minister for Transport, Tourism and Sport, awarded "Companionship" in this Order of Clans of Ireland to several nominees at a ceremony in the Mansion House, Dublin on 28 April 2012.
On 11 May 2012, he became the 28th Freeman of Galway six months to the day since his inauguration.
In June 2012, nonprofit housing organisation Habitat for Humanity Ireland announced that President Higgins would be their sole Patron. In October 2012, President Higgins and his wife Sabina went to South America for a two-week trip to take in Argentina, Brazil and Chile.
President Higgins rushed home from his visit to Rome to sign the Irish Bank Resolution Corporation Bill 2013 into law at Áras an Uachtaráin early on 7 February 2013.
Special advisor to the president, Mary van Lieshout, who formed part of the management team in Áras an Uachtaráin under secretary general Adrian O'Neill, resigned in November 2013. The departure raised criticism over presidential management of the team.
The presidential Christmas messages delivered by Higgins from 2011 to 2013 did not mention Christianity or religion, which was criticised by the Defence Forces' chaplain in a homily on Christmas Eve 2013. The Chief of Staff expressed regret for any offence caused by the chaplain.
In April 2014, Higgins paid the first state visit to the United Kingdom by an Irish president. He stayed as a guest of the Queen at Windsor Castle and addressed both Houses of Parliament. He also met various people, including the British Prime Minister, David Cameron, opposition party leaders at Westminster, and the Lord Mayor of London. In December 2014, the President made a week-long state visit to China.
Higgins signed into law the Thirty-fourth Amendment of the Constitution (Marriage Equality) Act 2015 on 29 August 2015.
In November 2016 Higgins received criticism from some sections of the Irish media for praising the late Fidel Castro - saying in a statement that he learned of Castro's death with "great sadness".
Council of State
- Michael Farrell – solicitor with Free Legal Advice Centres
- Deirdre Heenan – Provost and Dean of Academic Development at the University of Ulster
- Catherine McGuinness – former Senator, member of the Council of State, and former Supreme Court judge
- Ruairí McKiernan – community activist and social entrepreneur
- Sally Mulready – London-resident campaigner for the rights of survivors of Irish institutions and local councillor in the London Borough of Hackney
- Gearóid Ó Tuathaigh – Professor Emeritus in History at the National University of Ireland, Galway.
- Gerard Quinn – Director of the Centre for Disability Law and Policy at the NUI Galway School of Law
As well as having a successful political career Higgins has had a career as a poet and broadcaster and has produced works of non-fiction. He has contributed widely to political and philosophical journals on numerous subjects, among them ideology, the sociology of literature, clientism in politics, regionalism and the politics of the media. He wrote and presented a television film on Montserrat, entitled The Other Emerald Isle for Channel 4 and his documentary on the life of Noel Browne, for RTÉ, has also been screened.
Higgins has had poems published in a number of periodicals, as well as publishing four collections of his poetry, including, The Betrayal (1990), his second book of poems The Season of Fire (1993) and his latest book An Arid Season (2004). His personal notes and work books reside at the National Library of Ireland.
Among Higgins' poems are "The death of the Red Cow" and "The Ass", an ode to a donkey.
- The Betrayal (Salmon, Galway, 1990) ISBN 094833939X
- The Season of Fire (Brandon, Dingle, 1993) ISBN 0863221645
- An Arid Season (2004)
- New and Selected Poems (Liberties Press, Dublin, 2011)
- The Prophets are Weeping (M.D.H. 2014) 
- Causes for Concern (Liberties Press, Dublin, 2007)
- Renewing the Republic (Liberties Press, Dublin, 2011)
Higgins has campaigned for human rights and written of conflict in many parts of the world, including such areas as Nicaragua, Chile, Cambodia, El Salvador, Iraq and Somalia. He spoke in the Dáil in defence of the 2010 Gaza Freedom Flotilla. In recognition of his work for peace with justice in many parts of the world, he became the first recipient of the Seán MacBride Peace Prize of the International Peace Bureau in Helsinki in 1992. He was a noted critic of U.S. foreign policy under the Ronald Reagan administration. In 2005, in response to a column for the Irish Independent by Kevin Myers about the riots then erupting across immigrant areas in France and Britain, he said "the contents of his column today go beyond his usually crafted cowardice, staying one step on the safe side of prosecution for incitement to hatred or racism."
Higgins's eclectic mix of interests also extends to sport; he is a regular at the Galway Races each summer. He has also previously served as president of Galway United F.C., is a well known football supporter and regularly attends League of Ireland games. In 2014 the Football Association of Ireland introduced a new association football super cup, the President's Cup, in his honour. On 25 February 2014 the cup itself was officially unveiled with a ceremony at Áras an Uachtaráin. President Higgins subsequently attended the inaugural final at Richmond Park on 2 March 2014 
He is the subject of the song "Michael D. Rocking in the Dáil" by popular Tuam band The Saw Doctors. The song first appeared as a B-side on the 1994 single "Small Bit of Love" and is also on the 2002 compilation Play It Again, Sham!.
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- "Higgins declared president elect with one million votes". The Irish Times. 29 October 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
- "Michael D. Higgins wins Irish presidential election". The Daily Telegraph. London. 31 May 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
- "Michael D's ode to the presidency". The Irish Times. 25 June 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
- Press Release 31 October 2011. "IU extends congratulations to alumnus who will become Ireland's ninth president". The Trustees of Indiana University. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- "Irish President meets University President". University of Manchester. 23 November 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
President Higgins first arrived in Manchester in 1968 and spent much of his time attending lectures and seminars in the Dover Street Building.
- Hand, Lise (29 September 2011). "Sean's fava beans and Chianti on hold as hopefuls start softly". Irish Independent. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
- El presidente irlandés dedica tres semanas del verano a aprender español en la UIMP Universidad Internacional Menéndez Pelayo, 2012-08-25. (in Spanish)
- "Mayo well represented at presidential inauguration". The Western People. Retrieved 16 November 2011.[permanent dead link]
- "Cloonrane". Placenames Database of Ireland. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
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- "Christmas at the Áras". TV3. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
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- McTeirnan, Anthea (24 February 2016). "President's daughter to stand for Seanad". The Irish Times. Dublin. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
- Varley, Declan (3 November 2011). "Phoenix bark — Michael D's re-homed dog to be the official First Pet". Galway Advertiser. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- "Pillars of Society – Michael D. Higgins pg40" (PDF). The Phoenix. 16 November 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2010.
- "Michael D. Higgins". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
- "Defeated TDs claim pro-abortion smear". The Irish Times. 26 November 1982. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
Mr Higgins declared that the notion had been propounded throughout the campaign that he had become too radical and was in favour of abortion
- Burke-Kennedy, Eoin; Minihan, Mary (26 November 2010). "FG's Burke to retire at next election". The Irish Times. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
- O'Connor, Niall; Doyle, Kevin (7 November 2011). "From two-bed Dublin flat to the delights of the Aras for Michael D". Evening Herald. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
- de Bréadún, Deaglán (10 September 2010). "Higgins seeks Labour Party nomination for presidency". The Irish Times. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
- Kerr, Aine (16 September 2010). "Higgins 'likely' to get the nod for Aras race". Irish Independent.
- "I'm younger than Gaybo and Trapattoni ... but if elected President, I'll only serve one term". Evening Herald. 15 August 2011.[permanent dead link]
- "Labour chooses Higgins as its presidency candidate". The Irish Times. 19 June 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- "Higgins wins Labour presidential nomination". RTÉ. 19 June 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- "'President’ Sheen adds lustre to Michael D bid for Áras". Galway City Tribune. 2 September 2011. Archived from the original on 26 August 2012.
- "Gay senator leads race for Ireland president". CNN. 28 September 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- "Michael D. Higgins asks Labour councillors to back Norris candidacy". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
- "Áras candidates take part in Today FM debate". RTÉ News. 19 October 2011. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- O'Regan, Mark (13 October 2011). "Higgins admits he smoked dope – and yes, he inhaled". Irish Independent.
- "The big debate verdict". Evening Herald. 13 October 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2011.[permanent dead link]
- McGee, Harry (29 September 2011). "Higgins vows to remain neutral if elected". The Irish Times. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
- Kelly, Fiach (28 September 2011). "Michael D comes to senator's rescue". Irish Independent. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- "It's official: Michael D Higgins is elected as Ireland's next president with over 1m votes". Irish Independent. 29 October 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
- "Michael D Higgins becomes Irish president". The Guardian. London. 29 October 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
- "President-elect Michael D Higgins welcomed home to Galway". BBC News. 30 October 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
- McDonald, Brian (31 October 2011). "Irish president-elect Michael D Higgins welcomed home". The Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 31 October 2011.[permanent dead link]
- "5,000 greet President-elect in Galway City". RTÉ News. 31 October 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- "Higgins to win Irish presidency as rival concedes". Associated Press. 28 October 2011.
- Taylor, Charlie (30 October 2011). "International reaction to Higgins win". The Irish Times. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
- "Triumphant Higgins savours the moment". The Sunday Business Post. 31 October 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
- "President meets successor at the Áras". RTÉ News. 3 November 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- Connolly, Philip (4 November 2011). "Irish Screen Legend Tóibín Picks Up IFTA Lifetime Award". Irish Film and Television Network. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
- McDonald, Brian (5 November 2011). "Michael D nets huge fan base at match". Irish Independent. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
- "Nine News: President-elect dons football colours". RTÉ News. 4 November 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
- Malone, Emmet (4 November 2011). "Galway have to 'go for it'". The Irish Times. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
- "Monaghan join topflight as Galway go down". Irish Examiner. 4 November 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
- "Inaugural speech of President Michael D Higgins". RTÉ News. 11 November 2011.
- Minihan, Mary (8 November 2011). "Humanist element to inauguration of Higgins". The Irish Times. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
- "Higher or lower: how does Michael D's new salary compare to other heads of state?". The Journal. 29 October 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
- "President Michael D Higgins requests his salary cut to $336,755". Irish Central. 18 November 2011.
- "President Higgins asks for 23.5% pay cut". BreakingNews.ie. 17 November 2011.
- "Derry to host Michael D Higgins first offical [sic] visit to the north". Highland Radio. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
- de Bréadún, Deaglán (8 November 2011). "Cabinet to approve official visit to North". The Irish Times. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
- "New Irish president Higgins' first NI visit". BBC News. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
- "President hails peacekeepers' courage". RTÉ News. 12 December 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- "Michael D Higgins to undergo knee surgery". RTÉ News. 11 December 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- "President Higgins to make official London trip". RTÉ News. 9 February 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
- "President Higgins tours Olympic site". RTÉ News. 22 February 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
- "Irish President Michael D Higgins visits London". BBC News. 21 February 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
- "President Higgins to open NUIG autism centre". RTÉ News. 24 February 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- "President Higgins is NSO's sole patron". RTÉ Ten. 21 March 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
- "President hits out at racism, homophobia". RTÉ News. 24 March 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
- "Government Minister to Confer Order of Clans of Ireland". Clans of Ireland. Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
- "President Higgins becomes 28th Freeman of Galway". RTÉ News. 11 May 2012. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
- "President Michael D Higgins to visit South America". RTÉ News. 2 October 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- "President signs legislation to liquidate IBRC into law". 7 February 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- McGee, Harry (24 July 2013). "Higgins to consult Council of State on abortion Bill". Retrieved 24 July 2013.
- "President Higgins to convene meeting of Council of State to consult on abortion legislation". 24 July 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
- McGee, Harry. "Departure focuses attention on presidential management team". Irish Times. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- Horan, Niamh (5 January 2014). "'President's religion is none of your business' – Independent.ie". Sunday Independent. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- ""A New Era of Friendship" – Higgins Makes Historic UK Speech". Channel 4 News. 8 April 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
- "President Higgins to address Houses of Parliament". Irish Independent. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
- "President Higgins makes State Visit to China 7–15 December". President.ie. 20 December 2014. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- "2015 Legislation". President of Ireland. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
- Orla, Ryan (27 November 2016). "President Higgins criticised for praising 'brutal dictator' Castro". www.thejournal.ie. The Journal.ie. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- "Seven are appointed to Council of State". The Irish Times. 7 January 2012.
- "President appoints three from old college to Council of State". Irish Independent. 7 January 2012.
- "Galway-bias as President Michael D unveils Council of State appointees". Irish Independent. 6 January 2012.
- "New And Selected Poems". Liberties Press. Archived from the original on 24 October 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2011.
- Kennedy, Yvonne (29 October 2011). "Profile: Michael D Higgins: politics and poetry". Xinhua. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
- Telford, Lyndsey (21 December 2011). "Seamus Heaney declutters home and donates personal notes to National Library". Irish Independent. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
- Kenny, Mary (22 October 2011). "Poetry tells you what is in a man's soul – loneliness, loss and love of animals are themes in Michael D's verse". Irish Independent. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- "The Betrayal". Poetry International.
- "The Season of Fire". Poetry International.
- "Michael D. Higgins (Ireland, 1941)". Poetry International.
- "Michael D Higgins TD speaking on the Dáil motion about Interception of Gaza humanitarian Flotilla". Irish Labour Party. 1 June 2010.
- "Clean fight helped Higgins win day". The Belfast Telegraph. 28 October 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.[permanent dead link]
- Myers, Kevin (10 August 2011). "Feral rioters all have one thing in common – a lack of father figures". Irish Independent. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- "Michael D Higgins Interview: Statesman of the game". www.irishexaminer.com. 27 February 2016. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
- "President Michael D Higgins unveils Cup for new competition between SSE Airtricity League and FAI Cup winners". www.rte.ie. 25 February 2014. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
- "LFA President's Cup". leagueofirelandhistory.wordpress.com. 2 March 2014. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
- "President attends the inaugural President’s Cup fixture". www.president.ie. 2 March 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
- "It's all thanks to the Saw Doctors that Michael D's Rockin in the Aras". Irish Independent. 29 October 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
- Biography at Áras an Uachtaráin website
- on YouTube, TG4, 2011.
- on YouTube (RTÉ video in Irish and English)
- Presidential inauguration speech (Text)
- Audio recording of speech opening the G. B. Shaw: Back in Town conference, Dublin 2012
- Henry, William (2002). Role of Honour: The Mayors of Galway City 1485–2001. Galway: Galway City Council. OCLC 51023721 ASIN B003NECRYW
|Party political offices|
|Chair of the Labour Party
|New seat||Labour Party Teachta Dála for Galway West
|Labour Party Teachta Dála for Galway West
|Mayor of Galway
|Mayor of Galway
|Minister for Arts, Culture and the Gaeltacht
|Minister for Arts, Culture and the Gaeltacht
Síle de Valera
|President of Ireland