Michael Vincent Hayden (born March 17, 1945) is a retired United States Air Force four-star general and former Director of the National Security Agency, Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence, and Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. He also serves as a professor at the George Mason University - Schar School of Policy and Government. Hayden currently co-chairs the Bipartisan Policy Center's Electric Grid Cyber Security Initiative. In 2017, Hayden became a national security analyst for CNN.
He was Director of the National Security Agency (NSA) from 1999 to 2005. During his tenure as director, he initiated and oversaw the NSA surveillance of technological communications between persons in the United States and foreign citizens who allegedly had ties to terrorist groups, which resulted in the NSA warrantless surveillance controversy. In 2020, a federal court ruled that the NSA program was illegal and possibly unconstitutional.
On April 21, 2005, then Lt. Gen Hayden, was confirmed by the United States Senate as the first Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence and awarded his fourth star-making him "the highest-ranking military intelligence officer in the armed forces". He served in this position under DNI John Negroponte until May 26, 2006.
On May 8, 2006, Hayden was nominated for the position of Director of the Central Intelligence Agency following the resignation of Porter J. Goss, and on 23 May the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence voted 12–3 to send the nomination to the Senate floor. His nomination was confirmed by the United States Senate on 26 May by a vote of 78–15. On May 30, 2006, and again the following day at the CIA lobby with President George W. Bush in attendance, Hayden was sworn in as the director of the Central Intelligence Agency.
On July 1, 2008, Hayden retired from the Air Force after over 41 years of service, while continuing to serve as Director of the CIA until February 12, 2009. He received an honorary doctorate from The Institute of World Politics in Washington, D.C., in 2009.
He served for a number of years as a principal at the Chertoff Group, a security consultancy, but left at the end 2022. He also serves on the board of directors for the Atlantic Council, and is a distinguished visiting professor at George Mason University's Schar School of Policy and Government. He is also a founder of the Michael V. Hayden Center for Intelligence, Policy, and International Security at the Schar School of Policy and Government at George Mason University. Hayden is currently on the advisory board of NewsGuard. 
Early life and education
Michael Vincent Hayden was born on March 17, 1945, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to an Irish-American couple, Sadie (Murray) and Harry V. Hayden Jr., who worked as a welder for a Pennsylvania manufacturing company. He has a sister, Debby, and a brother, Harry.
Hayden attended St. Peter's Elementary School where, in 7th and 8th grade he played quarterback on the school football team then being coached by the late Dan Rooney, the son of the founder of the Pittsburgh Steelers, and former chairman of the team. Hayden graduated from North Catholic High School. One of his first jobs was as an equipment manager for the Steelers. He went on to Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, where he earned a Bachelor of Arts in history in 1967 and was commissioned as a second lieutenant. He then attended graduate school at Duquesne for a master's degree in modern American history. He continues to be an avid fan of the hometown Pittsburgh Steelers, since the 1990s traveling with his wife and family to at least three or four games a year.
In 2020, Hayden, along with over 130 other former Republican national security officials, signed a statement that asserted that President Trump was unfit to serve another term, and "To that end, we are firmly convinced that it is in the best interest of our nation that Vice President Joe Biden be elected as the next President of the United States, and we will vote for him."
In 2020, he endorsed Joe Biden in the presidential election. He was one of the 51 former U.S. intelligence officials who signed the October 19, 2020, letter that said the Hunter Biden laptop story "has all the classic earmarks of a Russian information operation."
Hayden is married to the former Jeanine Carrier. They have a daughter Margaret and two sons, Michael and Liam.
Hayden has served as commander of the Air Intelligence Agency and director of the Joint Command and Control Warfare Center, both headquartered at Lackland Air Force Base. He also has served in senior staff positions in the Pentagon; Headquarters U.S. European Command, Stuttgart, Germany; the National Security Council, Washington, D.C., and the U.S. Embassy in the then-People's Republic of Bulgaria. Prior to becoming Director of the National Security Agency, the general served as deputy chief of staff for United Nations Command and U.S. Forces Korea, Yongsan Garrison. He has also worked in intelligence in Guam.
Air Intelligence Agency
National Security Agency
Hayden served as the director of the National Security Agency and chief of the Central Security Service at Fort George G. Meade, Maryland, from March 1999 to April 2005. As the director of NSA and chief of CSS, he was responsible for a combat support agency of the Department of Defense with military and civilian personnel stationed worldwide.
Strategy for the NSA
Hayden came to the NSA at a time of great trouble in the agency. Internal government analysis indicated it suffered from a lack of quality management and an outdated IT infrastructure. In fact soon after he came on board, a huge part of the NSA network system crashed and was down for several days. Part of his plan to revitalize the agency was to introduce more outside contractors, induce a lot of old managers to retire and get rid of old management structures. Part of his plan also included increased openness at the agency; it had historically been one of the most secretive organs of government. He notably allowed James Bamford access for his book Body of Secrets. Hayden was also initially extremely concerned with following the laws against domestic surveillance. Many reports say that after 9/11, he became more concerned with stopping terrorism, and allegedly softened his stance against domestic surveillance. Hayden however has said that he believed everything the agency was doing was "effective, appropriate, and lawful".
On 9/11, Hayden immediately evacuated all non-essential personnel from NSA headquarters. After 9/11, the agency greatly increased its activity. Details about its operations have been largely hidden, but it played a major role in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq and the War on Terror. One notable example is its relationship with the unmanned aerial vehicle 'drone' program.[page needed]
Wiretaps of domestic communication
In May 2006, USA Today reported that, under Hayden's leadership, the NSA created a domestic telephone call database. During his nomination hearings, Hayden defended his actions to Senator Russ Feingold and others, stating that he had relied upon legal advice from the White House that building the database was supported by Article Two of the United States Constitution executive branch powers (in which the president must "take care that the laws be faithfully executed"), overriding legislative branch statutes forbidding warrantless surveillance of domestic calls, which included the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA). Previously, this action would have required a warrant from a FISA court. The stated purpose of the database was to eavesdrop on international communications between persons within the U.S. and individuals and groups overseas in order to locate terrorists.
Hayden also championed the Trailblazer Project, a "transformation" effort to better apply information technology. However, whatever the potential merits of the project, it was even criticized internally, by several NSA staffers, for failing to include privacy protections for United States citizens -- a potential substantive failure and again opening the agency up to a recurring drumbeat of external critical feedback and even attacks, yet and at the same time, also for perhaps resulting as a wasteful or even pernicious waste of money, in some ways. The critics included Diane S Roark, of the House Intelligence Committee, NSA workers Thomas Andrews Drake, William Binney, J. Kirk Wiebe, and Loomis, and others. Hayden severely rebuked these critics. Several quit in protest. After investigations by the NSA inspector general, the DOD inspector general, and Congress, Trailblazer was shut down.
Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence
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As part of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, the CIA chief no longer would run the intelligence community. Instead a new office was created for this purpose; the Director of National Intelligence. General Hayden became the Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence from May 2005 to May 2006 under the first DNI, John Negroponte.
On January 23, 2006, Hayden participated in a news conference. A YouTube video was posted of Michael Hayden telling reporters at a press conference that "probable cause" is not required for all searches or seizures under the Fourth Amendment, claiming instead that the standard is whether the search or seizure is reasonable. "Probable cause" is required for all warrants, whether or not the search or seizure is deemed to be "unreasonable."
Many critics of enhanced interrogation techniques maintain that they were torture and did not yield reliable information from CIA detainees. Hayden said such views, or the notion that enhanced interrogation never yielded useful intelligence, is not credible and the product of "interrogation deniers".
Director of the Central Intelligence Agency
On May 8, 2006, Hayden was nominated by President George W. Bush to be Director of the Central Intelligence Agency after the resignation of Porter J. Goss on May 5, 2006. He was later confirmed on May 26, 2006, as director, 78–15, by full U.S. Senate vote.
Critics of the nomination and Hayden's attempts to increase domestic surveillance included Senator Dianne Feinstein who stated on May 11, 2006, that "I happen to believe we are on our way to a major constitutional confrontation on Fourth Amendment guarantees of unreasonable search and seizure".
In 2007, Hayden lobbied to allow the CIA to conduct drone strikes purely on the behavior of ground vehicles, with no further evidence of connection to terrorism.
In 2008 Hayden warned of the destabilizing consequences of Muslim migration to Europe that might raise the possibility of civil unrest. According to Leon Panetta's memoir, Worthy Fights, Hayden had hoped to be retained as CIA director by the Obama administration and derisively referred to his successor as "Rahm Emanuel's goombah". In conversations with Panetta, Hayden encouraged him to advise the president to protect the CIA's right to engage in enhanced interrogation techniques as well as to avoid suggesting that CIA officers had ever performed torture.
The 2014 Senate Intelligence Committee report on CIA torture cited an email prepared by a subordinate that indicated that as CIA Director, Hayden instructed that out-of-date information be used in briefing Congress so that fewer than 100 Guantanamo Bay detainees would be reported.
NSA spying scandal
During his tenure as director, he oversaw the controversial NSA surveillance of technological communications between persons in the United States and alleged foreign terrorist groups. Numerous commentators have accused Hayden of lying to congress, and breaking the law. According ThinkProgress, Hayden misled Congress in a 2002 testimony, where he testified that any surveillance of persons in the United States was consistent with the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act. ThinkProgress stated that "at the time of his statements, Hayden was fully aware of the presidential order to conduct warrantless domestic spying issued the previous year. But Hayden didn’t feel as though he needed to share that with Congress. Apparently, Hayden believed that he had been legally authorized to conduct the surveillance, but told Congress that he had no authority to do exactly what he was doing. The Fraud and False Statements statute (18 U.S.C. 1001) make Hayden’s misleading statements to Congress illegal." Trevor Timm, executive director of Freedom of the Press Foundation, also accused the NSA program set up during Hayden's tenure of violating the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act.
In September 2013, Hayden stressed the indisputable legality of "what the NSA is doing" and called Edward Snowden a "troubled young man" and "morally arrogant to a tremendous degree"; he also said about his prospects in Russia: "I suspect he will end up like most of the rest of the defectors who went to the old Soviet Union: Isolated, bored, lonely, depressed—and most of them ended up alcoholics."
Awards and decorations
|Master Intelligence Badge|
|Presidential Service Badge|
Effective dates of promotion
|General||April 22, 2005|
|Lieutenant general||May 1, 1999|
|Major general||October 1, 1996|
|Brigadier general||September 1, 1993|
|Colonel||November 1, 1990|
|Lieutenant colonel||February 1, 1985|
|Major||June 1, 1980|
|Captain||December 7, 1971|
|First lieutenant||June 7, 1970|
|Second lieutenant||June 2, 1967|
In 2007, Hayden received the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement. In 2008, in his native Northside neighborhood, the city of Pittsburgh named a part of a street going past Heinz Field in his honor. On July 26, 2011, Hayden was inducted into the Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps Distinguished Alumni in a ceremony at Maxwell AFB, Alabama, officiated by Lt. Gen. Allen G. Peck, commander, Air University. He serves as a member of the board of advisors of the Military Cyber Professionals Association (MCPA)
- Hayden, Michael V. (2016). Playing to the Edge: American Intelligence in the Age of Terror. New York: Penguin Press. ISBN 9781594206566.
- Hayden, Michael V. (2018). The Assault on Intelligence: American National Security in an Age of Lies. New York: Penguin Press. ISBN 9780525558583.
Critical studies and reviews of Hayden's work
- Packer, George (March 7, 2016). "Can You Keep a Secret? The Former C.I.A. Chief Michael Hayden on Torture and Transparency". Books. The New Yorker. Vol. 92, no. 4. pp. 67–69.
- "I would not label myself as a Republican" – comment by General Michael Hayden on August 11, 2016, on MSNBC Morning Joe. See at approximately 6:52 in clip here: http://www.msnbc.com/morning-joe/watch/general-hayden-trump-insults-his-audience-742217795645 Archived August 11, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
- Comments from General Michael Hayden at a book event in Pittsburgh on August 13, 2016. See approximately 1:50 – 3:37 here: http://www.wpxi.com/news/raw-channel-11s-bill-phillips-sits-down-with-former-cia-nsa-director-general-hayden-/422698571 Archived August 15, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
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- "New Collaboration at the Bipartisan Policy Center Confronts the Issues of Cybersecurity Governance and the Electric Power Sector". BIpartisan Policy Center. Archived from the original on April 24, 2016. Retrieved March 22, 2016.
- "April Ryan Joins CNN As Political Analyst". WHUR Radio. April 4, 2017. Archived from the original on September 23, 2018. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- Savage, Charlie; Risen, James (March 31, 2010). "Federal Judge Finds N.S.A. Wiretaps Were Illegal". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 6, 2022.
- "Metadata Collection Violated FISA, Ninth Circuit Rules". Lawfare. September 14, 2020. Retrieved November 6, 2022.
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- Hayden announces his retirement from the Air Force Archived May 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, April 23, 2008.
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- "Our Advisors".
- "Harry V. Hayden Jr". Pittsburgh Tribune Review. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- "Mike Wise – Mike Wise: The Spy Who Loved Rooney". The Washington Post. November 3, 2008. Archived from the original on November 12, 2012. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
- Ceremony program, Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps Distinguished Alumni Induction, Maxwell AFB, Alabama, July 26, 2011, page 5.
- "Former Republican National Security Officials for Biden". Defending Democracy Together. August 20, 2020. Retrieved August 26, 2021.
- Gstalter, Morgan (October 7, 2020). "Hayden endorses Biden, says Trump 'doesn't care about facts'". The Hill. Archived from the original on October 7, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
- "It's been two years since 51 intelligence agents interfered with an election -- they still won't apologize". October 20, 2022.
- Martinez, Didi (November 23, 2018). "Former CIA, NSA director Michael Hayden hospitalized after suffering stroke". NBC News. Archived from the original on November 24, 2018. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
- Hayden, Michael (May 2, 2019). "Michael Hayden: Surviving a stroke". CNN. Retrieved February 16, 2023.
- O'Malley, Chris (July 1997). "Information Warriors of the 609th". Popular Science. pp. 71–74, here: p. 74. Archived from the original on January 15, 2016. Retrieved January 1, 2016.
- Ricks, Thomas E.; Linz, Dafna (May 7, 2006). "Hayden Faces Senate and CIA Hurdles If Named". Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 1, 2017. Retrieved March 12, 2017.
- James Bamford, Body of Secrets, Doubleday, 2001
- "Statement for the record by Lieutenant General Michael V. Hayden, USAF, Director, National Security Agency / Chief, Central Security Service, before the Joint inquiry of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence" (PDF). October 17, 2002. Section 27. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 31, 2005.
- "NSA Multi-District Litigation". Electronic Frontier Foundation. July 1, 2011. Archived from the original on December 21, 2020. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
- Remarks By General Michael V. Hayden: What American Intelligence & Especially The NSA Have Been Doing To Defend The Nation Archived March 27, 2013, at the Wayback Machine January 23, 2006, his testimony that, "One senior executive confided that the data management needs we outlined to him were larger than any he had previously seen".
- The Secret Sharer Archived July 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, Jane Mayer, The New Yorker, May 23, 2011, Retrieved May 16, 2011
- James Bamford, The Shadow Factory, 2008, Doubleday
- John Pike. "Remarks By General Michael V. Hayden: What American Intelligence & Especially The NSA Have Been Doing To Defend The Nation". Archived from the original on March 27, 2013. Retrieved May 10, 2006.
- Democracy Now! coverage of the January 23 National Press Club meeting. Archived May 11, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, September 7, 2010
- on YouTube, September 7, 2010
- Birthers, Truthers and Interrogation Deniers Archived August 27, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Michael Hayden, June 2011, Wall Street Journal
- Hayden named as Bush CIA choice Archived June 24, 2006, at the Wayback Machine May 8, 2006
- U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records Home > Votes > Roll Call Vote Archived February 8, 2018, at the Wayback Machine May 26, 2006
- Bush says U.S. not 'trolling through personal lives' Archived June 15, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, CNN, May 12, 2006
- "What Happens When You Lie To Congress? Archived December 20, 2016, at the Wayback Machine" Time. December 10, 2014.
- "Michael Hayden: The Nation's Biggest Liar, or Unassailable Patriot? Archived December 20, 2016, at the Wayback Machine". Bloomberg. December 10, 2014.
- Porter, Gareth. "CIA's Push for Drone War Driven by Internal Needs." Archived July 25, 2013, at the Wayback Machine IPS, September 5, 2011.
- Joby Warrick (April 30, 2008). "CIA Chief Sees Unrest Rising With Population". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 4, 2017. Retrieved September 4, 2017.
- Panetta, Leon (September 15, 2015). Worthy Fights: A Memoir of Leadership in War and Peace. Penguin Books. pp. 293–294. ISBN 978-0143127802.
- Seher, Jason. "Former CIA head: U.S. has 'accepted Iranian uranium enrichment'". CNN. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved December 2, 2013.
- Ashkenas, Jeremy (December 9, 2014). "7 Key Points From the C.I.A. Torture Report". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 13, 2014. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- "The Hayden Nomination: Should Officials Who Break the Law Be Promoted?". HuffPost. May 18, 2006. Retrieved July 8, 2022.
- "Former NSA Director Hayden Lied To Congress And Broke The Law". Retrieved July 8, 2022.
- "Stop treating former CIA chief Michael Hayden as an arbiter of truth". Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved July 8, 2022.
- "'Frontline' Doc Explores How Sept. 11 Created Today's NSA". NPR.org. Retrieved July 8, 2022.
- Peterson, Andrea. "Former NSA chief: 'Morally arrogant' Snowden will probably become an alcoholic". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved September 18, 2013.
- "Court rules NSA phone snooping illegal —after 7-year delay - POLITICO". www.politico.com. Retrieved July 8, 2022.
- "U.S. court: Mass surveillance program exposed by Snowden was illegal". Reuters. September 2, 2020. Retrieved July 8, 2022.
- Paul Bedard (January 16, 2009). "CIA's Hayden, Kappes Receive National Security Medal From Bush". usnews.com. Archived from the original on August 13, 2012. Retrieved September 13, 2012.
- "It's an Honour". Itsanhonour.gov.au. July 1, 2010. Archived from the original on August 30, 2021. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
- "King Has Honoured Surveillance Chiefs". News in English.No – Views and News from Norway. August 22, 2013. Archived from the original on May 3, 2017. Retrieved March 12, 2017.
- "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". www.achievement.org. American Academy of Achievement. Archived from the original on December 15, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
- "2007 Summit Highlights Photo". Archived from the original on November 3, 2021. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
The Director of the CIA, General Michael Hayden, is presented with the Golden Plate Award by John Negroponte.
- Bedard, Paul (July 29, 2008). "CIA Director Michael Hayden's Post at the Steelers' Heinz Field – Washington Whispers". usnews.com. Archived from the original on March 5, 2012. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
- Board of Advisors, Military Cyber Professionals Association, http://public.milcyber.org/leadership/advisors Archived April 18, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
- Online version is titled "A spymaster opens up".
- "100 Notable Books of 2016". The New York Times Book Review. November 23, 2016. Archived from the original on December 2, 2019. Retrieved July 14, 2018.