Michael Joseph Savage

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For other people of the same name, see Michael Savage (disambiguation).
The Right Honourable
Michael Joseph Savage
MP
Michael Joseph Savage.jpg
Michael Joseph Savage in the 1920s.
23rd Prime Minister of New Zealand
In office
6 December 1935 – 27 March 1940
Monarch George V
Edward VIII
George VI
Governor General George Monckton-Arundell
Preceded by George Forbes
Succeeded by Peter Fraser
Member of the New Zealand Parliament
for Auckland West
In office
1919 – 27 March 1940
Succeeded by Peter Carr
Personal details
Born (1872-03-23)23 March 1872
Tatong
Victoria
Australia
Died 27 March 1940(1940-03-27) (aged 68)
Wellington
New Zealand
Political party Labour
Spouse(s) Never married
Children None
Profession Trade unionist
Religion Roman Catholic
(For a time Rationalism)

Michael Joseph Savage (23 March 1872 – 27 March 1940) was the first Labour Prime Minister of New Zealand. He is commonly known as the architect of the welfare state and is constantly regarded as one of New Zealand's greatest and most revered Prime Ministers. He was given the title New Zealander of the Century by The New Zealand Herald in 1999.

Early life[edit]

Born in Tatong, Victoria, Australia to Irish immigrant parents in 1872 as Michael Savage, he received a Catholic upbringing alongside his sister. He spent five years attending a state school at Rothesay, the same town as his father's farm. From 1886 to 1893 Savage worked at a wine and spirits shop in Benalla entering the workforce aged just 14.[1] Savage also attended night classes at Benalla College during this time. While a short man, Savage had enormous physical strength and made a name as both a boxer and weightlifter while enjoying dancing and many other sports.

In 1891 Savage was devastated by the deaths of both his sister Rose and his brother Joe. He henceforth adopted his brother's Christian name and became known as Michael Joseph Savage from then on. After losing his job in 1893, Savage moved to New South Wales, finding work as a labourer and irrigation ditch-digger in Narrandera for seven years. Whilst there, he joined the General Labourers' Union and became familiar with the radical political theories of the Americans Henry George and Edward Bellamy, who would influence his political policies later in life.[2]

Savage moved back to Victoria in 1900, working a number of jobs. He became active in the Political Labor Council of Victoria and in 1907 he was chosen as the PLC's candidate to stand for the Wangaratta electorate. Savage had to pull out after the party was not able to fund his deposit and campaign costs, and John Thomas stood instead.[2][3][4] He remained an active party member and became a close friend of PLC member Paddy Webb, whom he would later be closely linked with in years to come.[2]

After a farewell function in Rutherglen, Savage emigrated to New Zealand in 1907.[3] He arrived in Wellington on 9 October, which happened to be Labour Day. There he worked in a variety of jobs, as a miner, flax-cutter and storeman, before becoming involved in the union movement. Despite initially intending to join Webb on the West Coast, Savage decided instead to move north, arriving in Auckland in 1908. He found board there with Alf and Elizabeth French and their two children. Savage, who never married, lived there with them right up until his death. He initially opposed the formation of the original New Zealand Labour Party as he viewed the grouping as insufficiently socialistic. Instead he became the chairman of the New Zealand Federation of Labour, known as the "Red Feds".[2]

Political career[edit]

Socialist origins[edit]

Parliament of New Zealand
Years Term Electorate Party
1919–1922 20th Auckland West Labour
1922–1925 21st Auckland West Labour
1925–1928 22nd Auckland West Labour
1928–1931 23rd Auckland West Labour
1931–1935 24th Auckland West Labour
1935–1938 25th Auckland West Labour
1938–1940 26th Auckland West Labour

In the 1911 and 1914 general election campaigns, Savage unsuccessfully stood as the Socialist candidate for Auckland Central, coming second each time to Albert Glover of the Liberal Party.[2][5] During this time Savage was also involved in local union groups, becoming president of the Auckland Brewers', Wine and Spirit Merchants' and Aerated-water Employees' Union, president of the Auckland Trades and Labour Council, the Auckland organizer for the Social Democrat Party and supported striking miners at Waihi.[2] During World War I he opposed conscription, arguing "that the conscription of wealth should precede the conscription of men".[2]

Savage openly supported the formation of a unified New Zealand Labour Party in July 1916, and became its national vice president in 1918 and later the first permanent national secretary the next year. After the war the voters of the Auckland West electorate put Savage into Parliament as a Labour member in the 1919 general election, an electorate that he held until his death.[6] He became one of eight Labour Members of Parliament. He formally became the party's deputy-leader after the 1922 election, defeating Dan Sullivan eleven votes to six.[2] Assuming an ever increasing workload, he resigned as Labour's national secretary and Auckland Labour Representation Committee secretary in July 1920.

For most of the 1920's Savage sought to expand Labour's support beyond urban unionists and travelled frequently to rural areas. Savage became the leading advocate for increases to pensions and universally free health care. He is credited for the creation of the Family Allowances Act 1926, which the governing Reform Party openly commented that it had modelled the legislation on three earlier defeated bills introduced by Savage.[2] In 1927 Savage and several others persuaded the party to amend its land policy and recognise the right of freehold which was essential in gaining rural support for Labour. In doing so, Savage furthered perceptions that he was a more practical politician than current Labour leader Harry Holland.[2] In October 1933 Holland died suddenly and Savage took his place becoming Labour's second party Leader. He helped engineer the Labour/Rātana alliance (formalised in 1936).

Prime Minister[edit]

Grave and memorial near Bastion Point.
The state funeral procession for Michael Joseph Savage, April 1940

During the depression, Savage toured the country, and became an iconic figure. An excellent speaker, he became the most visible politician in the land, and led Labour to victory in the 1935 election. Along with the Premiership he appointed himself the positions of Minister of External Affairs and Minister of Maori Affairs.[7] The first Labour government swiftly proved popular and easily won the 1938 general election with an increased popular mandate. Savage, suffering from cancer of the colon at the time, had delayed seeking treatment to participate in the election campaign. He died from the cancer in 1940.

Savage led the country into World War II, officially declaring war on Nazi Germany on 3 September 1939, just hours after Britain.[8] Unlike Australia, which felt obligated to declare war, as it too had not ratified the Statute of Westminster, New Zealand did so as a sign of allegiance to Britain, and in recognition of Britain's abandoning its former appeasement of the dictators, a policy that New Zealand had opposed. This led to Prime Minister Savage declaring (from his bed) two days later that:

With gratitude for the past and confidence in the future we range ourselves without fear beside Britain. Where she goes, we go; where she stands, we stand. We are only a small and young nation, but we march with a union of hearts and souls to a common destiny.[9]

Savage brought an almost religious fervour to his politics. This, and his death while in office, has made him become something of an iconic figure to the Left. The architect of the welfare state (see Social welfare in New Zealand), his picture reportedly hung in many Labour supporters' homes. His popularity amongst the voting population was so celebrated that he is said to have remarked in disbelief to John A. Lee that "They [the people] think I am God" after Labour's re-election in 1938.[10] Savage rejected rationalism during later life and returned to his Catholic roots. His state funeral included a Requiem Mass celebrated at the Basilica of the Sacred Heart, Hill St, Wellington before his body was taken amidst general and public mourning by train to Auckland where he was interred initially in a temporarily adapted harbour defence gun installation. He was soon after removed to a side chapel of St Patrick's Cathedral in Auckland, while a national competition was announced, decided, and the winning design of the monumental tomb and memorial gardens at Bastion Point constructed, forming his permanent resting site. While younger generations have less awareness of him, many older New Zealanders continue to revere him.

Death and commemoration[edit]

He was a lifelong bachelor, and lived with Alf and Elizabeth French in Auckland from 1908 until 1939. Alf came to New Zealand in 1894 on the ship Wairarapa which was wrecked on Great Barrier Island, and helped in the rescue of a girl. From 1939 Savage lived in a house “Hill Haven” at 64-66 Harbour View Road, Northland, Wellington, which was subsequently used by Peter Fraser until 1949.[11]

Savage served as the patron of the New Zealand Rugby League.[12]

Savage lies buried at Bastion Point on Auckland's Waitemata Harbour waterfront in the Savage Memorial,[13] a clifftop mausoleum crowned by a tall minaret, and fronted by an extensive memorial garden and reflecting pool. Savage’s body is interred in a vertical shaft below the sarcophagus, as confirmed in 2003-05.[14]

Legacy[edit]

Michael Joseph Savage is revered from many sides of the political spectrum and is known as the architect of the New Zealand Welfare State. He is considered by academics and historians to be New Zealand's most loved Prime Minister. He was often called 'Everybody's Uncle' because of his kind and friendly nature. He once helped a family in Miramar, Wellington, move their furniture into their new state home.[15]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hobbs 1967, pp. 32.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Gustafson, Barry. "Savage, Michael Joseph - Biography". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 11 December 2011. 
  3. ^ a b "Rutherglen". Benalla Standard. 13 September 1907. p. 3. Retrieved 26 June 2015. 
  4. ^ "North-Eastern Ensign". Benalla Ensign. 22 March 1907. p. 2. Retrieved 26 June 2015. 
  5. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 109.
  6. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 137.
  7. ^ New Zealand Parliamentary Debates, Vols. 248-256 (1936-1939).
  8. ^ "Fighting for Britain – NZ and the Second World War". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 2 September 2008. 
  9. ^ Ministry for Culture and Heritage, "PM Declares NZ’s Support for Britain: 5 September 1939," updated 14 October 2014
  10. ^ Hobbs 1967, pp. 30.
  11. ^ Dominion Post (Wellington), 2012: 1 December pE1 & 26 December pA14
  12. ^ Jessup, Peter (12 October 2002). "Kiwi players let their hair down at Clark bash". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 25 October 2011. 
  13. ^ Nathan, Simon; Bruce Hayward (27 October 2010). "Story: Building stone". Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 10 December 2011. 
  14. ^ Fletcher, Kelsey (10 February 2013). "King find recalls Savage mystery". Fairfax (Stuff). Retrieved 10 February 2013. 
  15. ^ Illustrated history of New Zealand by Marcia Stenson, page 55

References[edit]

  • Hobbs, Leslie (1967). The Thirty-Year Wonders. Christchurch: Whitcombe and Tombs. 
  • Scholefield, Guy (1950) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Government offices
Preceded by
George Forbes
Prime Minister of New Zealand
1935–1940
Succeeded by
Peter Fraser
New Zealand Parliament
Preceded by
Charles Poole
Member of Parliament for Auckland West
1908–1940
Succeeded by
Peter Carr