Michael Oren

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Michael Oren
Michael Oren official portrait.jpg
Oren in August 2010
Israeli Ambassador to the United States
In office
July 20, 2009 – September 30, 2013
Preceded bySallai Meridor
Succeeded byRon Dermer
Faction represented in the Knesset
2015–2019Kulanu
Personal details
Born
Michael Scott Bornstein

(1955-05-20) May 20, 1955 (age 66)
New York, U.S.
CitizenshipIsraeli (1979–present)[1]
American (1955–2009)
Spouse(s)
Sally Edelstein
(m. 1982; div. 2016)
[2]
Children3
Alma materColumbia University
Princeton University
Websitehttps://michaeloren.com/
Military service
Allegiance State of Israel
Branch/serviceBadge of the Israel Defense Forces.new.svg Israel Defense Forces

Michael Bornstein Oren (Hebrew: מיכאל אורן; born Michael Scott Bornstein; May 20, 1955) is an American-born Israeli historian, author, politician, former ambassador to the United States (2009–2013), and former member of the Knesset for the Kulanu party and a former Deputy Minister in the Prime Minister's Office.[3][4]

Oren has written books, articles, and essays on Middle Eastern history, and is the author of the New York Times best-selling Ally: My Journey Across the American-Israeli Divide, Power, Faith and Fantasy, and Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East, which won the Los Angeles Times History Book of the Year Award and the National Jewish Book Award.[5] Oren has been a visiting professor at Harvard, Yale, and Georgetown universities in the United States and at Tel Aviv and Hebrew universities in Israel. He was a Distinguished Fellow at the Shalem Center in Jerusalem and a contributing editor to The New Republic. The Forward named Oren one of the five most influential American Jews and The Jerusalem Post listed him as one of the world's ten most influential Jews.

Oren retired as ambassador to the United States in 2013, and was replaced by Ron Dermer.[6] In the 2015 Israeli election, Oren was elected to the Knesset for the Kulanu party.[7]

Personal life and background[edit]

Oren was born Michael Scott Bornstein in upstate New York, the son of Marilyn (née Goldstein), a marriage and family therapist, and Lester Milton Bornstein, a hospital director.[8][9] His father had served as an officer in the U.S. Army who took part in the D-Day invasion of Normandy and in the Battle of the Bulge in 1944 and participated in the Korean War.[10] Oren grew up in West Orange, New Jersey, in a Conservative Jewish household. He attended West Orange High School.[8][11] In his youth, he was an activist in Zionist and Jewish youth groups such as United Synagogue Youth. A meeting with then–Israeli ambassador to the United States, Yitzhak Rabin, strengthened Oren's decision to move to Israel.[12] Reading about Rabin sparked Oren's interest in the Israeli ambassadorship to Washington, a post he would eventually attain.[1] Oren won two gold medals at the 1977 Maccabiah Games in rowing, a sport in which he remains active.[13] At age 15, he made his first trip to Israel with the youth movement Habonim Dror, working on Kibbutz Gan Shmuel.[10] In 1973, Oren won first prize in the PBS National Young Filmmaker's contest for the film, Comrades in Arms, which he wrote and directed. In the summer of 1976, he worked as gofer for Orson Welles.

In 1977 Oren completed his undergraduate degree from Columbia College. He continued his studies at Columbia, receiving a Masters in International Affairs in 1978 from the School of International and Public Affairs, where he was an International Fellow and a DACOR Fellow.[14] After college, he spent a year as an adviser to the Israeli delegation to the United Nations.[10]

In 1979 Oren emigrated to Israel.[15] Upon assuming Israeli citizenship, he changed his last name from "Bornstein" to "Oren", meaning "pine tree" in Hebrew. (He renounced his American citizenship in 2009 upon his nomination as ambassador to the United States, since Israeli law prohibits international representatives from holding dual nationality.[1])

A few years later Oren returned to the United States to continue his education, studying at Princeton University. In 1986 he earned an M.A. and a Ph.D. in Near Eastern Studies from Princeton.[16]

In 1982 he married Sally Edelstein, who was born in San Francisco and immigrated to Israel in 1981. They have three children.[17][18] In an article published in The Atlantic, Jeffrey Goldberg profiled Sally's acquaintance with rock stars Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, and Jefferson Airplane. Marty Balin, one of the main songwriters of Jefferson Airplane, wrote two songs about her in the 1960s.[19]

Oren's nephew is comedian Jon Rudnitsky.[20]

Military service[edit]

In 1979, Oren began his military service in the Israel Defense Forces. He served as a paratrooper in the 1982 Lebanon War.[21] His unit was caught in a Syrian ambush on the second day of the war. His commander was killed and nearly everyone was wounded. He then joined a unit stationed in Sidon. A day after his wedding, in the summer of 1982, Oren returned to Beirut.[10]

Following his regular military service, Oren volunteered to work with the Zionist underground in the Soviet Union. Sent to make contact with Zionist groups in Ukraine, he was repeatedly arrested by the KGB.[22]

During the Persian Gulf War he was Israeli liaison officer to the U.S. Sixth Fleet.[21] He was called up for reserve duty for the 2005 Gaza disengagement, and participated in the evacuation of settlements.[23] He served as an officer in the IDF Spokesman's Office during the 2006 Lebanon War.[21] and the 2008–2009 Gaza War.[24]

In February 2009, he delivered a lecture at Georgetown University on "The Gaza Operation: A Personal and Historical Perspective".[25] The Today Show broadcast a special segment, "The Oren Family at War."[26]

Academic career[edit]

In the 1980s and early 1990s, Oren taught at Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Tel Aviv University.[21] In 1995, during the government of Yitzhak Rabin, Oren served as an advisor in inter-religious affairs at the Ministry of Religious Affairs.[21]

In 2006, Oren was a visiting professor at both Harvard University and Yale University, returning to Yale in 2007. Beginning in 2008, he became a visiting professor at Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service for the 2008–09 academic year as part of the faculty associated with the Program for Jewish Civilization.[27][28]

President George W. Bush appointed Oren to serve on the honorary delegation to accompany him to Jerusalem for the celebration of the 60th anniversary of the State of Israel in May 2008.[29]

While working at a think-tank in Jerusalem, Oren publicly opposed the 2003 Iraq war, believing at the time that America "should not get involved in state-building in a region where states are only held together by savage central power."[30]

Ambassadorship[edit]

On May 3, 2009, Oren was appointed as ambassador of Israel to the United States by Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, succeeding Sallai Meridor. Ambassador Oren had to give up his United States citizenship in order to assume this post.[31]

Oren strongly criticized the United Nations Fact Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict report, which determined Israel was guilty of possible war crimes. In an October 2009 op-ed in The New Republic, he stated, "The Goldstone Report goes further than Ahmadinejad and the Holocaust deniers by stripping the Jews not only of the ability and the need but of the right to defend themselves."[32]

In October 2009, Oren declined an invitation to attend a conference hosted by J Street, an Israel advocacy group, which has been critical of the Israel government's foreign policy,[33] calling the organization "significantly out of the mainstream."[34] However, according to Oren, later actions from the group put J Street "much more into the mainstream."[35]

Oren has initiated Israel outreach events for Irish Americans,[36] Latino[37] and LGBT leadership, and the Chinese embassy. He hosted the Israeli embassy's first Iftar dinner.[38]

On February 8, 2010, Oren spoke at the University of California, Irvine. During his speech Oren was interrupted by students who shouted, among other things, "Michael Oren, propagating murder is not an expression of free speech."[39] The students, who became known as the Irvine 11, were first disciplined by the university and then had criminal charges brought against them. On September 23, 2011, a jury convicted them of disrupting Oren's speech.[40] The charges and conviction were criticized by civil liberties advocates, as well as both Jewish and Muslim student groups.[40]

Oren has lectured at numerous universities across the United States.[41]

Following the Gaza flotilla raid in May 2010, Oren wrote an op-ed in The New York Times, "An Assault, Cloaked in Peace", in which he accused the organizers of the flotilla of attempting to "create a provocation" in order to "put international pressure on Israel to drop the Gaza embargo". He further made the claim that the Mavi Marmara was "a vessel too large to be neutralized by technical means".[42]

Oren attempted to influence a critical 2012 CBS report by Bob Simon about Palestinian Christians in Israel,[43] with some calling his interference an attempt to silence the American media.[44] Oren responded that at no point had he tried to prevent the 60 Minutes report, rather that he offered suggestions for balancing the segment.[44][45]

On July 5, 2013, he announced that he would be leaving his post as ambassador to the United States in fall 2013.[6] According to the Israeli daily Haaretz, insiders say that Oren wanted to keep his job, but was removed because Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's senior advisor Ron Dermer wanted the envoy post.[46]

Oren has received four honorary doctorates and has delivered commencement speeches at Brandeis,[47] Monmouth University,[48] and Yeshiva University.[49] In 2011, he received the Outstanding Achievers with Learning Disabilities Award from the Lab School of Washington, D.C.[50] He delivered the keynote address at 2012 Equality Forum on LGBT rights in Israel.[51]

Writings[edit]

Political commentary[edit]

Oren has written many articles commenting on current political issues. Before assuming his diplomatic post, he published frequently in the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, and The New Republic, where he was a contributing editor.[52] He appeared on Charlie Rose, The Daily Show,[53] the Today Show, and he John Batchelor Show. As ambassador, he has published nearly forty op-eds and has given dozens of television interviews, including Bill Maher, Colbert Report, The View, and The Situation Room with Wolf Blitzer.

His two full-length articles "Israel: The Ultimate Ally"[54] and "Israel's Resilient Democracy",[55] were published in Foreign Policy magazine.

In July 2014 Oren argued against a ceasefire and for the continuation of the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict, calling on the international community to leave Israel alone to defang and deprive Hamas of its heavy arms and make it pay a "prohibitive cost."[56]

On June 15, 2015 Oren gave a speech at the Leonardo Hotel in Jerusalem, in which he said that the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) movement poses a "strategic threat" to Israel, which needs to fight it "like a war, which it is". He also warned that the U.S. is gambling with Israel's future over Iran, saying that the U.S. "can afford to make a mistake" with them, while "Israel has zero room for error", adding: "The United States has the most powerful army in all of history, they're thousands of miles away from Iran, and they don't feel any direct threat. Israel is in Iran's backyard, and faces a clear and direct threat from Iranian proxies such as Hezbollah and Hamas. The IDF is a strong military force, but does not have the capacity and magnitude the US Army has to deter aggression."[57]

Also during June 2015, an op-ed piece by Oren published in the Wall Street Journal claimed that Barack Obama had deliberately sabotaged US-Israeli relations, resulting in Kulanu leader Moshe Kahlon distancing himself and the party from Oren's stated views.[58] Shortly afterwards another article by Oren was published by Foreign Policy, which argued that Obama's outreach to the Muslim world was partly rooted in "abandonment" by his father and stepfather.[59] Oren was criticised by Abe Foxman of the Anti-Defamation League, who said that Oren's theorising resembled "conspiracy theories" and "amateur psychoanalysis", and characterised it as "borderline stereotyping".[60] Foxman's successor at the ADL, Jonathan Greenblatt, later publicly apologized for the remark.[61]

In 2015, Oren published Ally: My Journey Across the American-Israeli Divide (June 2015), a New York Times bestseller which aimed to describe the recent state of Israel–US relations.[62] The book has received both praise and criticism,[63] including a negative review by Philip Gordon titled "Bibi's man in D.C., still spinning for the boss"[64] and a positive review by Bret Stephens for The Wall Street Journal which called the book "the smartest and juiciest diplomatic memoir that I've read in years."[65] In response to its controversial reception, Oren stated: "So far a lot of things have been said about me. ... I obviously touched a nerve."[66] Noah Efron wrote in Haaretz that the book continued the self-professed "armchair psychoanalyzing" of the U.S. President and chided Oren for failing to assign any responsibility to Israeli for the decline in US-Israel relations.[67]

Middle East history[edit]

Power, Faith and Fantasy, a history of American involvement in the Middle East, was published by Norton and quickly became a New York Times bestseller. Power, Faith and Fantasy earned positive reviews from Newsweek, The Washington Post, The New York Times Book Review, the San Francisco Chronicle, and the Willamette Week.[68][69][70][71][72]

Oren's Six Days of War is an historical account of the events of the Six-Day War between Israel and its Arab neighbors. The book was widely praised by critics[1] and won the Los Angeles Times Book Prize for History and the National Jewish Book Award. It spent seven weeks on the New York Times bestseller list.[73] The New York Times Book Review wrote positively of Six Days of War,[74] as did the Washington Post, which called it "not only the best book so far written on the Six Day War, it is likely to remain the best".[75] Oren's Ph.D. thesis, "The Origins of the Second Arab-Israel War: Israel, Egypt, and the Great Powers, 1952-1956," was published in 1992.

Fiction[edit]

Oren has written works of fiction for which he has been called a “disturbingly good writer” by Hadassah Magazine[76] and “a master of the short story” by The Jerusalem Post.[77]

Sand Devil, published in 2000, is a trilogy of novellas set in the Negev desert. Reunion, based on his father's stories from World War II, appeared in 2004.

The Night Archer and Other Stories, published in 2020, is a collection of fifty-one short stories. His novel, To All Who Call in Truth, was published in May 2021.[78]

Knesset career[edit]

Oren was given the fourth spot on the list of the new Kulanu party before Israel's 2015 elections, adding foreign policy credentials to a party that campaigned almost exclusively on economic issues.[79] He was elected and, on March 31, sworn in as a Member of Israel's 20th Knesset, serving on its Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee. On August 1, 2016, it was announced that Oren would be appointed as deputy minister in charge of public diplomacy.[80] Oren decided to forgo running in the elections for Israel's 21st Knesset.[81]

Legislation[edit]

Oren supported the creation of a new Israeli national holiday, Yom HaAliyah (Hebrew: יום העלייה‎, Aliyah Day) to be celebrated annually on the tenth of the Hebrew month of Nisan (Hebrew: י’ ניסן‎).[82] On 21 June 2016 the Knesset voted in favor of adding Yom HaAliyah to the national calendar.[83] The Yom HaAliyah bill was co-sponsored by Knesset members from different parties in a rare instance of cooperation across the political spectrum.[84] The day chosen for Yom HaAliyah is, according to the biblical narrative, the day Joshua and the Israelites crossed the Jordan River at Gilgal into the Promised Land. It was thus the first documented "mass Aliyah".[85]

Published work[edit]

  • "Sand Devil", Toby Press (2000) ISBN 1592642128.
  • Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East. Presidio Press. (2002) ISBN 978-0-345-46192-6.
  • Reunion. New York: Plume. (2003) ISBN 978-1-931561-26-6.
  • Power, Faith and Fantasy: The United States in the Middle East, 1776 to 2006. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. (2007) ISBN 978-0-393-33030-4.
  • New Essays on Zionism. Shalem Press. (2007) ISBN 978-965-7052-44-0 (editor, with David Hazony and Yoram Hazony).
  • The Origins of the Second Arab-Israeli War", Rutledge (2013) ISBN 1138977799.
  • Ally: My Journey Across the American-Israeli Divide. Random House. (2015) ISBN 978-081-2996-41-8.
  • The Night Archer and Other Stories, Wicked Son (2020)
  • To All Who Call in Truth, Wicked Son (2021)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Israeli Ambassador Draws on American Roots".
  2. ^ Brinn, David (16 August 2017). "What hath the 60 wrought". Jerusalem Post.
  3. ^ "Michael Oren appointed Deputy Minister of the Prime Minister's office". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  4. ^ "Michael Oren appointed to US envoy role", Jerusalem Post, May 2, 2009
  5. ^ "Past Winners". Jewish Book Council. Retrieved 2020-01-20.
  6. ^ a b "Ron Dermer officially named Israel's U.S. ambassador". JTA. July 9, 2013. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
  7. ^ "Mr. Oren goes to Jerusalem (from Washington)". Ha'aretz. March 20, 2015. Retrieved March 20, 2015.
  8. ^ a b Ginsberg, Johanna. "Former New Jerseyan to be Israel's Envoy to U.S.; Author Michael Oren was Mountain High and Princeton grad" Archived 2012-10-28 at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey Jewish News, May 7, 2009. Accessed November 19, 2012.
  9. ^ Turk Rosenblatt, Judith (1987). Who's Who in World Jewry: A Biographical Dictionary of Outstanding Jews. Who's Who in World Jewry. p. 64. ISBN 0961827203.
  10. ^ a b c d "Enjoying Every Minute", Haaretz Archived September 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ Bumiller, Elisabeth. "Israeli Diplomat Is Man in Middle", New York Times, September 17, 2012. Accessed November 19, 2012. "Raised in a conservative Jewish family in West Orange, N.J., Mr. Oren worked on a kibbutz at 15, was educated at Princeton and Columbia, immigrated to Israel and spent multiple tours in the Israeli Army...."
  12. ^ "Commemoration of Prime Minister Rabin's z"l 90th Birthday", Embassy of Israel, February 29, 2012 Archived March 8, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ "C-SPAN Transcript of 2002 Interview with Michael Oren". Archived from the original on 2016-04-21. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  14. ^ "Michael B. Oren". www.writersreps.com. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  15. ^ "An interview with Michael Oren"[permanent dead link], The Jerusalem Post, January 18, 2007.
  16. ^ "Princeton - Weekly Bulletin 11/18/02 - Nassau Notes". www.princeton.edu. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  17. ^ "Israels new ambassador to U.S. has strong S.F. ties". J. 2009-05-08. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  18. ^ "Ambassador Michael Oren Biography". Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  19. ^ Goldberg, Jeffrey. "Six Degrees of Sally Oren". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  20. ^ "MK Michael Oren congratulates nephew on joining cast of SNL". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  21. ^ a b c d e Archive index at the Wayback Machine Michael Oren's Official Website
  22. ^ "Oren's work with the Zionist underground", Haaretz, September 27, 2009.
  23. ^ "Israeli Soldier Oren Shares Gaza Story | News | The Harvard Crimson". www.thecrimson.com. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  24. ^ Oren in the Spokesman's Office during the 2008–09 Israel–Gaza conflict, The New Republic, January 4, 2009.
  25. ^ Michael Oren, Gaza Lecture Part 1, January 28, 2009 on YouTube
  26. ^ Today Show Segment on Oren Family at War, April 6, 2012
  27. ^ "Center for Jewish Civilization | Georgetown University". pjc.georgetown.edu. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  28. ^ "Georgetown University". explore.georgetown.edu. Archived from the original on 2016-12-28. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  29. ^ "Bush Visit May Boost Olmert - The New York Sun". www.nysun.com. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  30. ^ DEPARTING AS AMBASSADOR, MICHAEL OREN IS STILL WORKING TO BRIDGE OBAMA-BIBI GAP By Lee Smith September 25, 2013, Tablet Magazine
  31. ^ Mark Landler (25 September 2009). "Israeli Ambassador Draws on American Roots". The New York Times.
  32. ^ Michael B. Oren (10 June 2009). "Deep Denial: Why The Holocaust Still Matters". The New Republic.
  33. ^ [1][permanent dead link]
  34. ^ "In Shift, Oren Calls J Street 'A Unique Problem'". Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  35. ^ "Oren: J Street conflict near resolution". 2010-02-10. Archived from the original on 2010-02-15. Retrieved 2010-02-16.
  36. ^ Ambassador Oren Celebrates Irish Culture on YouTube, March 30, 2011
  37. ^ Ambassador Oren holds Hispanic outreach event, December 15, 2011
  38. ^ Ambassador Oren Hosts Iftar Dinner, Huffington Post, August 25, 2011
  39. ^ Raja Abdulrahim (February 9, 2010). "11 students arrested after disrupting Israeli ambassador's speech at UC Irvine". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
  40. ^ a b "US court: Students guilty of disrupting Israeli envoy".
  41. ^ "Michael Oren Speaks to the U.S. Naval Academy, February 23, 2012". Archived from the original on 2016-03-06. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  42. ^ Michael B. Oren (June 2, 2010). "An Assault, Cloaked in Peace". The New York Times. Retrieved July 14, 2010.
  43. ^ "Christians of the Holy Land". CBS News. Retrieved April 22, 2012.
  44. ^ a b Mozgovaya, Natasha (3 May 2012). "Obama corrects controversial Jewish Heritage Month proclamation". Haaretz. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
  45. ^ Ambassador Oren's Letter to 60 Minutes, BuzzFeed, April 26, 2012
  46. ^ JTA (July 10, 2013). "American Jewish groups welcome choice of Netanyahu's right hand man as U.S. envoy". Haaretz. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
  47. ^ "Read Ambassador Michael B. Oren's commencement address - BrandeisNOW". BrandeisNOW. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  48. ^ Michael Oren's Address to Monmouth University Archived 2012-12-14 at archive.today, Monmouth University, January 13, 2012
  49. ^ Ambassador Michael B. Oren Addresses Yeshiva University Archived 2014-12-16 at the Wayback Machine Yeshiva University, June 1, 2010
  50. ^ Ambassador Oren's Address to the Lab School, Embassy of Israel
  51. ^ Ambassador Oren's Speech to the Equality Forum on LGBT Rights in Israel, Embassy of Israel, May 5, 2012
  52. ^ From The TNR Archives: Michael B. Oren, The New Republic website, April 21, 2009.
  53. ^ Daily Show Interview with Michael Oren, The Daily Show.
  54. ^ The Ultimate Ally, Foreign Policy, May 2011.
  55. ^ Israel's Resilient Democracy, Foreign Policy, April 5, 2012.
  56. ^ "Ex Israeli ambassador slams ceasefir". Israel Herald. Archived from the original on 29 July 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
  57. ^ "Israeli Ambassador Oren Blames 'Bully in Chief' Obama for Damaging US-Israel Relations". UWI. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  58. ^ Heilbrunn, Jacob (6 July 2015). "Michael B. Oren's 'Ally: My Journey Across the American-Israeli Divide'". nytimes.com. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
  59. ^ Oren, Michael (19 June 2015). "How Obama Opened His Heart to the 'Muslim World'". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
  60. ^ Lewis, Avi (22 June 2015). "ADL demands Michael Oren walk back 'unjustified attack' on Obama". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
  61. ^ "ADL Welcomes Hebrew Version of Michael Oren's "Ally"". Anti-Defamation League. 4 May 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2021.
  62. ^ With ‘Ally,’ Michael Oren lifts the veil on U.S.-Israel relations June 21, 2015 by Ben Cohen / JNS.org
  63. ^ Michael Oren, were you disappointed by the state of American Jewry? A conversation by Shmuel Rosner, Jewish Journal, June 22nd 2015
  64. ^ Gordon, Philip (June 26, 2015). "Bibi's man in D.C., still spinning for the boss". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
  65. ^ Stephens, Bret (29 June 2015). "The President Against the Historian". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 30 August 2021.
  66. ^ Michael Oren: I obviously touched a nerve Israel Hayom, Newsletter Friday June 26, 2015
  67. ^ Efron, Noah (2015-07-06). "Michael Oren's 'Ally' a Profoundly un-Zionist Book". Haaretz. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  68. ^ Newsweek review Archived 2011-07-14 at the Wayback Machine
  69. ^ "How America Met the Mideast". The Washington Post. 2007-01-21. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  70. ^ Rodenbeck, Max (2007-01-28). "Power, Faith, and Fantasy: America in the Middle East, 1776 to the Present. By Michael B. Oren - Books - Review". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  71. ^ "America and the Mideast, long before the Bushes". SFGate. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  72. ^ wweek.com review Archived 2007-04-03 at the Wayback Machine
  73. ^ "BEST SELLERS: August 18, 2002". The New York Times. 2002-08-18. Retrieved 2008-03-26.
  74. ^ Bernstein, Richard (July 17, 2002). "Short Conflict, Far-Reaching Consequences". New York Times. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
  75. ^ "Washington Post: Breaking News, World, US, DC News & Analysis". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  76. ^ Schleier, Curt (10 May 2021). "Michael Oren: Novelist". Hadassah Magazine. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  77. ^ Teller, Neville (3 September 2020). "Michael Oren's 'Night Archer' hits the bulls-eye". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  78. ^ Schleier, Curt. "'To All Who Call In Truth'". Jewish Standard. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  79. ^ Aron Heller, NETANYAHU'S FORMER US ENVOY NOW AMONG HIS ISRAELI RIVALS, Associated Press, 9 March 2015
  80. ^ Times of Israel, "Michael Oren named deputy minister in charge of public diplomacy," August 1, 2016, http://www.timesofisrael.com/michael-oren-named-deputy-minister-in-reshuffle/
  81. ^ "Michael Oren, quitting Kulanu Party, tells 'Post' not ruling out politics". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. Retrieved 2021-03-28.
  82. ^ Israel approves holiday to celebrate contribution of immigrants Jewish News, 22 June 2014
  83. ^ New National Holiday in Israel JWire, 22 June 2016
  84. ^ Israel approves holiday to celebrate contribution of immigrants Haaretz, 24 June 2016
  85. ^ Yehoshua - Joshua - Chapter 4 Chabad

External links[edit]

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