|Born||Michael Llewellyn Rutter
15 August 1933
|Thesis||Illness in parents and children (1963)|
Sir Michael Llewellyn Rutter CBE FRS FRCP FRCPsych FMedSci (born 15 August 1933) was the first professor of child psychiatry in the United Kingdom. He has been described as the "father of child psychology". Currently he is professor of developmental psychopathology at the Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London and consultant psychiatrist at the Maudsley Hospital, a post he has held since 1966. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Rutter as the 68th most cited psychologist of the 20th century.
Rutter was the oldest child born to Winifred (née Barber) and Llewellyn Rutter. He was born in Lebanon where his father was a doctor, but moved back to England at an early age. In 1940, at the age of 7, amid fears of a German invasion, Rutter was evacuated, with his younger sister, to North America.
He attended the Moorestown Friends School in New Jersey, USA. Later he attended Wolverhampton Grammar School and then Bootham School in York, from where he continued his studies at the University of Birmingham Medical School.
Rutter set up the Medical Research Council (UK) Child Psychiatry Research Unit in 1984 and the Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre ten years later, being Honorary Director of both until October 1998. He was Deputy Chairman of the Wellcome Trust from 1999 to 2004, and was a Trustee of the Nuffield Foundation from 1992 to 2008.
Rutter's work includes: early epidemiological studies (Isle of Wight and Inner London); studies of autism involving a wide range of scientific techniques and disciplines, including DNA study and neuroimaging; links between research and practice; deprivation; influences of families and schools; genetics; reading disorders; biological and social, protective and risk factors; interactions of biological and social factors; stress; longitudinal as well as epidemiologic studies, including childhood and adult experiences and conditions; and continuities and discontinuities in normal and pathological development. The British Journal of Psychiatry credits him with a number of "breakthroughs" in these areas. Rutter is also recognized as contributing centrally to the establishment of child psychiatry as a medical and biopsychosocial specialty with a solid scientific base.
He has published over 400 scientific papers and chapters and some 40 books. He was the European Editor for the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders between 1974 and 1994.
In 1972, Rutter published 'Maternal Deprivation Reassessed', which New Society describes as "a classic in the field of child care" in which he evaluated the maternal deprivation hypothesis propounded by Dr John Bowlby in 1951. Bowlby had proposed that “the infant and young child should experience a warm, intimate, and continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother substitute) in which both find satisfaction and enjoyment” and that not to do so may have significant and irreversible mental health consequences. This theory was both influential and controversial. Rutter made a significant contribution, his 1981 monograph and other papers (Rutter 1972; Rutter 1979) comprising the definitive empirical evaluation and update of Bowlby's early work on maternal deprivation. He amassed further evidence, addressed the many different underlying social and psychological mechanisms and showed that Bowlby was only partially right and often for the wrong reasons. Rutter highlighted the other forms of deprivation found in institutional care, the complexity of separation distress and suggested that anti-social behaviour was not linked to maternal deprivation as such but to family discord. The importance of these refinements of the maternal deprivation hypothesis was to reposition it as a "vulnerability factor" rather than a causative agent, with a number of varied influences determining which path a child will take.
After the end of Nicolae Ceauşescu's regime in Romania in 1989, Rutter led the English and Romanian Adoptees Study Team, following many of the orphans adopted into Western families into their teens in a series of substantial studies on the effects of early privation and deprivation across multiple domains affecting child development including attachment and the development of new relationships. The results yielded some reason for optimism.
In June 2014, Rutter was the guest on the BBC Radio 4 programme The Life Scientific, in which he described himself as a Nontheist Quaker, as well as revealing that, at the age of 80, he still worked each day "from about half past eight until about four".
Among Rutter's research topics was his extended interest in maternal attachment theory as studied in his book The Qualities of Mothering from 1974. In this book, Rutter studies the emergence of several disorders in growing children including antisocial personality disorder and affectionless psychopathology. Rutter concentration is often reflected in his comments dealing with deprived learning environments and deprived emotional environment as these affect the child's growth. One of the principal distinctions which Rutter makes throughout his book titled The Qualities of Mothering is the difference between intellectual retardation in the child and the impairment of the emotional growth of the child as the non-development of healthy emotional growth.
Awards and honours
Rutter has honorary degrees from the Universities of Leiden, Louvain, Birmingham, Edinburgh, Chicago, Minnesota, Ghent, Jyväskylä, Warwick, East Anglia, Cambridge and Yale. He has remained in practice until late into his career and the Michael Rutter Centre for Children and Adolescents, based at Maudsley Hospital, London, is named after him.
Rutter is an honorary member of the British Academy and is an elected Fellow of the Royal Society. He is a Founding Fellow of the Academia Europaea and the Academy of Medical Sciences and was knighted in 1992. The citation for his knighthood reads: Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, University of London.
In 1983 he gave the annual Swarthmore Lecture to a large gathering of British Quakers, attending their Yearly Meeting, later published as A Measure of Our Values: goals and dilemmas in the upbringing of children.
- Pearce, J (2005). Eric Taylor: The cheerful pessimist. Child and Adolescent Mental Health,Feb;10(1):40–41.
- Rutter, M. (1987). "Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms". American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 57 (3): 316–31. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.1987.tb03541.x. PMID 3303954.
- Haggbloom, Steven J.; Warnick, Jason E.; Jones, Vinessa K.; Yarbrough, Gary L.; Russell, Tenea M.; Borecky, Chris M.; McGahhey, Reagan; et al. (2002). "The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century". Review of General Psychology. 6 (2): 139–152. doi:10.1037/1089-2622.214.171.124.
- Michael Rutter
- Bootham School Register. York, England: Bootham Old Scholars Association. 2011.
-  Who's Who. Oxford University Press]
- Kolvin, I (1999). "The contribution of Michael Rutter". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 174: 471–5. doi:10.1192/bjp.174.6.471. PMID 10616623.
- Hartman, L (2003). Review of Green & Yule, Research and Innovation on the Road to Modern Child Psychiatry. Am J Psychiatry, Jan;160:196-197.
- Rutter, M (1981) Maternal Deprivation Reassessed, Second edition, Harmondsworth, Penguin.
- Bowlby, J (1951) Maternal Care and Mental Health, World Health Organisation WHO
- Holmes J. (1993) John Bowlby & Attachment Theory. Routledge. pp. 49-53. ISBN 0-415-07729-X
- Rutter, M. (2002). "Nature, Nurture, and Development: From Evangelism through Science toward Policy and Practice". Child Development. 73 (1): 1–21. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00388. PMID 14717240.
- Professor Sir Michael Rutter on The Life Scientific, BBC Radio 4
- A Measure of Our Values: Goals and Dilemmas in the Upbringing of Children