|Chairman of the |
Republican National Committee
January 30, 2009 – January 14, 2011
|Preceded by||Mike Duncan|
|Succeeded by||Reince Priebus|
|7th Lieutenant Governor of Maryland|
January 15, 2003 – January 17, 2007
|Preceded by||Kathleen Kennedy Townsend|
|Succeeded by||Anthony G. Brown|
|Chairman of the |
Maryland Republican Party
|Preceded by||Joyce Lyon Tehres|
|Succeeded by||Louis Pope|
|Born||October 19, 1958|
Andrews Field, Maryland, U.S.
Andrea Derritt (m. 1985)
|Education||Johns Hopkins University (BA)|
Georgetown University (JD)
Michael Stephen Steele (born October 19, 1958) is an American conservative political commentator, attorney, and former Republican Party politician. Steele served as the seventh lieutenant governor of Maryland from 2003 to 2007; he was the first African-American elected to statewide office in Maryland. As lieutenant governor, Steele chaired the Minority Business Enterprise task force, actively promoting an expansion of affirmative action in the corporate world. Steele also served as chairperson of the Republican National Committee (RNC) from January 2009 until January 2011; he was the first African-American to serve in that capacity.
In the 1990s, Steele worked as a partner at the international law firm of LeBoeuf, Lamb, Greene & MacRae and co-founded the Republican Leadership Council, a "fiscally conservative and socially inclusive" political action committee. Steele also made numerous appearances as a political pundit on Fox News and other media outlets prior to running for public office. He made an unsuccessful run in the 2006 U.S. Senate election in Maryland, losing to Democrat Ben Cardin. From 2007 to 2009, Steele was chairman of GOPAC, a 527 organization that trains and supports Republican candidates in state and local elections. After serving one term as RNC Chairperson from 2009 to 2011, he lost his bid for a second term and was succeeded by Reince Priebus. Since 2011, Steele has contributed as a regular columnist for online magazine The Root and as a political analyst for MSNBC.
Steele was born on October 19, 1958, at Andrews Air Force Base in Prince George's County, Maryland, and was adopted as an infant by William and Maebell Steele. His father died in 1962. His mother, who had been born into a sharecropping family in South Carolina, worked for minimum wage as a laundress to raise her children. After Steele's father died, she ignored her friends' appeals to apply for public assistance, later telling Steele, "I didn't want the government raising my children." She later married John Turner, a truck driver. Michael and his sister, Monica Turner, were raised in the Petworth neighborhood of Northwest, Washington, D.C., which Steele has described as a small, stable and racially integrated community that insulated him from some of the problems elsewhere in the city. Steele's sister later married and divorced former heavyweight boxing champion Mike Tyson.
Steele attended Archbishop Carroll High School in Washington, D.C., participating in the glee club, the National Honor Society and many of the school's drama productions. During his senior year, he was elected student council president.
After graduating from Hopkins, Steele worked for one year as a high school teacher at Malvern Preparatory School in Pennsylvania, teaching classes in world history and economics. He spent three years preparing for the Catholic priesthood at the Augustinian Friars Seminary at Villanova University, which he left prior to ordination to enter civil service.
From 1991 to 1997, Steele worked in Washington, D.C., as a corporate securities associate for the Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen & Hamilton international law firm, where he specialized in financial investments for Wall Street underwriters. He left the firm to found the Steele Group, a business and legal consulting firm.
After joining the Republican Party, he became chairman of the Prince George's County Republican Central Committee. He was a founding member of the centrist, fiscally conservative and socially inclusive Republican Leadership Council in 1993 but left in 2008, citing disagreements over endorsing primary candidates. In 1995, the Maryland Republican Party selected him as their Republican Man of the Year. He worked on several political campaigns, was an alternate delegate to the 1996 Republican National Convention and a delegate to the 2000 Republican National Convention. Steele's Maryland biography identifies him as a member of the Tau Epsilon Phi fraternity.
Lieutenant Governor of Maryland
In 2002, Robert Ehrlich, who was running for Maryland governor, selected Steele as his running mate for lieutenant governor. The campaign was waged against Democrat Kathleen Kennedy Townsend, who was running for governor, and Charles R. Larson who was running for lieutenant governor.
In the September primary election, Ehrlich and Steele had no serious opposition. In the November 2002 general election, the Republican Ehrlich-Steele ticket won, 51 percent to 48 percent, even though Maryland traditionally votes Democratic and had not elected a Republican Governor in almost 40 years. The Townsend-Larson campaign had been tainted by outgoing Democratic governor Parris Glendening's marital problems and backlash due to his strict enforcement of environmental regulations.
Steele's most prominent efforts for the Ehrlich administration were reforming the state's Minority Business Enterprise program and chairing the Governor's Commission on Quality Education in Maryland. Steele garnered criticism for his failure to oppose Ehrlich's reinstitution of the death penalty, despite claims of racial inequities in the use of the death penalty, Steele's own religious beliefs and his prior anti-death penalty pronouncements.
In 2005, Steele was named an Aspen Institute Rodel Fellow in Public Leadership and was awarded the Bethune-DuBois Institute Award for his continuing efforts to improve the quality education in Maryland.
At the 2004 Republican National Convention, Steele gave the Republican counterpoint to Barack Obama's 2004 Democratic National Convention keynote address; it was Steele's first major national exposure. In April 2005, President Bush chose him to be a member of the U.S. delegation at the investiture of Pope Benedict XVI in Vatican City.
2006 campaign for U.S. Senate
When Paul Sarbanes, Maryland's longest-serving United States Senator, announced in March 2005 that he would not be a candidate for re-election in 2006, top state and national Republican officials began pressing Steele to become their party's nominee for the seat. In April 2005, The Baltimore Sun announced the results of a poll it conducted, stating that Steele would run statistically neck and neck against either former NAACP head Kweisi Mfume, or Rep. Benjamin L. Cardin of Baltimore County. Steele formally announced his candidacy for the U.S. Senate on October 25, 2005.
Steele won the Republican nomination after facing little opposition in the primary. His opponents were Democrat Ben Cardin and Independent Kevin Zeese (who was endorsed by the Green and Libertarian parties). The three candidates participated in three debates. Cardin primarily attacked Steele over his close relations with President Bush. Steele focused on low taxes, less government spending, free markets and national security.
Steele lost the general election to Cardin on November 7, 2006, 44 percent to Cardin's 55 percent. Steele's former campaign finance chairman later alleged improprieties in Steele's handling of campaign funds, which Steele denied.
After the senate race
One day after Steele conceded defeat in the senate election, Chris Cillizza of the Washington Post reported that Steele was hoping to succeed Ken Mehlman as the chairman of the Republican National Committee. Senator Mel Martinez of Florida, who had the endorsement of President George W. Bush, got the position.
In February 2007, Steele became chairman of GOPAC, a political action committee that helps fund state and local Republican campaigns around the country and is responsible for training future Republican candidates. He succeeded former U.S. Congressman J.C. Watts, a fellow black Republican. In April 2007, Steele joined the international law firm of Dewey & LeBoeuf, as a partner in the firm's Washington, D.C. office.
At a speech given at the Media Research Center's 2007 DisHonors Awards Gala, Steele said:
I get a question all the time, 'Are you going to run again for office?' And I've thought about that, and I've come to realize that there's still some Democrats out there that I haven't ticked off yet. So, yeah, we're gonna do it again. We're gonna do it again, and all I have to say is, they haven't seen anything yet.
Steele appeared several times on HBO's political show Real Time with Bill Maher, and was on Comedy Central's talk show The Colbert Report on January 23, 2007. He also hosted a PBS Republican Primary debate in Baltimore, Maryland on September 27, 2007.
On November 24, 2008, Steele kicked off his campaign for the RNC chairmanship by launching his website. On January 30, 2009, Steele won the chairmanship of the RNC in the sixth round, with 91 votes to Katon Dawson's 77. Steele, the RNC's first African American chairman, was selected in the aftermath of President Obama's election; many in the GOP saw him as a charismatic counter to the nation's first Black president.
|Candidate||Round 1||Round 2||Round 3||Round 4||Round 5||Round 6|
- Candidate won that Round of voting
- Candidate withdrew
- Candidate won RNC Chairmanship
Leadership dispute with Rush Limbaugh
On March 1, 2009, in response to a question on CBS's Face the Nation as to who spoke for the Republican Party, White House Chief of Staff Rahm Emanuel opined that Rush Limbaugh spoke for the Party; Emanuel asserted that "whenever a Republican criticizes [Limbaugh], they have to run back and apologize to him, and say they were misunderstood. He is the voice and the intellectual force and energy behind the Republican Party. And he has been upfront about what he views, and hasn't stepped back from that, which is he hopes for [President Obama's] failure. He said it. And I compliment him for his honesty, but that's their philosophy that is enunciated by Rush Limbaugh."
In remarks aired by the CNN program D.L. Hughley Breaks the News on March 1, 2009, Steele said he, rather than Limbaugh, was "the de facto leader of the Republican Party. Rush Limbaugh is an entertainer. Rush Limbaugh's whole thing is entertainment. Yes, it is incendiary. Yes, it is ugly." On March 2, 2009 Limbaugh said on his radio show that Steele was not fit to lead the Republican Party, asking why Steele claimed "to lead the Republican Party when [he seemed] obsessed with seeing to it President Obama succeeds?" After the show, Steele called Limbaugh to apologize, saying "I have enormous respect for Rush Limbaugh. I was maybe a little bit inarticulate. There was no attempt on my part to diminish his voice or his leadership. I went back at that tape and I realized words that I said weren't what I was thinking. It was one of those things where I thinking I was saying one thing, and it came out differently. What I was trying to say was a lot of people want to make Rush the scapegoat, the bogeyman, and he's not." Steele later issued another statement to say that Limbaugh "is a national conservative leader, and in no way do I want to diminish his voice. I truly apologize."
Fire Pelosi Bus Tour
In the fall of 2010, Steele launched the "Fire Pelosi Bus Tour," with the goal of "firing" Speaker Pelosi from her position as Speaker of the House of Representatives by re-establishing a Republican majority in the United States House of Representatives. The tour began on September 15 and lasted six weeks, visiting 48 states in the Continental U.S. and more than 100 cities while covering 14,000 miles. The Tour's purpose was to "encourage votes for Republicans in districts across the nation." The stops in individual districts gave Steele, "known for his bomb-throwing speaking style," an opportunity to fire up local GOP activists. During the tour, "Steele urged party unity" as the Republicans attempted to take over the House of Representatives and end Representative Pelosi's tenure as Speaker of the House.
The RNC broke fundraising records by raising over $198 million during the 2010 Congressional cycle; in November 2010, Republicans won 63 House seats (the biggest pickup since 1938) and retook control of the House. The 2010 midterm elections were successful for Steele and the Republicans, as they also took back six Senate seats, seven governorships, and the greatest share of state legislative seats since 1928 (over 600 seats).
In December 2010, Steele declared that he would run for re-election as RNC chairman. The 2011 Republican National Committee (RNC) chairmanship election was held on January 14, 2011. Steele withdrew from the race after the fourth ballot, urging his supporters to vote for Maria Cino. After seven rounds of balloting, Reince Priebus was elected over Steele, Saul Anuzis, Ann Wagner and Maria Cino.
|Candidate||Round 1||Round 2||Round 3||Round 4||Round 5||Round 6||Round 7|
- Candidate won majority of votes in the round
- Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round
- Candidate withdrew
After the chairmanship
After his loss in the chairmanship election, Steele was hired by MSNBC to be a regular political analyst as of May 2011. He also was hired to be a columnist for the online magazine The Root, an African-American news and commentary site owned by The Washington Post Company.
On C-SPAN's Washington Journal on the Sunday after the 2012 Obama reelection victory, Steele expressed some interest in running for RNC Chairman again. Steele emphasized the need to make conservative minorities feel comfortable and welcome in a party that offered them opportunities to launch political careers in counties and statehouses.
In 2018, Steele was named a faculty fellow at Brown University's Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs, where he will lead seminars.
As Lieutenant Governor of Maryland, Steele chaired the Governor's Commission on Minority Business Enterprise Reform.
Environment and energy
Steele rejects the scientific consensus on climate change, incorrectly claiming in 2009 that the Earth is "cooling" rather than "the supposed warming."
Opposition to President Donald Trump
In a January 2018 interview on MSNBC, in response to an accusation that President Trump had referred to El Salvador and Haiti as "shithole countries," Steele expressed his belief that the President was "racist."
In 2008, Steele said he was opposed to abortion and said he thought Roe v. Wade was "wrongly decided" and "should be overturned." Steele was endorsed by the National Right to Life Committee during his run for Senate in 2006. In a March 2009 interview with GQ, Steele suggested that abortion restrictions should be left to state governments, and stated that he "absolutely" believed there was room for a "pro-choice" candidate in the GOP. This statement prompted criticism from socially conservative Republicans such as Arkansas Governor Mike Huckabee and former Ohio Secretary of State Ken Blackwell, as well as the Christian Coalition, and Tony Perkins of the Family Research Council. In response to these critics, Steele suggested that he asked God for patience "so I absolutely don't go out and kick this person's ass."
In 2008, Steele said that he personally opposes a constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriage, saying that he believes states should decide the issue for themselves. Steele, however, has indicated he would uphold the Republican Party platform and support the amendment. He rates the issue of banning same-sex marriage low in importance. In 2009, Steele opposed same-sex civil unions. However, in 2012, Steele said that LGBT couples deserve full privileges and benefits under the law.
In a 2006 interview with The Washington Post, Steele commented on gun control: "Society should draw lines. What do you need an assault weapon for, if you're going hunting? That's overkill. But I don't think that means you go to a total ban for those who want to use gun for skeet shooting or hunting or things like that. But what's the point of passing gun laws if we're not going to enforce them? If you want to talk about gun control, that's where you need to start. We've got 300 gun laws on the books right now. At the end of the day, it's about how we enforce the law."
In 2009, speaking on illegal immigration, Steele called for the U.S. to "secure our borders first," saying, "you cannot begin to address the concerns of the people who are already here unless and until you have made certain that no more are coming in behind them."
During his 2006 campaign, Steele said that he only supported stem cell research if it did not result in the destruction of the embryo. In February 2006, Steele compared embryonic stem cell research to medical experiments performed by the Nazis during the Holocaust, remarks for which he later apologized.
Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq
In July 2010, video footage of Steele was released in which he stated that the Afghan war was "a war of Obama's choosing. If he's such a student of history has he not understood that, you know, that's the one thing you don't do – is engage in a land war in Afghanistan? Everyone who has tried, over a thousand years of history has failed." He also said the war was "not something the United States had actively prosecuted or wanted to engage in." However, the war in Afghanistan was initiated by George W. Bush in October 2001 in retaliation for the September 11 attacks on New York City and Washington D.C.; Barack Obama increased troop levels there.
Steele's comments drew criticism, with neoconservative William Kristol called for Steele's resignation and former George W. Bush adviser Karl Rove calling Steele's comment as "boneheaded." U.S. Senator John McCain of Arizona, the Republican nominee for president in the 2008 election, withdrew his support from Steele, calling Steele's comments "wildly inaccurate ... there is no excuse for them" and saying "I think that Mr. Steele is going to have to assess as to whether he can still lead the Republican Party as chairman of the Republican National Committee." Senator Jim DeMint called upon Steele to apologize and Senator Lindsey Graham said, "It was an uninformed, unnecessary, unwise, untimely comment. This is not President Obama's war, this is America's war. We need to stand behind the president." Former Vice President Dick Cheney's daughter Elizabeth Cheney also called for Steele to resign. However, Congressman Ron Paul, who is known for his generally antiwar stance, in support of Steele said, "Michael Steele has it right, and Republicans should stick by him."
In contrast to his position on Afghanistan, Steele has been a supporter of the Iraq War and President George W. Bush's war strategy. During his 2006 campaign, Steele opposed setting a timetable for U.S. withdrawal from Iraq. Steele has criticized President Obama on the issue, complaining that he has "demonized" the Iraq War.
Steele's book, Right Now: A 12-Step Program for Defeating the Obama Agenda, was released on January 4, 2010; it was published by Regnery Publishing, ISBN 978-1-59698-108-9. The Associated Press reported that, "Steele focuses much of the book on familiar GOP denunciations of President Barack Obama's overall policies ('a roadmap to failure'), the $787 billion stimulus bill ('a reckless, wasteful, pork-laden spending spree'), liberal views on man-made global warming ('A threat to life on Earth? Depends on whom you ask') and other issues. To regain the public confidence, Steele says the GOP should, among other things, expose the 'reign of error' inherent in liberal policies, contrast conservative and liberal principles, and highlight the damage caused by Obama's policies while explaining conservative solutions."
Honors and awards
Michael Steele has been awarded honors and awards in recognition of his political career. These include:
- "Michael Steele on Civil Rights". issues2000.org. On the Issues. Retrieved January 28, 2010.
- "Michael Steele wins RNC chairmanship race". NBC News. Associated Press. January 30, 2009. Retrieved November 13, 2009.
- Ham, Mary Katherine (November 20, 2008). "Michael Steele: I Left Moderate Republican Group This Spring". The Weekly Standard. Retrieved February 20, 2009.
- McKelway, Doug (December 13, 2010). "Steele Seeks Second Term As RNC Chair". Fox News. Archived from the original on December 14, 2010. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
- Hagey, Keach (May 2, 2011). "Michael Steele joins The Root as columnist". Politico. Retrieved May 2, 2011.
- Terbush, Jon (May 23, 2011). "Michael Steele Joins MSNBC As Political Analyst". Talking Points Memo. TPM Media. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
- "Nominations and Appointments" (Press release). The White House. March 1, 2002. Archived from the original on February 4, 2009. Retrieved January 30, 2009.
- "Michael S. Steele, Maryland Lt. Governor". Maryland Manual Online. Maryland State Archives. September 20, 2006. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
- Burton, Danielle (April 7, 2008). "10 Things You Didn't Know About Michael Steele". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved February 4, 2009.
- Cottman, Michael H. (May 10, 2001). "The GOP's Man With a Mission; Md. Party Chief Michael Steele Hopes to Draw More Blacks Into Fold". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 30, 2009.
- Depaulo, Lisa (March 11, 2009). "The Reconstructionist". GQ Editor's Blog. GQ. Archived from the original on March 24, 2009. Retrieved March 30, 2009.
- Duffy, Jim (April 2005). "Mother Knows Best". Johns Hopkins Magazine.
- Mosk, Matthew (October 18, 2006). "Endorsement: Tyson Ready to Enter The Ring for Steele; Boxer Says He Would Fight if It Helped". The Washington Post. p. B02. Retrieved February 1, 2009.
- Skalka, Jennifer; Brown, Matthew Hay (October 22, 2006). "A personality for politics". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved January 30, 2010.
- "Lt. Governor Michael S. Steele" (PDF). The Navigator. Calvert County Chamber of Commerce. October 2004. p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 25, 2005. Retrieved February 17, 2009.
- Fournier, Deacon Keith (January 31, 2009). "Opinion: Michael Steele, Black, Pro-Life Catholic Takes the Helm of the G.O.P." Catholic Online. Archived from the original on February 6, 2009. Retrieved January 30, 2009.
- Messenger, Brittany (September 18, 2009). "GOP chair shares personal journey in diversity lecture". Colgate University. Archived from the original on January 2, 2010. Retrieved January 30, 2010.
- Koppelman, Alex (January 30, 2009). "Michael Steele, forever failing upward". Salon. Retrieved November 8, 2017.
- Kantor, Jodi (March 7, 2009). "New Chairman Boos G.O.P. When He's Not Cheerleading". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved March 8, 2009.
- Sokolove, Michael (March 26, 2006). "Why Is Michael Steele a Republican Candidate?". New York Times Magazine. Retrieved January 10, 2009.
- "Leader and Party Builder". Michael Steele for RNC Chairman. Archived from the original on February 3, 2009. Retrieved February 4, 2009.
- "Vatican prepares to install pope". CNN. April 24, 2005.
Florida Gov. Jeb Bush, President Bush's brother, heads the U.S. delegation, which includes Maryland Lt. Gov. Michael Steele; Knights of Columbus CEO Carl A. Anderson; Helen Alvary, an associate professor of law at Catholic University of America; and Frank Hanley, president emeritus of the International Union of Operating Engineers.
- Green, Andrew A. (April 18, 2005). "Steele attracts strong support in Senate race". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved January 10, 2009.
- "Michael Steele Announces Run for U.S. Senate". findarticles.com. National Right to Life News. November 2005. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- "Wayback Machine". June 22, 2006. Archived from the original on June 22, 2006.
- Steele, Michael (February 8, 2008). "Michael Steele : Now Is the Time to Act". Townhall. Retrieved January 13, 2010.
- "Democrat Cardin Wins Open Senate Seat in Maryland, Defeating Republican Steele". Fox News. November 7, 2006. Archived from the original on February 3, 2009. Retrieved November 10, 2006.
- Lipton, Eric (February 7, 2009). "New G.O.P. Chairman Defends Payment to Sister". The New York Times. Retrieved May 14, 2009.
- Cillizza, Chris (November 8, 2006). "Michael Steele for Republican National Chairman?". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 10, 2006.
- "Michael S. Steele, Partner". Dewey & LeBoeuf LLP. 2008. Archived from the original on January 12, 2009. Retrieved October 28, 2008.
- "Former Maryland Lt. Governor Michael Steele accepts the award on behalf of Arthur Sulzberger". Media Research Center's 20th Anniversary Gala. Media Research Center. March 29, 2007. Archived from the original (video) on November 5, 2008.
- Gizzi, John (May 8, 2008). "McCain's Veepstakes: Michael Steele". Human Events. Retrieved May 9, 2008.
- Chalian, David (January 31, 2010). "Michael Steele rules out 2012 White House run". ABC News. Retrieved July 21, 2010.
- "Michael Steele" (video of interview with Colbert). Colbert Nation. January 23, 2007. Retrieved January 10, 2009.
- "Baltimore, Maryland, presidential debate on PBS". Keyes Archives. Alan Keyes. September 27, 2007. Archived from the original on July 31, 2008. Retrieved January 10, 2009.
- Hughes, Siobhan (September 3, 2008). "Steele Gives GOP Delegates New Cheer: 'Drill, Baby, Drill!'". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 3, 2009.
- Reiter, Daniel. "Steele Website Goes Live". Politicker Network. Archived from the original on January 26, 2009.
- Burns, Alexander (January 30, 2009). "It's Steele!". Politico. Retrieved January 30, 2009.
- West, Paul (December 12, 2010). "Rivals lining up to run against Republican National Committee chief". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 28, 2019.
- Allen, Jonathan (January 30, 2009). "Republican Choose Michael Steele as Party Chairman". Congressional Quarterly. Archived from the original on February 3, 2009.
- "RNC Chairman Vote: Live Coverage". PollPundit.com. January 30, 2009. Archived from the original on February 2, 2009.
- "Transcript: Rahm Emanuel on CBS's 'Face the Nation'". Congressional Quarterly. March 1, 2009. Archived from the original on May 5, 2009.
- "Limbaugh the Leader? Obama Chief of Staff Calls Talk Show Host a Barrier to Progress". Fox News. March 1, 2009. Archived from the original on March 3, 2009.
- "White House aide casts Limbaugh as top GOP voice". Associated Press. March 1, 2009. Archived from the original on March 4, 2009.
- "GOP chairman Steele backs off Limbaugh criticism". CNN. March 2, 2009.
- Allen, Mike (March 2, 2009). "Steele to Rush: I'm sorry". Politico.
- "GOP chairman apologizes for Limbaugh remarks". Associated Press. March 3, 2009. Archived from the original on March 6, 2009.
- Condon, Stephanie (August 6, 2010). "GOP to Launch "Fire Pelosi" Bus Tour". CBS News. Retrieved February 11, 2011.
- Braver, Rita (October 17, 2010). "Nancy Pelosi Fires Back". CBS News. Retrieved February 11, 2011.
- Lester, Kerry (October 14, 2010). "'Fire Pelosi Bus Tour' not joint endeavor". Daily Herald. Retrieved February 11, 2011.(subscription required)
- Gavin, Patrick (September 16, 2010). "The List: RNC's 'Fire Pelosi' Bus Tour". Politico. Retrieved February 11, 2011.
- "RNC's "Fire Pelosi" bus tour stops in Waco". KYTX. September 26, 2010. Archived from the original on February 29, 2012. Retrieved February 11, 2011.
- Knickerbocker, Brad (September 15, 2010). "Michael Steele's 'Fire Pelosi' bus tour: 48 states or bust". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved February 11, 2011.
- Krotzer, Chelsea (October 10, 2010). "Republican leader urges party faithful to 'Fire Pelosi'". Billings Gazette. Retrieved February 11, 2011.
- Hamby, Peter (September 24, 2010). "Steele's bus tour draws crowds, but also critics". CNN. Retrieved February 11, 2011.
- Bowman, Quinn (September 15, 2010). "RNC Chairman Steele Urges Unity as He Rolls Out 'Fire Pelosi' Bus Tour". PBS. Retrieved February 11, 2011.
- Cillizza, Chris (November 3, 2010). "Election 2010: Republicans net 60 House seats, 6 Senate seats and 7 governorships". The Washington Post.
- Choe, Jaywon (July 7, 2010). "What's Next for Michael Steele and the RNC?". CBS News.
- Shear, Michael D. (December 19, 2010). "Voting Begins for RNC Chairman". The New York Times. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
- "Michael Steele joins The Root as columnist". Politico. May 2, 2011. Retrieved May 2, 2011.
- Scully, Steve (November 11, 2012). "Future of the Republican Party". Washington Journal. Event occurs at 60 minutes in. C-SPAN.
- August 28, 2018. "Former RNC chair Michael Steele to join Brown's Watson Institute" (Press release). Brown University. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
- Berger, Judson (February 3, 2009). "Stimulus Backers Face Growing Skepticism Over Need for Government Action". Fox News. Archived from the original on February 6, 2009. Retrieved February 3, 2009.
- "Steele's Tour-De-Force: Compares Obama To Nixon, Declares "Ultimate Political Armageddon," Backs Challenges Against Republicans". HuffPost. April 16, 2009. Retrieved March 16, 2009.
- O'Carroll, Eoin (March 18, 2009). "GOP chair denies global warming". Bright Green Blog. The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
- Galbraith, Kate (March 20, 2009). "Michael Steele: 'We Are Not Warming'". The New York Times.
- Samuelson, Kate (January 12, 2018). "The RNC's First Black Chairman Says Trump Is Racist". Time. Retrieved January 15, 2018.
- Ertelt, Steven (December 8, 2008). "Michael Steele Defends His Pro-Life Abortion Views for GOP Chairman Race". LifeNews.com. Archived from the original on December 23, 2008. Retrieved November 6, 2009.
- DePaulo, Lisa (March 11, 2009). "The Reconstructionist". GQ. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- Stein, Sam (March 12, 2009). "Steele in serious hot water with social conservatives". HuffPost. Retrieved March 16, 2009.
- Koppelman, Alex (March 12, 2009). "Blackwell, Huckabee Slam Steele Over Abortion". Salon. Archived from the original on March 15, 2009.
- Saltonstall, David (March 12, 2009). "GOP chairman Michael Steele says talking to God keeps him from hurting critics". New York Daily News.
- Brody, David (December 8, 2008). "Michael Steele: Personally Against Federal Marriage Amendment". The Brody File. Christian Broadcasting Network.
- Johnson, Chris (February 6, 2009). "Republicans elect Steele to lead party after losses". Southern Voice. Archived from the original on February 7, 2009.
- Solmonese, Joe (March 5, 2009). "Where's the Inclusion, Steele?". Politico. Retrieved July 8, 2010.
- Ford, Zack (February 24, 2012). "Michael Steele: Gay Individuals Should Have 'Full Privileges And Benefits'". ThinkProgress. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
- Heron, Liz (October 16, 2006). "Steele on Gun Control". The Washington Post.
- "New Republican committee chief says diversity of opinion is something GOP needs to learn how to respect (video and transcript)". Fox News. February 2, 2009. Archived from the original on February 26, 2009. Retrieved February 3, 2009.
- Rutenberg, Jim (October 28, 2006). "A Candidate's Sister Steps in to Defend Him on Stem Cell Issue". The New York Times.
- Altman, George (February 12, 2006). "Steele Apologizes for Holocaust, Stem Cell Comparison". Fox News. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012. Retrieved February 2, 2009.
- Memoli, Michael (July 2, 2010). "Michael Steele under fire over Afghanistan remarks". Los Angeles Times.
- "Neo-con editor William Kristol calls for RNC chairman Steele to resign". USA Today. July 2, 2010. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
- Arney, George (September 18, 2002). "US 'planned attack on Taleban'". BBC News.
- "Steele Blames Afghan War on Obama, Drawing Calls to Resign". Fox News. July 2, 2010.
- Goddard, Taegan (July 4, 2010). "McCain Pulls Support from Steele". Political Wire. Archived from the original on July 7, 2010. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
- Chris McGreal (July 5, 2010). Republicans call for party chairman to quit over Afghan remarks. The Guardian.
- Brown, Matthew Hay (September 25, 2006). "Two-thirds of Md. voters support Iraq withdrawal". The Baltimore Sun.
- Cole, Juan (July 3, 2010). "Steele blames Obama for Afghanistan, Defends Iraq War". Informed Comment.
- "GOP Chief: Republicans 'Screwed Up' After Reagan". Fox News. Associated Press. January 5, 2010. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved April 10, 2014.
- "Honorary Degrees Awarded". morgan.edu. Morgan State University. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
- Milbank, Diana (July 26, 2006). "For One Senate Candidate, the 'R' Is a 'Scarlet Letter". The Washington Post.
- Mosk, Matthew (March 28, 2005). "With Sarbanes Retiring, Senate Interest Simmers". The Washington Post.
- Mosk, Matthew (July 11, 2006). "Steele's Web Site Parades Democrats: Hoyer Wants Photo Removed; Mfume Also Pictured". The Washington Post. p. B05.
- Nitkin, David (July 17, 2005). "Steele calls on club to admit blacks". The Baltimore Sun.
- "Michael Steele Joins Presidential Delegation In Rome" (Reprinted by the Hedgehog Report). The Baltimore Sun. April 23, 2005.
- State of Maryland Office of Minority Affairs, MBE Commission, February 27, 2004
- "State Party Biography of Lt. Governor Michael S. Steele". Maryland Republican Party. Archived from the original on September 17, 2004.
- Stratton, LaShell (April 7, 2003). "Mr. Steele goes to Annapolis: A D.C. kid really can grow up to be lieutenant governor". The Common Denominator.
- "The Honorable Michael Steele (biographical summary)" (PDF). The Public Forum Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 31, 2006.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Michael Steele.|
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Works by or about Michael Steele in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Interviews and statements
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Interview with The Daily Show's Jon Stewart, February 1, 2011
- Interview with Michael Steele on Fox News with Chris Wallace, December 22, 2009
- [permanent dead link] Interview with Michael Steele by The American View[dead link], audio
- "GOP's Steele Tells Party To Look Forward, Not Backward" by Michael Steele
- Encyclopædia Britannica article about Michael S. Steele, July 10, 2016
- "10 Things You Didn't Know About Michael Steele", from U.S. News and World Report, April 7, 2008.
Kathleen Kennedy Townsend
| Lieutenant Governor of Maryland
|Party political offices|
| Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Maryland
J. C. Watts
| Chair of GOPAC
| Chair of the Republican National Committee