Michael of Zahumlje
|Michael of Zahumlje|
|Prince of Zahumlje ("dux Chulmorum")|
|Reign||floruit c. 912 – 926|
Michael of Zahumlje (reign usually dated c. 910–935),, also known as Michael Višević (Croatian/Bosnian/Serbian Latin: Mihajlo Višević, Serbian Cyrillic: Михаило Вишевић) or rarely as Michael Vuševukčić, was an semi-independent, or independen Serbian and Slavic ruler of Zahumlje, in present-day central Herzegovina and southern Croatia, who flourished in the early part of the 10th century. Prince Michael of Zahumlje having a common boundary with the Serbia and probably with Kingdom of Croatia, but was an ally of Bulgaria. He was nevertheless able to maintain independent rule throughout at least a good part of his reign.
Michael came into territorial conflict with Petar of Serbia, who expand his power to the province of Narenta or Pagania, west from the Neretva River. To eliminate the threat, Michael warned his ally, the Bulgarian Tsar Simeon I, about the alliance between Peter and Symeon's enemy, the Byzantine Empire. Symeon attacked Serbia and captured Peter, who later died in prison.
Michael was mentioned together with Tomislav of Croatia in Pope John X's letter of 925. In that same year, he participated in the first church councils in Split, something that some historians have taken as evidence of Zahumlje being a vassal of Croatia. In any case, Michael, with grand titles of the Byzantine court as anthypatos and patrician (patrikios), remained ruler of Zahumlje through the 940s, while maintaining good relations with the Pope.
Compiled in c. 950, the historical work De administrando imperio, ascribed to Constantine Porphyrogenitus, notes that Michael was a son of Busebutze (Greek: Bouseboutzis > Visevitz), but does not mention his family did descend from the "unbaptized Serbs" or was of Serbian origin. According to Constantine, or even Michael himself according to the way the subchapter was structured, his family belonged to the Litziki (Λιτζίκη), an unbaptized people on the river Vistula from the south Poland.
The area controlled by Michael comprised Zahumlje, later known as Hum (what is now western Herzegovina and southern Croatia), as well as Travunia (now eastern Herzegovina and southern Croatia with center at Trebinje) and a good part of Duklja (modern Montenegro). His territory therefore formed a block along the southern Dalmatian coast, from the Neretva river to Ragusa (Dubrovnik), latter serving as a tributary region[clarification needed].
Before the annexation of Serbia in 924, Bulgaria did not yet border on Zahumlje and a part of Croatia lay between both lands. For instance, the chronicler John the Deacon (d. 1009) says that in 912, a Venetian traveller who had just passed through Bulgaria and Croatia on his way home, next found himself in Zahumlje.
|-Chronicon Venetum, John the Deacon|
Alliance with Simeon I of Bulgaria
The earliest occurrence of Michael in the sources is from 912. Venetian chronicler John the Deacon recorded that at that time Pietro, son of the Venetian doge Ursus Particiacus II (912-932), was treacherously captured on his return from a diplomatic mission to Constantinople by Michael, "a prince of the Slavs" (dux Sclavorum), when he wanted to pass through the lands of the Croats. Before Pietro entered Croatia, on his way home, when he entered Zahumlje, or when he entered province of Narenta or Pagania, Michael dux Sclavorum had him captured and sent as a gift to Simeon I of Bulgaria. Since 912, Michael was a close ally of Simeon I of Bulgaria, who had been mounting a number of successful campaigns against the Byzantine Empire.
Simeon's march for power posed such a great threat to the Byzantine Empire that it looked for allies in the area. Leo Rhabduchus, the strategos of Dyrrhachium, found one such ally in Serbia, Peter Gojniković, who had been subject to Bulgaria since 897. Peter had been busy extending his power westwards, and appears to have come into territorial conflict with Michael in the process of doing so. Constantine writes that Michael, "his jealousy aroused by this", warned Symeon of the conspiracy. Symeon attacked Serbia and captured Peter, who died in prison. Most scholars prefer to date the war on Serbia to 917, after 20 August, when Simeon had massacred much of the invading Byzantine army at its landing place at Anchialos. In 924, Simeon conquered Serbia and, instead of appointing a vassal to govern on his behalf, placed it under his direct authority. In effect, Simeon became a neighbour of Michael and of Croatia, which was then under King Tomislav and had good relations with Byzantium. It seems probable that Michael remained loyal to Simeon until the latter's death in 927.
Church councils in Split, Croatia
The sources show Michael involved in important church affairs which were conducted on Croatian territory in the mid-920s. Two church councils were convened in Split (Latin: Spalatum), in 925 and 928, which officially established or confirmed the recognition of Split as the archiepiscopal see of all Dalmatia (rather than just the Byzantine cities). Another major issue of concern was the language of liturgy: since the conversion of the Slavs by Cyril and Methodius in the previous century, the Slavic church was accustomed to use Slavonic rather than Latin for its church services.
The Historia Salonitana, whose composition may have begun in the late 13th century, cites a letter of Pope John X to Tomislav, "king (rex) of the Croats", in which he refers to the first council in some detail. If the letter is authentic, it shows that the council was attended not only by the bishops of Croatian and Byzantine Dalmatia, but also by Tomislav, whose territory also included the Byzantine cities of Dalmatia, and by a number of Michael's representatives. In this letter, John describes Michael as "the most excellent leader of the Zachlumi" (excellentissimus dux Chulmorum). The sources have nothing to say about the nature of the relationship between Michael and Tomislav. Some historians have taken Michael's participation at the church council as evidence for the idea that Michael had switched allegiance to Croatia. John V. A. Fine, however, rejects this line of reasoning, saying that the events represented an important ecclesiastical affair for all Dalmatia and stood under papal authority. Moreover, Michael appears to have retained a neutral position when Croatia and Bulgaria were at war in 926 and so it may be that Michael was on good terms with the rulers of both lands at the same time.
Оn 10 July 926, ‘Michael, rex Sclavorum’ took possession of the port of Siponto, controlled by Byzantium. Therefore, it seems certain that in July 926 Michael did not act as an imperial ally in Apulia, nor his fleet descended upon the shores of the Apenine peninsula as a rescue force against Arabs, Lombards or any other enemy. The only enemy that threatened Siponto in 926 was Michael, ‘rex Sclavorum’ as Bulgarian ally. Michael apparently sacked Siponto (Latin: Sipontum), which was a Byzantine town in Apulia on 10 July 926. It remains unknown if he did this by Tomislav's supreme command as suggested by some historians. According to Omrčanin, Tomislav sent the Croatian navy under Michael's leadership to drive the Saracens from that part of southern Italy and free the city. Interesting, Constantine in his De administrando imperio makes no mention of Michael's raid, nor does he mention Church councils in Split.
Constantine remembers Michael as a prince (archon) of the Zachlumi, but also uses such grand titles of the Byzantine court as anthypatos and patrician (patrikios) to describe his political rank and status. These titles have been interpreted as reflecting a more subordinate position after Simeon's death in 927, when Michael lost the Bulgarian support needed for any higher recognition. Michael does not appear in the sources for events after 925, but historian Fine thinks that his reign lasted into the 940s. Časlav, who became ruler of Serbia after Symeon's death, may have seized some of Michael's territory while securing his conquest of Travunia.
- Rački, Odlomci iz državnoga práva hrvatskoga za narodne dynastie:, p. 15
- Runciman, The Emperor Romanus Lecapenus and his reign:, p. 212
- Klaić 1882, Poviest Bosne do propasti kraljevstva, p. 95: "Prvi poznati vladar humske zemlje jest Mihajlo Višević (912 do 926)"
- Moravcsik & Jenkins 1967, p. 160-161.
- Vlasto, The entry of the Slavs into Christendom, p. 209.
- Uzelac 2018, p. 236.
- Mihanovich, The Croatian nation in its struggle for freedom and independence: a symposium, p. 112
- Dominik Mandić; Basilius S. Pandžić (1963). Dionis Lasić, ed. Rasprave i prilozi iz stare Hrvatske povijesti [Discussions and articles on ancient Croatian history] (in Croatian). Hrvatski Povijesni Institut. p. 385. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
- Moravcsik & Jenkins 1967, p. 152-155. According to DAI, Michael himself was not of Serbian origin, but DAI described Zahumlje as being one of the Serbians countries in the 10th century.
- Curta, Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500-1250, p. 210.
- Uzelac 2018, p. 238.
- Fine, The early medieval Balkans, p. 149.
- Moravcsik & Jenkins 1967, p. 156-159.
- Fine, The early medieval Balkans, p. 160.
- Moravcsik & Jenkins 1967, p. 160-163.
- Živković 2012, p. 184–185.
- Živković 2012, p. 184-185.
- Vlasto, The entry of the Slavs into Christendom, pp. 381-382.
- John the Deacon, Chronicon Venetum, ed. Pertz, pp. 22-3.
- Fine, When ethnicity did not matter in the Balkans, p. 63 note 103.
- Diacono Giovanni 1890, p. 131–132. ‘qui dum Chroatorum fines rediens transire vellet, a Michahele Sclavorum duce fraude deceptus, omnibusque bonis privatus, atque Vulgarico regi, Simeoni nomine, exilii pena transmissus est’.
- Uzelac 2018, p. 237, 239.
- Runciman, The Emperor Romanus Lecapenus and his reign:, p. 223
- Fine, The early medieval Balkans, p. 260
- Fine, When ethnicity did not matter in the Balkans, p. 55.
- Uzelac 2018, p. 242-244.
- Omrčanin, Military history of Croatia:, p. 24
- Runciman, The Emperor Romanus Lecapenus and his reign:, p. 210
- Moravcsik & Jenkins 1967, p. 160-163. “The family of the proconsul and patrician Michael, ....
- Ostrogorski, History of the Byzantine state, p. 268.
- Moravcsik, Gy; Jenkins, R. J.H (1967) . Constantine Porphyrogenitus, De administrando imperio. Washington: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies.
- Diacono Giovanni (1890). La Cronaca Veneziana, in Cronache Veneziane antichissime I. Roma.
- Živković, Tibor (2012). De Conversione Croatorum et Serborum: A Lost Source. Belgrade: Institute of History. ISBN 978-86-7743-096-2.
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- John the Deacon, Chronicon Venetum, ed. G. H. Pertz (1846). Monumenta Germaniae Historica: Scriptores 7. Hanover. pp. 1–36: 22–3. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. A later edition is that by G. Monticolo (1890), Rome: Forzani. The relevant passage is also found in Rački, F. (1877). Documenta historiae chroaticae periodum antiquam illustrantia. Zagreb. pp. 388 (no. 197.1 ).
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- Fine (Jr), John V. A. (1986). The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
- Mihanovich, Clement Simon (1955). The Croatian nation in its struggle for freedom and independence: a symposium. "Croatia" Cultural Pub. Center.
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- Ostrogorski, George (1969). History of the Byzantine State. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 9780813505992. Translated from the German by Joan Hussey.
- Rački, Franjo (1861). Odlomci iz državnoga práva hrvatskoga za narodne dynastie (in Croatian). F. Klemma.
- Runciman, Steven (1988) . The Emperor Romanus Lecapenus and his Reign: A Study of Tenth-Century Byzantium. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-35722-5.
- Vlasto, A. P. (1970). The Entry of the Slavs into Christendom: An Introduction to the Medieval History of the Slavs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521074599.
- Uzelac, Aleksandar (2018). Prince Michael of Zahumlje – a Serbian ally of tsar Symeon. София: St Kliment Ohridski University Press.
- Archdeacon, Thomas of Split (2006). History of the Bishops of Salona and Split – Historia Salonitanorum atque Spalatinorum pontificum (in Latin and English). Budapest: Central European University Press. ISBN 9789637326592.