Michigan Technological University
|Motto||Create the Future|
|Endowment||$96.2 million (2016)|
|President||Richard J. Koubek|
|Campus||925 acres (3.74 km2), Rural|
|Colors||Metallic Silver and Gold|
* Division II – GLIAC
* Division I – WCHA
|Mascot||Blizzard T. Husky|
Michigan Technological University (Michigan Tech, MTU, or simply Tech) is a public research university in Houghton, Michigan. Its main campus sits on 925 acres (374 ha) on a bluff overlooking Portage Lake. Michigan Tech was founded in 1885 as the first post-secondary institution in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and was created to train mining engineers to operate the local copper mines. Science, technology, forestry and business have been added to the numerous engineering disciplines, and Michigan Tech now offers more than 130 degree programs through its five colleges and schools.
Michigan Tech's athletic teams are nicknamed the Huskies and compete primarily in the NCAA Division II Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (GLIAC). The men's hockey team competes in Division I as a member of the Western Collegiate Hockey Association (WCHA), and has won three national championships. The women's basketball team were national runners-up in 2011.
Michigan Tech was founded in 1885 as the Michigan Mining School. After much agitation by Jay Abel Hubbell, the state legislature established the school to train mining engineers. Hubbell donated land for the school's first buildings.
MTU's first president was Marshman E. Wadsworth (1887–1898). Enrollment grew to such a point that its name no longer reflected its purpose. The name was then changed to the Michigan College of Mines in 1897. This name lasted through World War I until 1925, but by this time the school began offering a wider variety of degrees and once again decided to change its name to the Michigan College of Mining and Technology in 1927.
Fred W. McNair (1899–1924) was the college's second president. By 1931, enrollment had reached nearly 600. Over the next few years, due to the Great Depression, money was scarce, causing department heads and even the president of the university, William O. Hotchkiss, to take pay cuts.
Under President Grover C. Dillman (1935–1956), the school underwent many notable changes, including the construction of the Memorial Union Building, the purchasing an ice rink and a golf course as well as the procurement of the village of Alberta, Michigan.
In 1956, J. Robert Van Pelt became the new president of the university. He restarted many PhD programs and created a focus on research. This included the school's first analog computation class in 1956–57.
In the final years of his presidency, the school changed from a college to a university, changing its name a final time to Michigan Technological University. The change from the Michigan College of Mining and Technology was necessary for two reasons, according to Van Pelt. First, the college had expanded too greatly and the current name was no longer an accurate title. Also, including "mining" in the name of the college was misleading. The name "Michigan Technological University" was chosen in order to retain the nickname "Michigan Tech" that had already been in use since 1927.
Richard J. Koubek has been president since July 1, 2018.
Although engineering still accounts for some 59 percent of all enrollment as of fall 2010, the university now offers more than 120 undergraduate degree programs and 70 graduate degree programs.
Along with its new name, the school also gained new constitutional status in 1964. This gave responsibility for control of the university to its Board of Control rather than the state legislature.
The main Michigan Tech campus is located mainly on US 41 in Houghton. It is the safest campus in Michigan, and the third safest in the United States, according to Reader's Digest. The main part of campus can be traversed in about 10 minutes. The offices of the Michigan Tech Fund are located in the Huntington Bank Building in Hancock. The Lakeshore Center in downtown Houghton houses the offices of Human Relations, Vice President for Research, and other departments. Faculty are involved in several distance education programs with clients including General Motors.
The Portage Lake Golf Course opened for play in April 1902. In 1945, the members could no longer support the needs of the course and sold it to Michigan Tech for one dollar. Since then, many improvements have been made such as the addition of another nine holes in 1969. In 1984, the new clubhouse was constructed. In 1996, a sprinkler system was installed to modernize the course and keep it playable. The Portage Lake Golf Course is located two miles (3 km) southeast of campus. With 18 holes on 160 acres, it offers two nines of distinctly different flavors and challenges.
Mont Ripley is the oldest ski area in Michigan (established in the 1900s) in the snowiest city in the Midwest. It's also University-owned, so Michigan Tech students ski or snowboard for free. Mont Ripley has twenty-two trails, a terrain park, a tubing park, sits on 112 acres, and has a scenic overlook of the Keweenaw Waterway. It's about two miles from campus; the hill is viewable from most campus buildings. In 2019, Michigan Tech's Mont Ripley earned the University a No. 13 rating on College Census' 25 Best Colleges for Skiing and Snowboarding list.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|U.S. News & World Report||136|
Michigan Tech offers more than 130 undergraduate and graduate degrees in engineering, natural and physical sciences, computing, business and economics, technology, environmental studies, arts, humanities, and social sciences. The university is divided into five schools and colleges. The average overall ACT scores for incoming students is 27.2 in fall 2017, compared to 21.2 nationally. It currently has the highest tuition of all public universities in Michigan, exceeding both Michigan State and the University of Michigan. The College of Engineering's environmental engineering and mechanical engineering enrollments rank in the top ten nationally and their respective graduate programs are ranked in the top 50 in the US. The electrical engineering department uses an innovative "DSP First" curriculum found at only a few leading universities.
- The College of Engineering. Its departments are biomedical engineering, civil and environmental engineering, mechanical engineering-engineering mechanics, electrical and computer engineering, chemical engineering, materials science and engineering, and geological and mining engineering and sciences.
- The College of Sciences and Arts has majors in fields including bio-informatics, biological sciences, biochemistry, cheminformatics, chemistry, computer science, kinesiology and integrative physiology, mathematics, pharmaceutical chemistry, physics, psychology, and social sciences. The College is also home to the visual and performing arts, Air Force ROTC, and Army ROTC programs.
- The School of Business and Economics is accredited by AACSB. Students can receive a Bachelor of Science degree in seven areas, including accounting, economics, finance, management, management information systems, marketing, and operations and systems management. The undergraduate program includes a unique Business Development Experience, where students gain real-life business experience in a mentored environment. Students also have the opportunity to join several business student organizations, including the Applied Portfolio Management Program where they invest $1 million in the stock market each year.
- The School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science has been recognized nationally for excellence in its research program, and its PhD program was ranked fourth in the nation by Academic Analytics in 2007. The School maintains greenhouses, labs, and the 4,000-acre (16 km2) Ford Forest and Ford Center in nearby Alberta, and celebrated its 75th year in 2011.
- The School of Technology includes degree programs in Computer Networks and System Administration, Electrical Engineering Technology, Mechanical Engineering Technology, Surveying Engineering, Construction Management, and Industrial Technology.
Michigan Tech has also developed an alternative program to provide students with engineering and other design experience called the Enterprise program. Enterprises develop engineering skills by allowing students to work in business-like environments on real-world projects while completing their education. Enterprises include Nanotechnology Innovations, Hybrid Transportation, Aerospace, Blue Marble Security, Husky Game Development, Boardsports Technologies, and Wireless Communications Enterprises.
The student body consists of more than 7,000 graduate and undergraduate students (Fall 2017) and more than 470 academic faculty (Fall 2017). As is historically true of engineering institutions, female enrollment at Michigan Tech is low. The male to female student ratio was 22:1 in 1960; since 1980 it has remained around 3:1. Michigan Tech's admissions office has enlisted female students and faculty to contact every admitted female applicant via telephone or personal letter in an attempt to increase female enrollment. The Fall 2010 freshman class had a ratio of 3.1:1. In the Fall 2012 semester, female enrollment rose for the 6th straight year to reach a then all-time high of 1,837 students (26.1%). Female enrollment for the 2017-18 academic year was 27.1%.
Michigan Tech students are primarily from Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Illinois. The student body is approximately 75.4% European-American/Non-Hispanic, 14.2% International, 1.6% Hispanic, 1.5% percent African American, 1.0% Asian, 0.6% Native American, 1.0% Multiracial, 0.1% Pacific Islander, and the remaining 4.5% was not supplied. The university has recently focused on achieving a more diverse student body, in terms of ethnicity, gender, and areas of study. A key step in this effort was the recent introduction of several new academic majors, including psychology, biochemistry, and molecular biology, cheminformatics, communication and culture studies, pharmaceutical chemistry, exercise science, sound design, audio production, and theater and entertainment technology.
Michigan Tech ranked 172nd of 600 US colleges and universities in research and development expenditures in 2007. Research expenditures exceeded $50 million in 2017. The university has 17 research centers and institutes and 273,000 square feet of research space and labs.
Students attending Michigan Technological University have a wide range of activities to participate in, whether or not they are living in the residence halls, of which there are four. In addition to the various small interest groups which form throughout the year, students participate in Greek Life, Student Organizations, Senior Design, and the Enterprise Program; many organize and attend campus traditions, such as K-Day, the Parade of Nations, Design Expo, Career Fair, and Winter Carnival (which also attracts alumni from across the country); furthermore, there are motivational drives to raise student activity levels and involvement in the school community, typically for those without membership in a student organization.
Michigan Tech currently recognizes more than two hundred student organizations, including:
- The Daily Bull, satirical daily entertainment press newspaper; often prints current campus and world news in some form or other
- Alpha Phi Omega, Epsilon Lambda chapter, national co-ed service fraternity
- Mushing Club at Michigan Tech, The first and only university mushing (dog sledding) club in the US. Founded in 2018 by student mushers, Adam Schmidt and Claire Hendricks.
- Mu Beta Psi, Zeta chapter, national honorary musical fraternity
- The Alpha (first) chapter of Alpha Sigma Mu, nationwide metallurgical and materials engineering honors fraternity
- Blue Key, an affiliate of the National Blue Key honor society, which organizes the annual Winter Carnival
- The pride of Pastyland, the cream of the Keweenaw, the second best feeling in the world, the Huskies Pep Band.
- Turkish Students Association at MTU, a cultural, non-political, non-religious and non-profit organization; aims to promote and preserve Turkish culture and heritage on MTU campus and in the community
- Religious organizations: there are many religious groups on campus including Lutheran Collegians, Intervarsity, Cru,, St. Albert the Great University Parish, and His House Christian Fellowship.
- The Michigan Tech Lode, award-winning weekly student newspaper
- Undergraduate Student Government
- WMTU-FM, student-run radio station
- Film Board, screens theatrical features at a low cost to students and other members of the Michigan Tech community
- Society of Women Engineers, promotes and supports female diversity in STEM fields; for over six decades, SWE has given women engineers a unique place and voice within the engineering industry; MTU's section of SWE held the 2014 Region H Conference Feb 14- 16, 2014
- Engineers Without Borders, an affiliate of EWB-USA; works on international engineering projects in developing communities
- Omega Chi Epsilon, the Chemical Engineering Honor Society; a member of the National Omega Chi Epsilon
Michigan Tech is currently host to thirteen fraternities, including three international and three local fraternities. Additionally, there are seven sororities on campus, including three local sororities.
As the school mascot is the husky (specifically, Blizzard T. Husky), the school's sports teams are known as the Huskies. Michigan Tech competes primarily in the NCAA's Division II Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (GLIAC), while the men's hockey team competes in Division I as a member of the Western Collegiate Hockey Association (WCHA). The men's hockey team has won three national championships and the women's basketball team were national runners-up in the 2010-2011 season.
Michigan Tech has both an official fight song and an official Alma Mater. At most sporting events, however, both the "Engineer's Song" and "In Heaven There Is No Beer" are played by the Huskies Pep Band, and many students consider these to be the unofficial school songs. The "Blue Skirt Waltz" is played at home ice hockey games and is called the "Copper Country Anthem." During the song, the fans join arms and swing back and forth to the music.
- K-Day (Keweenaw Day) is the first Friday of the fall term. It's a university-sponsored, half-day holiday hosted by Greek Life. It is primarily celebrated at nearby McLain State Park. Activities include a student organizations fair, games, swimming, and music.
- Homecoming has happened on campus each fall since 1929. Current and former Huskies show their school spirit—and crazy smarts—with football and cardboard boats.
- Parade of Nations and multicultural festival began in 1990 as a way to acknowledge and celebrate the cultures and countries of Keweenaw residents and visitors, many of whom were Michigan Tech international students. The event occurs in September.
- Michigan Technological University's Winter Carnival is where students compete in a variety of artistic and athletic events. The highlight of Winter Carnival is a snow statue competition in which students construct snow and ice sculptures consistent with an annual theme. Winter Carnival began in 1922.
- Spring Fling is always the Friday of Week 13 of the Spring Semester. Students end the academic year and welcome warmer weather by engaging in activities. Various student organizations participate in this event providing food and entertainment for a campus community eager to relax and have fun before the serious business of final exams begins.
- Summer Youth Programs (SYP) have been held on campus since 1972: Women in Engineering (WIE), Engineering Scholars Program (ESP), and National Summer Transportation Institute (NSTI), among many other programs, introduce middle and high school students to college opportunities.
- Film and Music Festivals at Michigan Tech's Rozsa Center for the Performing Arts occur throughout the year. The Rozsa is a main venue for the Pine Mountain Music Festival and the 41 N Film Festival.
- Michigan Tech holds two world records, the largest snowball (21' 3" circumference) and largest snowball fight (3,745), which they accomplished in 2006, as verified by Guinness World Records officials. They originally held three world records, the third of which was the most people making snow angels simultaneously in a single venue (3,784). This record was taken from the city of Bismarck, North Dakota, but about a year later, Bismarck took the record back with 8,962 snow angels. In 2018, students and community members set out to break the world record for most snowmen in one hour. Guinness is still tallying the results.
There are over 68,000 Michigan Tech alumni living in all 50 states and over 100 countries. Some notable alumni include:
- Joe Berger, former NFL player
- Melvin Calvin, Nobel laureate and discoverer of the Calvin Cycle
- Chris Conner, NHL player
- Jill Dickman, Republican member of the Nevada Assembly.
- David Edwards, biomedical engineering professor at Harvard, writer
- Tony Esposito, NHL Hall of Famer
- Charles Gates Sr., businessman; founder of Gates Corporation
- Roxane Gay, writer, professor, editor, blogger, and commentator
- David Hill, former Chief Engineer for the Chevrolet Corvette
- David House, Intel GM of Microcomputer Components Div for 13 years. Coined the phrase "Intel Inside"
- Greg Ives, NASCAR crew chief
- Bob Lurtsema, former NFL player
- Randy McKay, former NHL player, two-time Stanley Cup winner
- David O'Donahue, Wisconsin National Guard general
- Joseph P. Overton, conceiver of the Overton window
- Davis Payne, former head coach of the St. Louis Blues
- Mel Pearson, college ice hockey coach
- Bhakta B. Rath, material physicist and Padma Bhushan recipient
- Kanwal Rekhi, businessman and entrepreneurship promoter in Silicon Valley
- Damian Rhodes, former NHL player
- Ron Rolston, ice hockey coach; head coach of the Buffalo Sabres (2012-2013)
- Jarkko Ruutu, former NHL player
- Donald G. Saari, game theorist
- Alexander King Sample, 12th Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Marquette; 11th Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Portland in Oregon
- John Scott, former NHL player; 2016 NHL All-Star Captain and MVP
- Donald Shell, author of the Shell sort
- Matthew Songer, founder and chief executive officer of Pioneer Surgical Technology
- Andy Sutton, former NHL player
- Marek W. Urban, American Chemical Society Fellow; Recipient of Numerous Awards
- John Vartan, businessman, developer, banker, restaurateur and philanthropist
- Dave Walter, former NFL player
- Dr. John O. Hallquist, founder of Livermore Software Technology Corporation and original developer of LS-DYNA
Notes and references
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 25, 2015. Retrieved March 30, 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "About Michigan Tech". Archived from the original on June 20, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- "MTU Fast Facts". Retrieved November 18, 2018.
- "Michigan Technological University History". Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved January 7, 2008.
- Willis F. Dunbar and George S. May, Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State (Grand Rapids: Eerdman's, 1995), 359.
- Staff. "Houghton Fire Hall". State Historic Preservation Office. Michigan State Housing Development Authority. Archived from the original on June 17, 2013. Retrieved January 13, 2012.
- "Michigan Tech History". Michigan Technological University. Retrieved February 19, 2019.
- Eckert, Kathryn Bishop (2000). The sandstone architecture of the Lake Superior region. Wayne State University Press. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-8143-2807-1. Archived from the original on May 19, 2016.
- Waltman, Gene L. "Black Magic and Gremlins: Analog Flight Simulations at NASA's Flight Research Center". NASA SP-2000-4520. NASA Technical Reports Server. Retrieved September 13, 2011.
- "Michigan Technological University: A History". Archived from the original on March 5, 2012. Retrieved March 30, 2010.
- "Graduate School". Michigan Technological University. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
- "Why a New Name and Constitutional Status for Michigan College of Mining and Technology" Vertical File: History- MTU-Name Change from MCMT to MTU. Michigan Tech Archives & Copper Country Historical Collections.
- "Ranking of the Safest (and Least Secured) campuses". Archived from the original on August 22, 2011. Retrieved June 23, 2011.
- A to Z | Michigan Technological University Archived June 13, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Admin.mtu.edu. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
- "Lakeshore Center". Michigan Tech Events Calendar. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- "Portage Lake Golf Course". golf course. Michigan Technological University. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
- "Mont Ripley". Mont Ripley Ski Area. Michigan Technological University. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
- "25 BEST COLLEGES FOR SKIING & SNOWBOARDING". College Census. College Census. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
- "America's Top Colleges 2018". Forbes. Retrieved November 19, 2018.
- "Best Colleges 2019: National Universities Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. November 19, 2018.
- "2018 Rankings - National Universities". Washington Monthly. Retrieved November 19, 2018.
- "Michigan Tech Fast Facts". Archived from the original on June 27, 2017. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
- "College Tuition Costs". Archived from the original on November 21, 2015. Retrieved November 20, 2015.
- College of Engineering | Michigan Technological University Archived February 23, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Doe.mtu.edu (2013-02-19). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
- Electrical Engineering BS Degree | Electrical and Computer Engineering Archived June 6, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Ece.mtu.edu. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
- "College of Engineering Majors | Michigan Technological University". Mtu.edu. Archived from the original on September 2, 2016. Retrieved September 8, 2016.
- "College of Sciences & Arts Audits | The Registrar's Office". Mtu.edu. Archived from the original on September 8, 2016. Retrieved September 8, 2016.
- Michigan Technological University. "College of Sciences and Arts". College of Sciences and Arts Michigan Technological University. Michigan Technological University. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
- Michigan Technological University. "School of Business and Economics". Enterprise Business Initiative. Michigan Technological University. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
- "Real Investment—Applied Portfolio Management Program - APMP | School of Business & Economics". Mtu.edu. Archived from the original on September 17, 2016. Retrieved September 8, 2016.
- "Academic Analytics". Archived from the original on August 22, 2008.
- "School of Technology". Mtu.edu. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- The Enterprise Program | Michigan Technological University Archived December 14, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. Enterprise.mtu.edu. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
- Goodrich, Marcia (Fall 2009). "Where the Boys Are". Michigan Tech Magazine. Houghton, MI: Michigan Technological University. 46 (2). Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved July 21, 2011.
- "Tech Marks Fifth Straight Year of Enrollment Increases". Michigan Technological University. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- "Center for Measuring University Performance 2009 Annual Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 1, 2010.
- "Michigan Tech Dashboard". Archived from the original on July 15, 2017. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
- "Michigan Technological University". Mtu.edu. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
- "Tomorrow Needs Michigan Technological University". Mtu.edu. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
- "Senior Design Program". Senior Design Program. Michigan Technological University. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
- "Enterprise Program". The Enterprise Program. Michigan Technological University. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
-  Archived May 15, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 30, 2013. Retrieved February 21, 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 10, 2015. Retrieved December 9, 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Lutheran Collegians | Sharing God's Word at MTU". Lutherancollegians.org. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- "InterVarsity Christian Fellowship | Michigan Tech University". ivcf.students.mtu.edu. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- "MTU Cru". MTU Cru. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- "St. Albert the Great University Parish | Houghton, MI". Mtucatholic.org.
- "His House Christian Fellowship".
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 3, 2011. Retrieved March 21, 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "WMTU 91.9-FM Houghton". Wmtu.fm. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 29, 2011. Retrieved February 12, 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 25, 2013. Retrieved April 14, 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved April 10, 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 13, 2006. Retrieved June 25, 2006.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
-  Archived May 31, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
-  Archived June 6, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- "K-Day". Mtu.edu. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- "Homecoming". Michigan Technological University. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
- Perkins, Cyndi (March 5, 2018). "Global Beats, International Treats at Parade of Nations 2018". Michigan Technological University. Michigan Tech News. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
- "Winter Carnival History". Winter Carnival History. Michigan Technological University. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
- "Spring Fling". Michigan Technological University. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
- "Summer Youth Programs". Summer Youth Programs. Michigan Technological University. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
- Wilcox, Mark (October 30, 2018). "41 North Film Festival: Connections Near and Far". Michigan Technological University News. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 23, 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) accessed on July 29, 2007.
- Perkins, Cyndi (February 2, 2018). "Snowman Left Behind: Huskies Go for Guinness World Record". Michigan Technological University news. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
- "Assemblywoman Jill Dickman". Nevada Legislature. Archived from the original on January 13, 2016. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
- "Alumni Relations – Dr. David Edwards". Alumni Relations. Michigan Technological University. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved July 21, 2011.
- "100 Years of Powering Progress" (PDF). May 16, 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 20, 2013.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 6, 2018. Retrieved March 5, 2018.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Alumni Relations – Dr. Kanwal Rekhi". Alumni Relations. Michigan Technological University. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved July 21, 2011.
- "Ron Rolston Biography". Rochester Americans. Archived from the original on December 20, 2013. Retrieved January 16, 2014.
- "Alumni Relations – Rev. Alexander Sample". Alumni Relations. Michigan Technological University. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved July 21, 2011.
- "Alumni Relations – Dr. Matthew Songer M.D." Alumni Relations. Michigan Technological University. Archived from the original on August 12, 2011. Retrieved July 21, 2011.
- "John O. Hallquist - Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics - Michigan Technological University". Mtu.edu. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1921 Collier's Encyclopedia article Michigan College of Mines.|