Michigan murders

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John Norman Collins
John Norman Collins.jpg
2005 mugshot of John Norman Collins
Born (1947-06-17) June 17, 1947 (age 68)
Windsor, Ontario, Canada
Other names The Co-Ed Killer
The Michigan Murderer
The Ypsilanti Killer
The Ypsilanti Ripper
Criminal penalty Life imprisonment
Conviction(s) First-degree murder[1]
Killings
Victims 1-6+
Span of killings
July 18, 1967–July 23, 1969
Country United States
State(s) Michigan
Date apprehended
July 30, 1969
Imprisoned at Marquette Branch Prison

The Michigan Murders were a series of highly publicized killings of young women committed between 1967 and 1969 in the Ann Arbor/Ypsilanti area of Southeastern Michigan by an individual known as the The Ypsilanti Ripper and the The Co-Ed Killer.[2]

All the victims of the Michigan Murders were young women between the ages of 13 and 21 who were abducted, raped, beaten and murdered—typically by stabbing or strangulation—with their bodies occasionally mutilated after death before being discarded within a 10-mile radius of Washtenaw County. The perpetrator, John Norman Collins, was arrested one week after the final murder. He was sentenced to life imprisonment for this final murder attributed to the The Ypsilanti Ripper on August 19, 1970[3] and is currently incarcerated at Marquette Branch Prison.[4]

Although never tried for the remaining five murders attributed to the The Ypsilanti Ripper, investigators believe Collins to be responsible for all six murders linked to the same perpetrator.[5]

Murders[edit]

First known victim[edit]

The first known victim linked to the Michigan Murderer was a 19-year-old Eastern Michigan University accounting student named Mary Fleszar,[6] who was last seen alive on the evening of July 18, 1967.[7] Her body was found on August 7, decomposing on an abandoned farm two miles north of where she had disappeared. The corpse was badly decomposed, although police were able to ascertain that the body had been moved several times throughout the month it had lain undiscovered,[8] and the pathologist who examined Fleszar's remains was able to determine the young woman had been stabbed approximately 30 times in the chest and abdomen, and that her fingers and feet had been severed from her body. Although police theorized that Fleszar had been raped, the advanced state of decomposition of the corpse had erased any conclusive evidence of sexual assault.

Two days after the remains had been identified as those of Mary Fleszar, a young man claiming to be a friend of the Fleszar family arrived at the mortuary, asking for permission to take a photograph of the body as a keepsake for Fleszar's parents; this request was sternly refused.[9] The receptionist could not offer any clear description of the man beyond that he was a handsome young white male with dark hair, and that he had driven a blue-grey Chevrolet.[10]

Subsequent murders[edit]

Almost one year later, on July 6, 1968, the partially decomposed, mutilated body of a 20-year-old art student named Joan Elspeth Schell[11] was found by construction workers on an Ann Arbor roadside. She had been raped, then stabbed 47 times[12] in the back, lungs, leg, and head. In addition, her throat had been slashed, and her miniskirt then tied around her neck. Although Schell had been dead for several days, investigators were able to determine her body had lain in its present location for less than 24 hours. In addition, the wounds inflicted upon her body led investigators to establish a definite connection between this murder and that of Mary Fleszar.

Schell hailed from Plymouth, Michigan and had recently moved into a house on Emmett Street in Ypsilanti; she was last seen by her roommate on the evening of June 30, hitchhiking to a friend's Ann Arbor home. Her roommate had reported her missing within hours of her abduction.[13]

Subsequent police inquiries revealed Schell had entered a red car containing three white men on Washtenaw Avenue which had slowed to a stop before the driver had asked her, "Want a ride?" This driver had been aged around 20 with short, dark side-parted hair.[14] Moreover, two further eyewitnesses also informed police they had observed Schell walking with a young man on the evening she disappeared. Although neither student was certain, both believed this student to be John Norman Collins; a student at Eastern Michigan University majoring in education[15] who lived directly across the street from Schell at 619 Emmett.

Questioned by police, Collins flatly denied even knowing Joan Schell and insisted he had spent the weekend of June 29-30 with his mother at her house in the Detroit suburb of Center Line and had not returned to Ypsilanti until July 1. Initially, police took him at his word.

Spring 1969[edit]

Denton Cemetery. The body of 23-year-old Jane Mixer was found at this location on March 21, 1969

On 20 March 1969,[16] a 23-year-old University of Michigan law student named Jane Louise Mixer disappeared after posting a note upon a college ride-share bulletin board, seeking a lift across the state to her hometown of Muskegon, where she had intended to inform her family of her engagement. Her fully clothed body, covered with her own raincoat and with a copy of the novel Catch-22 placed by her side, was found the following day in Denton Cemetery in Van Buren Township, Michigan. She had been garroted with a nylon stocking, then shot twice in the head.[17] Despite the fact Mixer had not been sexually assaulted, beaten, stabbed or mutilated, her student status, the tying of a garment around her neck, and the proximity of her abduction and murder led investigators to link her murder to those of Fleszar and Schell.[18] (Another individual would be convicted of the murder of Jane Mixer in 2005.[19][20])

Two days after the murder of Jane Mixer, on March 22, a 16-year-old Romulus [21] high school student named Maralynn Skelton disappeared while hitchhiking in Ann Arbor. She was last seen alive outside a drive-in restaurant on Washtenaw Avenue. Her nude body was found the following day. An autopsy revealed Skelton had died of a skull fracture after being extensively beaten and tortured: her killer had placed a cloth gag in her mouth to muffle her screams as she received extensive blunt force trauma to the face, head and body,[22] including several deep lacerations believed to have been inflicted with a leather strap. Welt marks upon Skelton's chest and shoulders indicated that her killer had also used restraints to hold her prone as he whipped her legs with a leather belt[23] before inserting a tree branch eight inches into her vagina.[24] Although investigators noted similarities between this murder and previous killings attributed to the Co-Ed Killer, the dramatic increase in savagery exhibited against the victim and her lifestyle prior to her murder—Skelton was a known drug user and dealer[25]—led some investigators to speculate her murder may have been drug-related.[26] Nonetheless, Skelton's murder was linked to the series.

Three weeks later, on April 16, the body of 13-year-old Dawn Basom was found discarded beside a desolate road in Ypsilanti. Clothed only in a white blouse and bra, which had been pushed around her neck, she had been repeatedly stabbed,[27] slashed across the breasts, buttocks and stomach,[28] then strangled with an electrical flex still knotted around her neck.[29] A handkerchief found stuffed in her mouth had likely been placed there to muffle her cries throughout her torture.[30] An autopsy found no definite evidence of sexual assault.[31]

Basom had last been seen by school friends at 7 p.m. the previous evening, walking along a dirt road where Collins is known to have rode his motorcycle on a daily basis. Her orange sweater was found in a deserted farmhouse close to the road on which Basom's body had been placed after her murder. Upon conducting a search of the basement of this farmhouse, investigators discovered a further garment of Basom's clothing and a length of electrical flex of the same type used to strangle the victim, indicating this location as being the site of Basom's murder.[32]

Less than two months after the murder of Dawn Basom, a 21-year-old University of Michigan graduate student named Alice Kalom disappeared on her way home from a friend's party.[33] She was last seen shortly after midnight on June 8, walking home walking towards her apartment on Thompson Street; her partially nude body was found by three teenage boys the following day in a field close to an abandoned farmhouse. Kalom had received multiple stab and slash wounds and a gunshot to the head before her neck had been cut through to the spine.[34]

By the spring of 1969, public outcry regarding the murders committed by the individual dubbed by the press as the Michigan Murderer and the Co-Ed Killer was increasing, particularly among the student population of Ann Arbor and Ypsilanti. The increase in frequency in which the killer was striking throughout the spring and summer further compounded female students' concerns.[35] Many female students opted to arm themselves with knives, with others adopting a "buddy system" whereby they would refuse to walk anywhere unless in the company of a trusted male friend or at least three other girls.[36] Sales of tear gas increased, hitchhiking became a rarity among students, and a reward of $42,000 was offered for information leading to the capture of the murderer.[37]

Following the murder of Alice Kalom, the Dutch psychic Peter Hurkos was brought to Ypsilanti at the request of a citizen's community in Ann Arbor. The profile generated by Hurkos proved to be of little help, although he did predict that the murderer was a strongly built male under 25 years of age, who rode a motorcycle,[38] and that he would strike one more time.[39]

Final murder[edit]

The final murder attributed to the killer dubbed the Michigan Murderer and the Co-Ed Killer was that of 18-year-old student Karen Sue Beineman, who was last seen alive on July 23, 1969. She was reported missing by her roommate, Sherri Green, when she failed to return to her dormitory after curfew.[40] Upon questioning both Beineman's roommates, police were informed that she (Beineman) had last been seen shortly after noon on her way to a downtown wig shop.

Two days after the disappearance of Beineman, her nude body was discovered face-down in a gully alongside the Huron River parkway. A medical examination revealed Beineman had been extensively beaten about the face, raped, burned, forced to ingest a caustic substance,[41] and strangled to death, with her killer again having placed cloth in her throat to muffle her screams throughout her torture. In addition, Beineman had received extensive brain injuries, and her panties had been forcefully placed inside her vagina. A forensic examination of these panties revealed 509[42] human hair clippings measuring less than three-eights of an inch upon the material.[43] These hair clippings did not belong to the victim.[44]

Investigation[edit]

Upon retracing Beineman's movements on the day of her disappearance, police questioned the proprietor of the wig shop which Karen Beineman had visited immediately prior to her disappearance, a Mrs. Diana Joan Goshe. Goshe recalled Beineman visiting her store to purchase a $20 headpiece in the early afternoon of July 23; she also recalled having observed a young man with short, side-parted dark hair, wearing a horizontal striped sweater, waiting on a motorcycle outside the shop[45] as Beineman made her purchase. Reportedly, Beineman herself insisted Mrs. Goshe observe the man with whom she had accepted a ride, stating that she had made two foolish errors in her life: purchasing a wig; and accepting a ride from a stranger,[46] before stating: "I've got to be either the bravest or the dumbest girl alive, because I've just accepted a ride from this guy." Mrs. Goshe then observed Beineman climb onto the motorcycle before the young man with whom she had accepted the ride drove away.

Although Mrs. Gosche would initially—and incorrectly—described the motorcycle as being possibly a Honda 350 model,[47] when police questioned Carol Wieczerca, a clerk in the store adjacent to the wig shop, Wieczerca was able to state that the model of the motorcycle upon which Beineman had rode away from the wig shop was actually a Triumph.[48] (One of several motorcycles owned by Collins in 1969 was a Triumph Bonneville.[49])

A patrolman who heard this description opined his belief that the person described by Mrs. Goshe and others may be one John Norman Collins, who had previously been interviewed but eliminated from police inquiries.[50] Police had already established that Collins had been an honor student and football co-captain at his high school,[51] but was also a habitual thief considered to be "oversexed", with an extensive history of sexual harassment and violence against women. (On one occasion, upon finding his unwed sister with a man, he had beaten the man so badly that he was hospitalized before labeling his sister a "tramp" and beating her.)

Following the discovery of Beineman's body on July 25, police further questioned the proprietor of the wig shop in which Beineman had last been seen alive, asking her to identify the man she had seen with Beineman in a police lineup. On this occasion, Mrs. Goshe positively identified the man she had seen with Karen Sue Beineman as John Norman Collins.[52][53] In total, seven witnesses would be found who would later testify to having seen Collins in the area between the university campus and Mrs. Goshe's wig shop between 11 a.m. and 1 p.m. on July 23; including three young women who stated Collins had attempted to entice them onto his motorcycle.[54]

Arrest[edit]

Collins' uncle was a State Police Sergeant named David Leik, who advised investigators upon learning his nephew's suspect status that at the time of Beineman's disappearance, he (Leik) and his family had been on vacation and that Collins had been granted access to their home in order that he could feed the family's German Shepherd.[55] Moreover, Leik informed investigators that upon their return from their vacation, his wife had noted numerous paint marks covering the floor of the family basement. Moreover, Leik informed investigators that his wife regularly cut their children's hair in this basement, and that she had done so shortly before the family had embarked upon their vacation.

Investigators also discovered that a neighbor of the Leik family had witnessed Collins leaving his uncle's home with a deluxe laundry detergent box. A roommate of Collins at the Emmett Street boarding house testified to having seen missing items from the murder victims in the same laundry box inside Collins's bedroom. The roommate was also intimidated into concealing a gun and ammunition belonging to Collins. Upon questioning Collins' co-workers, investigators learned that Collins had repeatedly taken delight in describing, in graphic detail, press reports detailing the injuries inflicted upon the victims' bodies to his female colleagues.[56]

The basement of Sgt. Leik's home was subjected to an intense forensic examination: numerous hair clippings—many measuring less than three-eights of an inch—were discovered aside a washing machine.[57] Furthermore, type A human blood was also found in two areas of the Leik's basement.[58] (Beineman had type A blood.[59])

Tests conducted upon the hairs found upon Beineman's underwear matched those found at the home of Collins's uncle in Ypsilanti. Evidently, and despite Collins' protestations of innocence and denials of even knowing Karen Sue Beineman, the girl had been in the basement of Collins' uncle at the time of or shortly before her murder.[60] In addition, the Leik family's next-door neighbor had heard the tortured screams of a young female on the evening of July 23, 1969.

Pretrial hearings[edit]

On August 1, 1969, John Norman Collins was formally charged with the murder of Karen Sue Beineman. He was held without bond.[61] At a formal pretrial hearing held at Ypsilanti District Court on August 14, he was formally ordered to stand trial for this murder, with presiding Judge Edwark Deake declaring his satisfaction that the nine witnesses called by the prosecution to testify at this hearing had established probable cause that John Collins had committed the crime.[62]

At a further hearing, held on September 5, Collins' defense lawyer, Richard Ryan, challenged the validity of the physical and circumstantial evidence against Collins before formally requesting the case against his client be dismissed and the evidence suppressed. Ryan stated at this hearing he was "undecided" as to whether the upcoming trial be held away from the Ann Arbor-Ypsilanti district due to pretrial publicity (this motion was held in abeyance until an impartial jury could be selected). Collins refused to enter a plea at this hearing; in response, Washtenaw County Circuit Court Judge John Conlin ordered a plea of not guilty on his behalf.[63]

In January 1970, Judge John Conlin set an initial date of June 1 as the date for the trial to commence.[64]

Trial[edit]

The trial of John Norman Collins for the murder of Karen Sue Beineman began in the Washtenaw County Court Building in Ann Arbor on June 2, 1970.[65][66] Initial jury selection began on this date, although this selection process extended until July 9. Several motions by the defense counsel throughout jury selection that the trial should be moved to a jurisdiction outside of Washtenaw County were rejected by Judge John Conlin, who ruled on June 29 that the the 14 members of the jury selected from Ann Arbor by this date and considered satisfactory by both counsels would serve as jurors through the trial.[67] Upon recommendation from his lawyers, Collins opted not to testify in his own defense.[68]

The prosecutor at Collins' trial, William F. Delhey, opted to charge Collins only with the murder of Karen Sue Beineman. In his opening statement to the jury on July 20, Delhey stated to the jury the prosecution's contention that the evidence to be presented would form a clear pattern indicating that Collins had been in the company of Karen Sue Beineman at the wig shop; that he had taken her to the home of his own uncle; he had tortured and beaten the girl to death at this location; and that he had then discarded her body, with the two primary questions before the jury being the accuracy of eyewitnesses who would be called to testify, and, ultimately, whether the more than 500 hair samples found upon Beineman's panties matched the hair clippings later recovered from the basement of Collins' uncle. Delhey also stated the prosecution's intent to prove, through forensic determination of Beineman's time of death, that Collins had had sole access to his uncle's home and basement, and that the blood samples recovered from this location were a match for the blood type of the victim.

The defense contended that although the murder of Beineman was a "vicious, sadistic attack" which had degraded her body "almost beyond comprehension," the prosecution's case that Collins was the perpetrator was a weak one at best. Defense attorneys Neil Fink and Joseph Louisell, in their opening statement, labeled the eyewitnesses' identification of both Collins and his motorcycle as flawed and unreliable, and stated that his (Collins') alibi witnesses had been subjected to police harassment. Moreover, the defense challenged the reliability of the tests conducted upon the hair samples found upon Beineman's panties and added that Collins' uncle, Sgt. David Leik, had refused to divulge the blood type(s) of his family to defense attorneys.[69]

One of the prosecution's primary witnesses called to testify was a chemist from the Department of Health named Walter Holz, who testified as to the human hair clippings found inside Karen Sue Beinema's panties being an exact match to those recovered from the basement of Sgt. David Leik.

Formal testimony would last 17 days, with 57 prosecution and defense witnesses called to testify.[70]

Conviction and incarceration[edit]

Following closing arguments from both counsels, the jury retired to consider their verdict. These deliberations would last over 27 hours,[71] with an additional five-and-a-half hours devoted to the jury re-reading portions of testimony. On August 19, 1970, Collins was found guilty of the first-degree murder of Karen Sue Beineman. He displayed little emotion upon hearing the jury foreman announced the verdict. Formal sentencing was scheduled for 8:30 a.m. August 28.[72]

On August 28, Judge John Conlin formally sentenced John Norman Collins to life imprisonment with no possibility of parole for Beineman's murder. On this occasion, Collins was asked if there was anything he wished to state before mandatory life sentencing was imposed.[73] Upon hearing this request from Judge Conlin, Collins rose from his chair and made the following speech:

John Collins was then informed by Judge Conlin that if the jurors' verdict was wrong, the error would be corrected in due course. Collins was then sentenced to life imprisonment and ordered to serve his term in solitary confinement at Southern Michigan Prison.[74]

Post-sentencing to present[edit]

In 1977, Collins was transferred from Southern Michigan Prison to Marquette Branch Prison, still protesting his innocence. In January of 1980, Collins was admitted to the University of Michigan Hospital to receive treatment for a skull fracture. This injury had been sustained in a fall by Collins while partaking in prison exercise and had initially been deemed a life-threatening injury.

In the early 1980s, Collins legally changed his surname to Chapman (his mother's maiden name). Many sources who knew the convicted killer said it was because Collins wished to be associated in the public's mind with Mark David Chapman. He has repeatedly applied to be transferred to a Canadian prison, although these requests have consistently been denied.

John Norman Collins is currently serving his life sentence in the Marquette Branch Prison in Marquette, Michigan, in the Upper Peninsula.[75] To this day, he still maintains his innocence of any of the Michigan murders.[76]

Potential seventh victim[edit]

At the time of his 1970 conviction, a grand jury indictment against Collins remained outstanding in relation to the June 30, 1969 murder of a 17-year-old girl named Roxie Ann Phillips in Monterey, California. Philips is believed to have been seen with Collins prior to her murder. Her nude, battered body was found in a ravine in Carmel Highlands on July 13, with a belt knotted around her neck. She had been strangled to death and, as with several Michigan victims linked to Collins, one earring was missing.[77]

In addition to eyewitness accounts placing Philips in Collins' company prior to her murder, a piece of the fabric matching the dress worn by Philips was later found in Collins' Oldsmobile upon his return to Michigan. Nonetheless, in June 1971, the state of California abandoned their requests to extradite Collins to face charges relating to Philips' murder; citing then-ongoing appeals against his (Collins') convictions in the state of Michigan as the cause.[78]

Belated data in the Mixer case[edit]

In 2005, 62-year-old former nurse named Gary Leiterman was tried and convicted of the killing of Jane Louise Mixer.[19][20] Leiterman came to the attention of authorities 35 years later because a lab report showed his DNA was found on the pantyhose of the deceased. Leiterman worked as a pharmaceutical salesman at the time of the murder and lived about 20 miles from the University of Michigan at the time of the murder. According to the Michigan state police lab, Leiterman's DNA hadn't come from blood or semen but might have been from sweat, saliva or skin cells. Some observers feel this DNA evidence is compromised because the report also says the DNA from the spot of blood scraped from Jane Mixer's hand in 1969 matches that of convicted killer John Ruelas, who was only four years old at that time. The prosecution offered no explanation as to how Ruelas could have been at this murder scene when he was that age and living 40 miles away. The Mixer and Ruelas cases had been in the lab at about the same time and many wondered if there had been transference.

Other testimony at the trial included a handwriting comparison of two words written on the cover of a phone book found in the basement of Michigan's law dormitory. This was important for the prosecution because it was the only testimony that put Leiterman at the university and with knowledge of Mixer's identity. After Mixer's murder occurred, police had found where someone had written the victim's last name "Mixer" and her hometown "Muskegeon" on the cover of a phone book found in the basement of the University of Michigan's law dormitory. Lt. Thomas Riley testified, "It's my opinion that it is highly probable Gary Earl Leiterman wrote the 'Muskegeon,' 'Mixer' entries on the phone book." However, under cross-examination, Riley admitted he was only able to examine photos of the phone book and couldn't perform the standard microscopic tests because the actual book had been destroyed in 1975. Riley further acknowledged that he had marked possible similarities in the handwriting of a diary he thought was written by Leiterman but ultimately turned out to be written by his wife.[79]

Further testimony involved Leiterman's former roommate, who testified that he was an avid hunter and had owned a .22 caliber handgun along with several other guns in 1969.

Media[edit]

Film[edit]

  • An unreleased movie, Now I Lay Me Down to Sleep, draws direct inspiration from Edward Keyes' book, The Michigan Murders.[80] Filmed in 1977 and directed by William Martin, Now I Lay Me Down to Sleep remains unreleased.[81]

Books[edit]

Television[edit]

  • Detroit-based talk show Kelly & Company broadcast an episode focusing on the Michigan Murders in October, 1988. This episode featured prerecorded prison interviews with Collins himself in addition to live interviews with police and legal personnel connected to the case.
  • The Investigation Discovery channel has broadcast an episode focusing upon the Michigan Murders. This episode, Enter the Monster, was first broadcast December 10, 2013.[82]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ St. Petersburg Times Aug. 20, 1970
  2. ^ The Encyclopedia of Serial Killers p. 110
  3. ^ Murder Casebook ISBN 0-7485-3520-9 p. 3982
  4. ^ state.mi.us
  5. ^ Murder Casebook ISBN 0-7485-3520-9 p. 3964
  6. ^ World's Infamous Killers p. 158
  7. ^ Murder Casebook ISBN 0-7485-3520-9 p. 3964
  8. ^ Murder Casebook ISBN 0-7485-3520-9 p. 3965
  9. ^ The Encyclopedia of Serial Killers p. 110
  10. ^ Murder Casebook ISBN 0-7485-3520-9 p. 3965
  11. ^ Toledo Blade Aug. 2, 1969
  12. ^ The Encyclopedia of Serial Killers p. 110
  13. ^ Murder Casebook ISBN 0-7485-3520-9 p. 3966
  14. ^ True Crime: Michigan: the State's Most Notorious Criminal Cases p. 93
  15. ^ Murder Casebook ISBN 0-7485-3520-9 p. 3966
  16. ^ Murder Casebook ISBN 0-7485-3520-9 p. 3967
  17. ^ The Argus-Press Jul. 22, 2005
  18. ^ N.Y. Daily News Mar. 25, 2008
  19. ^ a b http://www.state.mi.us/mdoc/asp/otis2profile.asp?mdocNumber=527052
  20. ^ a b "Deadly Ride". 48 Hours Mysteries (CBS News). 22 November 2005. 
  21. ^ Toledo Blade Mar. 28, 1969
  22. ^ Toledo Blade Mar. 27, 1969
  23. ^ True Crime: Michigan : the State's Most Notorious Criminal Cases p. 95
  24. ^ Murder Casebook ISBN 0-7485-3520-9 p. 3967
  25. ^ Murder Casebook ISBN 0-7485-3520-9 p. 3967
  26. ^ Times-News Mar. 27, 1969
  27. ^ The Bryan Times Apr. 18, 1969
  28. ^ The Free Lance-Star Apr. 17, 1969
  29. ^ Murder Casebook ISBN 0-7485-3520-9 p. 3971
  30. ^ Legendary Lawman: Johannes F. Spreen p. 170
  31. ^ The Nashua Telegraph Apr. 18, 1969
  32. ^ Murder Casebook ISBN 0-7485-3520-9 p. 3971
  33. ^ Murder Casebook ISBN 0-7485-3520-9 p. 3972
  34. ^ True Crime: Michigan : the State's Most Notorious Criminal Cases p. 96
  35. ^ The Nashua Telegraph Apr. 18, 1969
  36. ^ The Nashua Telegraph Apr. 18, 1969
  37. ^ Murder Casebook ISBN 0-7485-3520-9 p. 3972
  38. ^ Murder Casebook ISBN 0-7485-3520-9 p. 3980
  39. ^ The Encyclopedia of Serial Killers p. 111
  40. ^ Toledo Blade Aug. 14, 1969
  41. ^ True Crime: Michigan : the State's Most Notorious Criminal Cases p. 96
  42. ^ The Owosso Argus-Press Aug. 1, 1970
  43. ^ The Owosso Argus-Press Jul. 30, 1970
  44. ^ The Encyclopedia of Serial Killers p. 111
  45. ^ The Times-News Aug. 14, 1969
  46. ^ Murder Casebook ISBN 0-7485-3520-9 p. 3973
  47. ^ The Michigan Daily Jul. 24, 1970
  48. ^ Murder Casebook ISBN 0-7485-3520-9 p. 3973
  49. ^ The Michigan Daily Jul. 24, 1970
  50. ^ On Trial for Murder p. 60
  51. ^ The Milwaukee Journal Aug. 2, 1969
  52. ^ The Times-News Aug. 14, 1969
  53. ^ The Encyclopedia of Serial Killers p. 111
  54. ^ Toledo Blade Jul. 23, 1970
  55. ^ On Trial for Murder p. 60
  56. ^ True Crime: Michigan : the State's Most Notorious Criminal Cases p. 93
  57. ^ On Trial for Murder p. 60
  58. ^ The Owosso Argus-Press Aug. 1, 1970
  59. ^ The Encyclopedia of Serial Killers p. 112
  60. ^ The Encyclopedia of Serial Killers p. 111
  61. ^ The Milwaukee Journal Aug. 2, 1969
  62. ^ Toledo Blade Aug. 15, 1969
  63. ^ Lodi News=Sentinel Sep. 5, 1969
  64. ^ The Owosso Argus-Press Jan. 22, 1970
  65. ^ The Michigan Daily Jun. 3, 1970
  66. ^ Murder Casebook ISBN 0-7485-3520-9 p. 3981
  67. ^ Kentucky New Era Jun. 2, 1970
  68. ^ Ludington Daily News Sep. 12, 1988
  69. ^ Toledo Blade Jul. 21, 1970
  70. ^ The Owosso Argus-Press Aug. 19, 1970
  71. ^ The Pittsburgh Press Aug. 19, 1970
  72. ^ The Owosso Argus-Press Aug. 19, 1970
  73. ^ The Michigan Murders p. xiv
  74. ^ Gettysburg Times Aug. 29, 1970
  75. ^ http://www.state.mi.us/mdoc/asp/otis2profile.asp?mdocNumber=126833
  76. ^ MLive.com Oct. 13, 2013
  77. ^ Murder Casebook ISBN 0-7485-3520-9 p. 3981
  78. ^ The Bulletin, Jun. 11 1971
  79. ^ Ryan, Harriet. "Testimony focuses on handwriting". CNN. 
  80. ^ Ann Arbor Ponice Department Online History: The Co-ed Murders
  81. ^ The Michigan Murders p. xiv
  82. ^ AnnArbor.com Dec. 1, 2013

Cited works and further reading[edit]

  • Buhk, Tobin (2011). True Crime: Michigan:The State's Most Notorious Criminal Cases. U.S.A.: Stackpole Books. pp. 91–106. ISBN 0-8117-0713-X. 
  • Dobbert, Duane (2009). Psychopathy, Perversion, and Lust Homicide: Recognizing the Mental Disorders that Power Serial Killers. U.S.A.: Praeger. pp. 115–119. ISBN 978-0-313-36621-5. 
  • Keyes, Edward (1976). The Michigan Murders. U.S.A.: Reader's Digest Press. ISBN 978-0-472-03446-8. 
  • Lane, Brian; Gregg, Wilfred (1995) [1992]. The Encyclopedia Of Serial Killers. New York City: Berkley Book. pp. 110–112. ISBN 0-425-15213-8. 
  • Rossmo, Kim (2000). Geographic Profiling. U.S.A.: CRC Press. p. 166. ISBN 0-8493-8129-0. 
  • Wilson, Colin; Seaman, Donald (1988). Encyclopedia of Modern Murder 1962-1982. U.K.: Bonanza Books. pp. 110–112. ISBN 978-0-517-66559-6. 
  • Wynn, Douglas (1996). On Trial for Murder. U.K.: Pan Books. pp. 59–61. ISBN 0-330-33947-8. 

External links[edit]