Microbial consortium

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A microbial consortium is two or more microbial groups living symbiotically.[1][2] Consortiums can be endosymbiotic or ectosymbiotic.

The concept of consortium was first introduced by Johannes Reinke in 1872.[3][4] The term preceded to the term symbiosis that was introduced into biology some years later.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Clark, D.P., Dunlap, P.V., Madigan, M.T., Martinko, J.M. Brock, Biology of Microorganisms. San Francisco: Pearson; 2009. p. 485.
  2. ^ Mark, Martin (2009-04-27). "Happy Together… Life of the Bacterial Consortium Chlorochromatium aggregatum". Small Things Considered - The Microbe Blog. American Society for Microbiology. Archived from the original on 2009-05-01. Retrieved 2012-01-11. Consortia are assemblages of different species of microbes in physical (and sometimes intricate biochemical) contact with one another, and are implicated in biological processes ranging from sewage treatment to marine nitrogen cycling to metabolic processes within the rumen.
  3. ^ Reinke, Johannes 1872. Ueber die anatomischen Verhältnisse einiger Arten von Gunnera L. Nachrichten von der Königl. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften und der Georg-Augusts-Universität zu Göttingen 9: 100–108.
  4. ^ Kull, Kalevi 2010. Ecosystems are made of semiosic bonds: Consortia, umwelten, biophony and ecological codes. Biosemiotics 3(3): 347–357.