Microbial genetics

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Microbial genetics is a subject area within microbiology and genetic engineering. It studies the genetics of very small (micro) organisms; bacteria, archaea, viruses and some protozoa and fungi.[1] This involves the study of the genotype of microbial species and also the expression system in the form of phenotypes.

Since the discovery of microorganisms by two Fellows of The Royal Society, Robert Hooke and Antoni van Leeuwenhoek during the period 1665-1885[2] they have been used to study many processes and have had applications in various areas of study in genetics. For example: Microorganisms' rapid growth rates and short generation times are used by scientists to study evolution.[3] Microbial genetics also has applications in being able to study processes and pathways that are similar to those found in humans such as drug metabolism.[4]

Microorganisms whose study is encompassed by microbial genetics[edit]

Bacteria are classified by their shape.

Bacteria have been on this planet for approximately 3.5 billion years, and are classified by their shape.[5] Bacterial genetics studies the mechanisms of their heritable information, their Chromosomes, plasmids, transposons, and phages.[6]


Archaea is a domain of organisms that are prokaryotic, single-celled, and are thought to have developed 4 billion years ago. They share a common ancestor with bacteria, but are more closely related to eukaryotes in comparison to bacteria.[7] Some Archaea are able to survive extreme environments, which leads to many applications in the field of genetics. One of such applications is the use of archaeal enzymes, which would be better able to survive harsh conditions in vitro.[8]


Fungi can be both multicellular and unicellular organisms, and are distinguished from other microbes by the way they obtain nutrients. Fungi secrete enzymes into their surroundings, to break down organic matter.[5] Fungal genetics uses yeast, and filamentous fungi as model organisms for eukaryotic genetic research, including cell cycle regulation, chromatin structure and gene regulation.[9]


Protozoa are unicellular organisms, which have nuclei, and ultramicroscopic cellular bodies within their cytoplasm.[5] One particular aspect of protozoa that are of interest to human geneticists are their flagella, which are very similar to human sperm flagella.


Viruses are capsid-encoding organisms composed of proteins and nucleic acids that can self-assemble after replication in a host cell using the host's replication machinery.[10] There is a disagreement in science about whether viruses are living due to their lack of ribosomes.[10] Comprehending the viral genome is important not only for studies in genetics but also for understanding their pathogenic properties.[11]

Applications of microbial genetics[edit]

Taq polymerase which is used in Polymerase Chain Reaction(PCR)

Microbes are ideally suited for biochemical and genetics studies and have made huge contributions to these fields of science such as providing information on the genetic code and the regulation of gene activity. Jacques Monod and François Jacob used Escherichia coli, a type of bacteria, in order to develop the operon model of gene expression, which lay down the basis of gene expression and regulation.[12] Furthermore the hereditary processes of microorganisms are similar to those in multi-cellular organisms allowing researchers to gather information on this process as well.[13] Another bacterium which has greatly contributed to the field of genetics is Thermus aquaticus, which is a bacterium that tolerates high temperatures. From this microbe scientists isolated the enzyme Taq polymerase, which is now used in the powerful experimental technique, Polymerase chain reaction(PCR).[14] Additionally the development of Recombinant DNA technology through the use of bacteria has led to the birth of modern Genetic engineering and Biotechnology.[5]

Using microbes, protocols were developed to insert genes into bacterial plasmids, taking advantage of their fast reproduction, to make biofactories for the gene of interest. Such genetically engineered bacteria can produce pharmaceuticals such as insulin, human growth hormone, interferons and blood clotting factors.[5] Microbes synthesize a variety of enzymes for industrial applications, such as fermented foods, laboratory test reagents, dairy products (such as renin), and even in clothing (such as Trichoderma fungus whose enzyme is used to give jeans a stone washed appearance).[5]


  1. ^ "Microbial genetics". Nature. Nature Publishing Group, A division of Macmillan Publishers Limmited. Retrieved 2015-09-24. 
  2. ^ Gest, Hau (22 May 2004). "The discovery of microorganisms by Robert Hooke and Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Fellows of The Royal Society". The Royal Society. 58: 137–201. doi:10.1098/rsnr.2004.0055. PMID 15209075. Retrieved 2015-09-25. 
  3. ^ Mortlock, Robert (2013). Microorganisms As Model Systems for Studying Evolution. Springer Verlag. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-4684-4846-7. 
  4. ^ Murphy, Cormac D. (2 September 2014). "Drug metabolism in microorganisms". Biotechnology Letters. 37 (1): 19–28. doi:10.1007/s10529-014-1653-8. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Weeks, Benjamin S. (2012). Alcamo's microbes and society (3rd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. ISBN 978-0-7637-9064-6. 
  6. ^ "Bacterial genetics". Nature. Macmillan Publishers Limmited. Retrieved 8 November 2015. 
  7. ^ "Archaea". Microbe WORLD. Microbe WORLD. Retrieved 8 November 2015. 
  8. ^ Chambers, Cecilia R.; Patrick, Wayne M. (2015). "Archaeal Nucleic Acid Ligases and Their Potential in Biotechnology". Archaea. 2015: 1–10. doi:10.1155/2015/170571. 
  9. ^ "Fungal Genetics". Nature.com. Macmillan Publishers Limited. Retrieved 9 November 2015. 
  10. ^ a b Raoult, Didier; Forterre, Patrick (3 March 2008). "Redefining viruses: lessons from Mimivirus". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 6 (4): 315–319. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1858. 
  11. ^ Seto, Donald (30 November 2010). "Viral Genomics and Bioinformatics". Viruses. 2 (12): 2587–2593. doi:10.3390/v2122587. 
  12. ^ "Microbial Genetics". World Of Micorbiology and Immunology. 2003. Retrieved 9 November 2015. 
  13. ^ Bainbridge, B.W. (1987). Genetics of microbes (2nd ed.). Glasgow: Blackie. ISBN 0-412-01281-2. 
  14. ^ Terpe, Kay (1 November 2013). "Overview of thermostable DNA polymerases for classical PCR applications: from molecular and biochemical fundamentals to commercial systems". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 97 (24): 10243–10254. doi:10.1007/s00253-013-5290-2.