Microchip implant (human)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A human microchip implant is any electronic device implanted subcutaneously (subdermally) usually via an injection. Examples include an identifying integrated circuit RFID device encased in silicate glass which is implanted in the body of a human being. This type of subdermal implant usually contains a unique ID number that can be linked to information contained in an external database, such as identity document, criminal record, medical history, medications, address book, and other usage.


  • 1998 - The first experiments with a radio-frequency identification (RFID) implant were carried out in 1998 by the British scientist Kevin Warwick.[1][2][3][4][5] His implant was used to open doors, switch on lights, and cause verbal output within a building. After nine days the implant was removed and has since been held in the Science Museum in London.[citation needed]
  • 2004 - March 18, 2004 - Nokia, Philips (now under NXP Semiconductors) and Sony established the NFC Forum, a non-profit industry formed to advance the use of NFC wireless interaction in consumer electronics, mobile devices and PCs. Standards include the four distinct tag types that provide different communication speeds and capabilities covering flexibility, memory, security, data retention and write endurance. NFC Forum promotes implementation and standardization of NFC technology to ensure interoperability between devices and services.[6]
  • 2018 - VivoKey Technologies[7] developed the first cryptographically-secure human implantable NFC transponders in 2018. The Spark is an AES128 bit capable ISO/IEC 15693 2mm by 12mm bioglass encased injectable device. The Flex One is an implantable contactless secure element, capable of running Java Card applets (software programs) including Bitcoin wallets, PGP, OATH OTP, U2F, WebAuthn, etc. It is encapsulated in a flat, flexible 7mm x 34mm x 0.4mm flat biopolymer shell. Applets can be deployed to the Flex One before or after implantation.
  • 2019 - Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation funded MIT to develop an invisible microneedle patch used to store digital medical information, along with a vaccine.[8]
  • 2020 - On 28 August 2020, Neuralink CEO Elon Musk, revealed a company directed live video podcast showcasing a pig called Gertrude with a coin-sized computer chip in her brain to demonstrate his ambitious plans to create a working brain-to-machine interface.[9]
  • 2021 - Dsruptive Subdermals[10] tested a COVID-19 vaccine passport in their bioglass coated NFC microchip designed to get implanted in the subcutaneous tissue for humans.[11] However, this is a start-up hub, is not yet for sale.[12] It has been demonstrated by its managing director Hannes Sjöblad who wears the chip in his arm.

Chipped individuals[edit]

Several hobbyists, through to scientists and business personalities have placed RFID microchip implants into their hands or had them inserted by others.

A surgeon implants British scientist Dr Mark Gasson in his left hand with an RFID microchip (March 16, 2009)
  • 2005, Amal Graafstra: In early March 2005 hobbyist Amal Graafstra[13] implanted a 125khz EM4102 bioglass-encased RFID transponder into his left hand. It was used with an access control system to gain entry to his office. Soon after in June 2005 he implanted a more advanced HITAG S 2048 low frequency transponder. In 2006 he authored the book RFID Toys,[14] Graafstra uses his implants to access his home, open car doors, and to log on to his computer. With public interest growing, in 2013 he launched biohacking company Dangerous Things[15] and crowdfunded the world's first implantable NFC transponder in 2014.[16] He has also spoken at various events and promotional gigs[17] including TEDx,[18] and built a smartgun that only fires after reading his implant.[19] Graafstra CEO of Vivokey and Dangerous Things has gained prominency for being an inventor and business commercial distributor of subdermal RFID/NFC Implants on the world stage. Implanted in both hands with his companies' implants, he aims to bring awareness to the growing implantation movement.[20]
  • 2006, Mikey Sklar: Mikey Sklar had a chip implanted into his left hand and filmed the procedure.[21]
  • 2009, Mark Gasson: On 16 March 2009 British scientist Mark Gasson had a glass capsule RFID device surgically implanted into his left hand. In April 2010 Gasson's team demonstrated how a computer virus could wirelessly infect his implant and then be transmitted on to other systems.[22] Gasson reasoned that with implanted technology the separation between man and machine can become theoretical because the technology can be perceived by the human as being a part of their body. Because of this development in our understanding of what constitutes our body and its boundaries he became credited as being the first human infected by a computer virus. He has no plans to remove his implant.[23]
  • 2013, Tim Cannon: In October 2013, Cannon became the first person to be implanted with the Grindhouse-designed biometric sensor known as Circadia, a procedure which was performed by body modification artist Steve Haworth in Essen, Germany.[24][25][26]
  • 2014, Martijn Wismeijer: Dutch marketing manager for Bitcoin ATM manufacturer General Bytes, placed RFID chips in both of his hands to store his Bitcoin private keys and business card.[27]
  • 2014, Nikolas Badminton: In June 2014, during the From Now Conference[28] in Vancouver, Canada, event organizer and futurist Nikolas Badminton had an xNT chip implanted into his left hand on stage by noted biohacker Amal Graafstra.[29]
  • 2015, Jonathan Oxer: Self-implanted an RFID chip in his arm using a veterinary implantation tool.[30]
  • 2015, Patric Lanhed: sent a “bio-payment” of one euro worth of Bitcoin using a chip embedded in his hand.[31]
  • 2016, Hannes Sjöblad: Biohacker Hannes Sjöblad has been experimenting with near field communication (NFC) chip implants since 2015. During his talk at Echappée Voléé 2016 in Paris, Sjöblad disclosed that he has also implanted himself with a chip between his forefinger and thumb and uses it to unlock doors, make payments, unlock his phone, and essentially replacing anything that is put in one’s pockets.[32] Additionally, Sjöblad has hosted several "implant parties," where interested individuals can also be implanted with the chip.[33] In October 2021, Sjöblad appeared in a video interview with Aftonbladet where he demonstrated how he receive a QR code when he scans a microchip implant in his arm that contains his EU Digital COVID Certificate (EUDCC).[34][35]
  • Marcel Varallo had an NXP chip coated in Bioglass 8625 inserted into his hand between his forefinger and thumb allowing him to open secure elevators and doors at work, print from secure printers, unlock his mobile phone and home, and store his digital business card for transfer to mobile phones enabled for NFC.[36]
  • 2021, Shain Lakin: In late September 2021 during the Security BSides Perth 2021 Conference, Hacker Shain Lakin demonstrated using an NXP Semiconductors chip inserted into his hand to remotely trigger ignition of a thermite charge in order to destroy a Solid-state drive (SSD) inside a Personal Computer.[37][38]

Type of implants[edit]


For Microchip implants that are encapsulated in silicate glass there exists multiple methods to embed the device subcutaneous ranging from placing the microchip implant in an syringe or trocar[40] and piercing under the flesh (subdermal) then releasing the syringe to using a cutting tool such as a surgical scalpel to cut open subdermal and positioning the implant in the open wound.

A list of popular uses for microchip implants are as follows;

Other uses either cosmetic or medical may also include;

Digital identity[edit]

RFID implants using NFC technologies have been used as access cards ranging for car door entry to building access.[42] Secure identity has also been used to encapsulate or impersonate a users identity via secure element or related technologies.

Medical records[edit]

Researchers have examined microchip implants in humans in the medical field and they indicate that there are potential benefits and risks to incorporating the device in the medical field. For example, it could be beneficial for noncompliant patients but still poses great risks for potential misuse of the device.[46]

Destron Fearing, a subsidiary of Digital Angel, initially developed the technology for the VeriChip.[47]

In 2004, the VeriChip implanted device and reader were classified as Class II: General controls with special controls by the FDA;[48] that year the FDA also published a draft guidance describing the special controls required to market such devices.[49]

About the size of a grain of rice, the device was typically implanted between the shoulder and elbow area of an individual’s right arm. Once scanned at the proper frequency, the chip responded with a unique 16-digit number which could be then linked with information about the user held on a database for identity verification, medical records access and other uses. The insertion procedure was performed under local anesthetic in a physician's office.[50][51]

Privacy advocates raised concerns regarding potential abuse of the chip, with some warning that adoption by governments as a compulsory identification program could lead to erosion of civil liberties, as well as identity theft if the device should be hacked.[51][52][53] Another ethical dilemma posed by the technology, is that people with dementia could possibly benefit the most from an implanted device that contained their medical records, but issues of informed consent are the most difficult in precisely such people.[54]

In June 2007, the American Medical Association declared that "implantable radio frequency identification (RFID) devices may help to identify patients, thereby improving the safety and efficiency of patient care, and may be used to enable secure access to patient clinical information",[55] but in the same year, news reports linking similar devices to cancer caused in laboratory animals had a devastating impact on the company's stock price and sales.[56]

In 2010, the company, by then called PositiveID, withdrew the product from the market due to poor sales.[57]

In January 2012, PositiveID sold the chip assets to a company called VeriTeQ that was owned by Scott Silverman, the former CEO of Positive ID.[58]

In 2016, JAMM Technologies acquired the chip assets from VeriTeQ; JAMM's business plan was to partner with companies selling implanted medical devices and use the RFID tags to monitor and identify the devices.[59] JAMM Technologies is co-located in the same Plymouth, Minnesota building as Geissler Corporation with Randolph K. Geissler and Donald R. Brattain[60][61] listed as its principals. The website also claims that Geissler was CEO of PositiveID Corporation, Destron Fearing Corporation, and Digital Angel Corporation.[62]

In 2018, A Danish firm called BiChip released a new generation of microchip implant[63] that is intended to be readable from a distance and connected to Internet. The company released an update for its microchip implant to associate it with the Ripple cryptocurrency to allow payments to be made using the implanted microchip.[64]

Patients that undergo NFC implants do so for a variety of reasons ranging from, Biomedical diagnostics, health reasons to gaining new senses,[65] gain biological enhancement, to be part of existing growing movements, for workplace purposes, security, hobbyists and for scientific endeavour.[66]

In 2020, A London based firm called Impli released a microchip implant that is intended to be used with an accompanying smartphone app. The primary functionality of the implant is as a storage of medical records. The implant can be scanned by any smartphone that has NFC capabilities.[67]

Building access and security[edit]

In February 2006, CityWatcher, Inc. of Cincinnati, OH became the first company in the world to implant microchips into their employees as part of their building access control and security system. The workers needed the implants to access the company's secure video tape room, as documented in USA Today.[68] The project was initiated and implemented by Six Sigma Security, Inc. The VeriChip Corporation had originally marketed the implant as a way to restrict access to secure facilities such as power plants.

A major drawback for such systems is the relative ease with which the 16-digit ID number contained in a chip implant can be obtained and cloned using a hand-held device, a problem that has been demonstrated publicly by security researcher Jonathan Westhues[69] and documented in the May 2006 issue of Wired magazine,[70] among other places.

  • The Baja Beach Club, a nightclub in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, once used VeriChip implants for identifying VIP guests.[71]
  • The Epicenter in Stockholm, Sweden is using RFID implants for employees to operate security doors, copiers, and pay for lunch.[72]

Experimential usage[edit]

In 2017, Mike Miller, chief executive of the World Olympians Association, was widely reported as suggesting the use of such implants in athletes in an attempt to reduce problems in sports due to recreational drug use.[73]

Theoretically, a GPS-enabled chip could one day make it possible for individuals to be physically located by latitude, longitude, altitude, and velocity. Such implantable GPS devices are not technically feasible at this time. However, if widely deployed at some future point, implantable GPS devices could conceivably allow authorities to locate missing people and/or fugitives and those who fled from a crime scene. Critics contend, however, that the technology could lead to political repression as governments could use implants to track and persecute human rights activists, labor activists, civil dissidents, and political opponents; criminals and domestic abusers could use them to stalk and harass their victims; and child abusers could use them to locate and abduct children.

Since modern payment methods rely upon RFID/NFC, it is thought that implantable microchips, if they were to ever become popular in use, would form a part of the cashless society.[74] Verichip implants have already been used in nightclubs such as the Baja Beach Club for such a purpose, allowing patrons to purchase drinks with their implantable microchip.

Market share of implanted individuals may possibly move on to more safer applications of wearable electronics and hardware such as Wearable computer.

Potential usage[edit]


Criticisms and concerns[edit]


Infection has also been cited as a source of failure within RFID and related microchip implanted individuals.[75] Either due to improper implantation techniques, implant rejections or corrosion of implant elements.


Concern has been raised and investigated independently by various journalists and bodies on the nature of safety of being implanted and their proximity to MRI machines. So far no common conclusive investigation has been done in the matter of each individual type of implant and its risks involved near MRI's other than anecdotal reports ranging from no problems occurring with MRI machines, to requiring hand shielding before proximity, to outright denial of proximity due to danger.[76][failed verificationsee discussion]


XRay - m.opitz left hand showing several implanted microchips..jpg

This is a biohacker with several implants showing on XRay. Other Medical imaging like X-ray or CT scanners do not pose a legitimate threat to implants. Use of X-rays is a great way to locate and diagnose implants.


Electronics-based implants contain little material that can corrode. Magnetic implants, however, often contain a substantial amount of metallic elements by volume, and iron, a common implant element, is easily corroded by common elements such as oxygen and water. Implant corrosion occurs when these elements become trapped inside during the encapsulation process, which can cause slow corrosive effect, or the encapsulation fails and allows corrosive elements to come into contact with the magnet. Catastrophic encapsulation failures are usually obvious, resulting in tenderness, discoloration of the skin, and a slight inflammatory response. Small failures however can take much longer to become obvious, resulting in a slow degradation of field strength without many external signs that something is slowly going wrong with the magnet.[77]

Cancer risks[edit]

In a self-published report,[78] anti-RFID advocate Katherine Albrecht, who refers to RFID devices as "spy chips", cites veterinary and toxicological studies carried out from 1996 to 2006 which found lab rodents injected with microchips as an incidental part of unrelated experiments and dogs implanted with identification microchips sometimes developed cancerous tumors at the injection site (subcutaneous sarcomas) as evidence of a human implantation risk.[79] However, the link between foreign-body tumorigenesis in lab animals and implantation in humans has been publicly refuted as erroneous and misleading[80] and the report's author has been criticized[by whom?] over the use of "provocative" language "not based in scientific fact".[81] Notably, none of the studies cited specifically set out to investigate the cancer risk of implanted microchips and so none of the studies had a control group of animals that did not get implanted. While the issue is considered worthy of further investigation, one of the studies cited cautioned "Blind leaps from the detection of tumors to the prediction of human health risk should be avoided".[82][83][84]

Stolen identity, privacy security risks[edit]

The Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs (CEJA) of the American Medical Association published a report in 2007 alleging that RFID implanted chips may compromise privacy because even though no information can be stored in an RFID transponder, they allege that there is no assurance that the information contained in the chip can be properly protected.[dead link][85]

Stolen identity and privacy has been a major concern with Microchip implants being cloned for various nefarious reasons in a process known as Wireless identity theft. Incidents of forced removal of animal implants have been documented,[86] the concern lies in whether this same practice will be used to attack implanted microchipped patients also. Due to low adoption of microchip implants incidents of these physical attacks are rare. Nefarious RFID reprogramming of unprotected or unencrypted microchip tags are also a major security risk consideration.

Risk to human freedom and autonomy[edit]

Some[who?] have expressed concerns that technology is being abused.[87] Invasive technology has the potential to be used by governments to create an 'Orwellian' digital dystopia. In such a world, self-determination, the ability to think freely, and all personal autonomy would be completely lost; human beings would be essentially digital slaves to governments, corporations, or networks that owned the microchipping technology.[88][89][90]


United States[edit]

Following Wisconsin and North Dakota,[91] California issued Senate Bill 362 in 2007, which makes it illegal to force a person to have a microchip implanted, and provide for an assessment of civil penalties against violators of the bill.[91]

In 2008, Oklahoma passed 63 OK Stat § 63-1-1430 (2008 S.B. 47), that bans involuntary microchip implants in humans.[92][93]

On April 5, 2010, the Georgia Senate passed Senate Bill 235 that prohibits forced microchip implants in humans and that would make it a misdemeanor for anyone to require them, including employers.[94] The bill would allow voluntary microchip implants, as long as they are performed by a physician and regulated by the Georgia Composite Medical Board. The state's House of Representatives did not take up the measure.[citation needed]

On February 10, 2010, Virginia's House of Delegates also passed a bill that forbids companies from forcing their employees to be implanted with tracking devices.[95]

Washington State House Bill 1142-2009-10 orders a study using implanted radio frequency identification or other similar technology to electronically monitor sex offenders and other felons.[96]


In popular culture[edit]

The general public are most familiar with microchips in the context of identifying pets. Gary Wohlscheid, president of These Last Days Ministries, has argued that "Out of all the technologies with potential to be the mark of the beast, VeriChip has got the best possibility right now".[97] "Arkangel", an episode of the drama series Black Mirror, considered the potential for helicopter parenting of an imagined more advanced microchip.

Transhumanism is a movement related the implants and their relation to transhuman qualities of which microchipped/sub-dermal implanted individuals are commonly grouped together with.[98]

Microchip implants are a popular idea in science fiction, and fiction in general. One particular example is Nanomachines, a recurring element in the Metal Gear series. one notable example in popular culture is in Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance, where the final boss had Nanomachines implanted into his body in order to strengthen himself. This, alongside various lines by the character has become a meme in popular culture.

Cyberpunk media will include things such as Microchip implants. Some notable examples are Ghost in the Shell, Cyberpunk 2077, and Deus Ex.

Religious beliefs[edit]

Some Christians make a link between the PositiveID and the Biblical Mark of the Beast,[99][100] prophesied to be a future requirement for buying and selling, and a key element of the Book of Revelation.[101][102]


A 2021 study by YouGov says that 20% of Americans believe that microchips are inside the COVID-19 vaccines.[103][104]

A 2021 Facebook article with nearly 4,000 shares claimed DARPA has developed a COVID-19 detecting microchip implant. However, the same article now saying "This article was updated to reflect that DARPA created a sensor and not a microchip, as previously stated.[105][106][107]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Is human chip implant wave of the future?". CNN. January 13, 1999. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
  2. ^ "Professor has world's first silicon chip implant". independent.co.uk. 26 August 1998. Archived from the original on 2022-05-14.
  3. ^ "Professor Cyborg". Wired. 1998-08-25.
  4. ^ "BBC News - Sci/Tech - Technology gets under the skin". news.bbc.co.uk.
  5. ^ Sanchez-Klein, Jana. "CNN - Cyberfuturist plants chip in arm to test human-computer interaction - August 28, 1998". edition.cnn.com.
  6. ^ Hamblen, Matt (2012-12-19). "A short history of NFC". Computerworld. Retrieved 2020-09-24.
  7. ^ "VivoKey.com". VivoKey Technologies Inc.
  8. ^ a b c Weintraub, Karen. "Invisible Ink Could Reveal whether Kids Have Been Vaccinated". Scientific American.
  9. ^ a b "Elon Musk unveils pig with chip in its brain". BBC News. 2020-08-29. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
  10. ^ "DSruptive – Implantable chip implants". Dsruptive Subdermals.
  11. ^ Aitken, Peter (23 December 2021). "Swedish COVID vaccine pass microchip maker addresses privacy concerns". FOXBusiness.
  12. ^ a b "The Covid-19 passport microchip". South China Morning Post.
  13. ^ "Amal Graafstra - Technologist, Author & Double RFID Implantee". amal.net. Retrieved 2017-05-26.
  14. ^ "RFID Toys Forum". Dangerous Things Forum. Retrieved 2017-05-26.
  15. ^ "Dangerous Things". Dangerous Things. Retrieved 2017-05-26.
  16. ^ "The xNT implantable NFC chip". Indiegogo. Retrieved 2017-05-26.
  17. ^ bpg (2017-03-09), PRMT | Ghost In the Shell, retrieved 2017-05-26
  18. ^ TEDx Talks (2013-10-17), Biohacking - the forefront of a new kind of human evolution: Amal Graafstra at TEDxSFU, archived from the original on 2021-12-20, retrieved 2017-05-26
  19. ^ Motherboard (2017-03-23), Who Killed the Smart Gun?, archived from the original on 2021-12-20, retrieved 2017-05-26
  20. ^ Thompson, Cadie (2015-07-30). "This man sells a kit that will turn anyone into a 'cyborg'". Business Insider Australia. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
  21. ^ The Good Life Lab (2006-05-12), RFID Implant - Fox News - Mikey Sklar, archived from the original on 2021-12-20, retrieved 2019-07-24
  22. ^ Gasson, M. N. (2010). "Human Enhancement: Could you become infected with a computer virus?" (PDF). 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Technology and Society. pp. 61–68. doi:10.1109/ISTAS.2010.5514651. ISBN 978-1-4244-7777-7. S2CID 3098538.
  23. ^ "Could you become infected with a Computer Virus". www.personal.reading.ac.uk. Retrieved 2019-07-24.
  24. ^ Lallanilla, Marc (November 1, 2013). "'Biohacker' Implants Chip in Arm". Live Science. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
  25. ^ "Cyborg People Who Implanted Tech - Business Insider". Businessinsider.com. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
  26. ^ "The brave new world of biohacking | Al Jazeera America". America.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
  27. ^ Clark, Liat (November 11, 2014). "Hand-implanted NFC chips open this man's bitcoin wallet". Wired UK. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
  28. ^ Gray, John (2014-06-10). "I Watched A guy Get a Chip Implanted in his Hand and It Was Pretty Cool". Vice. Retrieved 2020-05-18.
  29. ^ Futurist Nikolas Badminton gets implanted with a microchip, archived from the original on 2021-12-20, retrieved 2020-05-18
  30. ^ "Jondo the Mandroid is RFID enabled". Archived from the original on 2017-02-20. Retrieved 2015-06-09.
  31. ^ Pearson, Jordan (October 30, 2015). "This Guy Implanted His Bitcoin Wallet and Made a Payment With His Hand". Retrieved November 2, 2015.
  32. ^ "Au pays des espèces en voie de disparition". lesechos.fr. 2016-02-19. Retrieved 2016-07-07.
  33. ^ Wakefield, Jane (2014-12-10). "The rise of the Swedish cyborgs - BBC News". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-07-07.
  34. ^ "Få covidbeviset under huden - går att få som ett chip - Aftonbladet TV" (in Swedish).
  35. ^ "Facing COVID passport mandate, more Swedes get microchip implants". www.aa.com.tr.
  36. ^ "Heraldsun.com.au - Subscribe to the Herald Sun for exclusive stories". www.heraldsun.com.au.
  37. ^ "BSides Tallinn's Best Of BSides 2021: BSides Perth 2021- Shain Lakin's 'Offensive RFID/NFC' - Security Boulevard". www.securityboulevard.com.
  38. ^ "Hacking with an NFC Implant - Offensive Bio Implants". www.x90x90.net.
  39. ^ "Chip in tooth - scientists point way to new identity tag". the Guardian. 28 February 2006.
  40. ^ Milad, Magdy; Tu, Frank; Epstein, Lee; Bradley, Linda D. (2007). "Endoscopic Approaches to Gynecologic Disease". General Gynecology. pp. 755–784. doi:10.1016/B978-032303247-6.10030-9. ISBN 978-0-323-03247-6.
  41. ^ Umoh, Ruth (2018-04-13). "Why this guy paid $75 to store bitcoin under his skin". CNBC. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
  42. ^ a b Shaik, Idrish; Chilukuri; Tejaswi (2018-03-03). "Door Access Security System Using NFC Technology" (PDF). International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology. 5: 320–324.
  43. ^ "This Guy Just Implanted a Payments Chip in His Hand, Literally [VIDEO]". bankinnovation.net. 25 May 2016. Retrieved 2020-09-25.
  44. ^ "Implantable credit card RFID chips: convenient, but creepy". CreditCards.com. Retrieved 2020-09-25.
  45. ^ "Bio-hacker who implanted Opal Card into hand fined for not using valid ticket". www.abc.net.au. 2018-03-16. Retrieved 2020-09-25.
  46. ^ Eltorai, Adam E. M.; Fox, Henry; McGurrin, Emily; Guang, Stephanie (2016). "Microchips in Medicine: Current and Future Applications". BioMed Research International. 2016: 1–7. doi:10.1155/2016/1743472. PMC 4914739. PMID 27376079.
  47. ^ Smith, Richard M. “Tough Sell Ahead for the VeriChip Implant ID System.”Archived October 25, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Computer Bytes Man. 27 Dec. 2001. 16 Oct. 2007
  48. ^ "KO33440: Designation of VeriChip as Class II with special controls" (PDF). FDA. October 12, 2004.
  49. ^ "Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Implantable Radiofrequency Transponder System for Patient Identification and Health Information" (PDF). FDA. December 10, 2004.
  50. ^ "Verichip Consumer FAQ". Archived from the original on August 2, 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-16.
  51. ^ a b Halamka, J; Juels, A; Stubblefield, A; Westhues, J (2006). "The security implications of VeriChip cloning". Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. 13 (6): 601–7. doi:10.1197/jamia.M2143. PMC 1656959. PMID 16929037.
  52. ^ "Human-implantable RFID chips: Some ethical and privacy concerns". Healthcare IT News. 30 July 2007.
  53. ^ Westra, BL (March 2009). "Radio frequency identification". The American Journal of Nursing. 109 (3): 34–6. doi:10.1097/01.NAJ.0000346925.67498.a4. PMID 19240491.
  54. ^ Mordini, E; Ottolini, C (2007). "Body identification, biometrics and medicine: ethical and social considerations" (PDF). Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità. 43 (1): 51–60. PMID 17536154.
  55. ^ "American Medical Association CEJA Report 5-A-07".
  56. ^ Lewan, Todd (September 8, 2007). "Chip Implants Linked to Animal Tumours". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2010-06-08.
  57. ^ Edwards, Jim. "Down With the Chip: PositiveID Axes Its Scary Medical Records". bNET. July 15, 2010. Retrieved March 2, 2017
  58. ^ "VeriTeQ Acquisition Corporation Acquires Implantable, FDA-Cleared VeriChip Technology and Health Link Personal Health Record from PositiveID Corporation". VeriTeQ via BusinessWire. January 17, 2012.
  59. ^ Geissler, Randy (April 4, 2016). "JAMM Technologies Acquires the Veriteq RFID Technology Platform and Enters into Supply Agreement with Establishment Labs". JAMM via PRWeb.
  60. ^ "Don Brattain, OSU SPEARS SCHOOL TRIBUTES: 100 FOR 100". Oklahoma State University. November 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2018.
  61. ^ "Tyler Technologies, Inc., Tyler Investor Community, Directors, Donald R. Brattain, Independent Director". Tyler Technologies, Inc. Retrieved April 21, 2018.
  62. ^ "Geissler Corporation - Management". Geissler Corporation. 24 July 2016. Retrieved April 21, 2018.
  63. ^ Denmark, BEZH (2019). "Bichip Patent in Denmark". dkpto.
  64. ^ Hamill, Jasper (January 2018). "Would you store Ripple and Bitcoin in microchip?". Metro.
  65. ^ Robertson, Adi (2017-07-21). "I hacked my body for a future that never came". The Verge. Retrieved 2020-09-24.
  66. ^ Gillan, Fraser (2019-10-06). "The transhumanists 'upgrading' their bodies". BBC News. Retrieved 2020-09-24.
  67. ^ "Impli is announcing the release of ImpliCaspian; your identifier. – Impli".
  68. ^ Lewan, Todd. USA Today. July 2007. "Microchips in humans spark privacy debate.".
  69. ^ Westhues, Jonathan. "Demo: Cloning a VeriChip." Demo: Cloning a VeriChip.
  70. ^ Newitz, Annalee (May 2006). "The RFID Hacking Underground". Wired. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
  71. ^ http://www.baja.nl/vipform.aspx Archived 2009-12-24 at the Wayback Machine
  72. ^ Mearian, Lucas (February 6, 2015). "Office complex implants RFID chips in employees' hands". Computerworld. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
  73. ^ "Will microchips be used in athletes to prevent doping?".
  74. ^ "Cashless Society"
  75. ^ Schiffmann, Alain; Clauss, Martin; Honigmann, Philipp (2020). "Biohackers and Self-Made Problems: Infection of an Implanted RFID/NFC Chip: A Case Report". JBJS Case Connector. 10 (2): e0399. doi:10.2106/JBJS.CC.19.00399. PMID 32649126. S2CID 219881074.
  76. ^ Robertson, Adi (2017-07-21). "I hacked my body for a future that never came". The Verge. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
  77. ^ Eliaz, Noam (2019-01-28). "Corrosion of Metallic Biomaterials: A Review". Materials. 12 (3): 407. Bibcode:2019Mate...12..407E. doi:10.3390/ma12030407. PMC 6384782. PMID 30696087.
  78. ^ http://www.antichips.com/cancer/ Archived 2007-12-23 at the Wayback Machine Microchip-Induced Tumors in Laboratory Rodents and Dogs: A Review of the Literature 1990–2006
  79. ^ Lewan, Todd (September 8, 2007), "Chip Implants Linked to Animal Tumours", The Washington Post, retrieved 2010-06-08
  80. ^ RFID Journal (12 September 2007). "VeriChip Defends the Safety of Implanted RFID Tags". rfidjournal.com. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
  81. ^ uownow (2011-03-23), IEEE ISTAS 2010 @ UOW - Dr Katherine Albrecht, archived from the original on 2021-12-20, retrieved 2019-07-24
  82. ^ Blanchard, K. T.; Barthel, C.; French, J. E.; Holden, H. E.; Moretz, R.; Pack, F. D.; Tennant, R. W.; Stoll, R. E. (1999). "Transponder-Induced Sarcoma in the Heterozygous p53+/- Mouse". Toxicologic Pathology. 27 (5): 519–27. doi:10.1177/019262339902700505. PMID 10528631.
  83. ^ "Lewan, Todd. The Associated Press, September 8, 2007. "Chip Implants Linked to Animal Tumors"". washingtonpost.com. Archived from the original on 2008-07-25.
  84. ^ "Studies Linking Microchips and Cancer". Archived from the original on 2008-06-15. Retrieved 2009-11-15.
  85. ^ CEJA of the American Medical Association, CEJA Report 5-A-07, Radio Frequency ID Devices in Humans, presented by Robert M. Sade, MD, Chair. 2007
  86. ^ "Dognappers hacked microchip out of dog and stole her puppies". Metro. 2020-07-19. Retrieved 2020-09-24.
  87. ^ The Guardian, [1], Remote-controlled contraceptive microchip could launch. 2014
  88. ^ HuffPost, [2], Towards The Orwellian Era of a Microchipped Workforce. 2017
  89. ^ The Times, [3], Microchipping workers takes us back to 1984. 2018
  90. ^ IOT News, [4], Could microchip implants presage George Orwell's chilling novel '1984'?. 2014
  91. ^ a b California Bans Forced RFID Tagging of Humans, Government Technology website, October 17, 2007
  92. ^ Tim Talley. "Bill bans involuntary microchip implants". 2008.
  93. ^ "Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Privacy Laws". 2015.
  94. ^ "Georgia SB 235 - Ban on Required Human Microchip Implantation - Key Vote - The Voter's Self Defense System - Vote Smart". Project Vote Smart. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
  95. ^ Virginia delegates pass bill banning chip implants as ‘mark of the beast’, The Raw Story, By Daniel Tencer, Wednesday, February 10, 2010 retrieved April 23, 2010
  96. ^ HB 1142-2009-10 to study requiring the use of implanted RFID in certain felons.
  97. ^ Scheeres, Julia (6 February 2002). "They Want Their ID Chips Now". Wired News. Retrieved 13 September 2010.
  98. ^ Gillan, Fraser (2019-10-06). "The transhumanists 'upgrading' their bodies". BBC News. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
  99. ^ Streitfield, David (9 May 2002). "First Humans to Receive ID Chips; Technology: Device injected under the skin will provide identification and medical information". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 13 September 2010.
  100. ^ Gilbert, Alorie (16 February 2005). "Is RFID the mark of the beast?". CNET News. Retrieved 13 September 2010.
  101. ^ Albrecht, Katherine; McIntyre, Liz (2006-01-31). The Spychips Threat: Why Christians Should Resist RFID and Electronic Surveillance. Nelson Current. ISBN 1-59555-021-6.
  102. ^ Baard, Mark (2006-06-06). "RFID: Sign of the (End) Times?". Wired. Wired.com. Retrieved 2009-10-13.
  103. ^ (PDF) https://docs.cdn.yougov.com/w2zmwpzsq0/econTabReport.pdf. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  104. ^ Dawson, Bethany. "20% of Americans believe the conspiracy theory that microchips are inside the COVID-19 vaccines, says YouGov study". Insider.
  105. ^ Facebook https://www.facebook.com/RTnews/photos/a.10150144237704411/10160031648324411/. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  106. ^ Vercellone, Chiara. "Fact Check: Military-funded sensor can help detect COVID-19, but it's not a microchip". USA TODAY.
  107. ^ "Military programs aiming to end pandemics forever". www.cbsnews.com.

Further reading[edit]

  • Haag, Stephen; Cummings, Maeve; McCubbrey, Donald (2004). Management Information Systems for the Information Age (4th ed.). New York City, New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-281947-2.
  • Graafstra, Amal (2004). RFID Toys: 11 Cool Projects for Home, Office and Entertainment (4th ed.). New York City, New York: (ExtremeTech) Ziff Davis Publishing Holdings Inc. ISBN 0-471-77196-1.