Microhyla

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Microhyla
Mihyla achat 070403 3342 tdp.jpg
Microhyla achatina
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Microhylidae
Subfamily: Microhylinae
Genus: Microhyla
Tschudi, 1838
Type species
Microhyla achatina
Tschudi, 1838
Species

Numerous, see text.

Microhyla is a group of frogs, commonly known as the rice frogs or narrow-mouthed frogs. It is a genus within the family Microhylidae and consists of a number of diminutive frogs. Members of this genus are widespread from Ryukyu Is. in Japan, China throughout South-east Asia, Sumatra, Java, Bali, Borneo, India and Sri Lanka.[1] As of 13 March 2016, there were 40 species in this genus,[1][2]

Diagnosis[edit]

According to Seshadri et al. (2016),[2] this genus can be diagnosed using the following set of criteria: Adult frogs are of small size; pupil circular; skin on dorsum smooth; lateral side of body with markings from back of eye to vent; supratympanic fold present in adults; paratoid glands are absent, fingers without webbing, finger tips may or may not be dilated; oval tongue, its margin is entire and free at the base; the diameter of eye is smaller than snout; a thin layer of skin hides the tympanum; tubercles on hand distinct; distinct oval shaped inner metatarsal tubercle and rounded outer metatarsal tubercle; webbing in feet, rudimentary.

Evolutionary relationships[edit]

The genus Microhyla is closely related to Glyphoglossus within the family Microhylidae.,[1][3] Members of the genus Microhyla began diversifying from the most common ancestor around 45 million years ago and this resulted in forming Metaphrynella and Microhyla.[3] However, ascertaining the phylogenetic relationship of frogs within Microhyla has been difficult as many species are not monophyletic.[4]

Species[edit]

List of species based on [1] and [2]

Binomial Name and Author Common Name
Microhyla achatina Tschudi, 1838 Javan rice frog, Javan chorus frog, Javanese narrow-mouthed frog
Microhyla annamensis Smith, 1923 Vietnam rice frog, Annam narrow-mouthed frog, Annam chorus frog, minute narrow-mouth frog
Microhyla annectens Boulenger, 1900 Larut Hills rice frog, brown narrow-mouthed frog
Microhyla arboricola [5] Tree-dwelling Narrow-Mouth Frog, Tree-dwelling Pigmy Narrow-Mouth Frog
Microhyla berdmorei (Blyth, 1856) Pegu rice frog, Berdmore's narrow-mouthed frog, Burmese microhylid frog, Berdmore's chorus frog
Microhyla borneensis Parker, 1928 Borneo rice frog, Borneo narrow-mouthed frog, Bornean narrow-mouthed frog, Bornean chorus frog, long-snouted frog
Microhyla butleri Boulenger, 1900 Butler's rice frog, Butler's ricefrog, Butler's narrow-mouthed Toad, Butler's pigmy frog, painted chorus frog, tubercled pygmy frog, noisy frog
Microhyla chakrapanii Pillai, 1977 Mayabunder rice frog, Chakrapani's narrow-mouthed frog, bilateral banded frog
Microhyla darevskii [5] Darevsky's Narrow-Mouth Frog, Darevsky's Pigmy Narrow-Mouth Frog (original publication).
Microhyla fissipes Boulenger, 1884 Ornamented pygmy frog, ornata microhylid frog, Malayan bullfrog, ornate narrow-mouthed frog, ornate narrowmouth frog, ornate pigmy frog, ornate chorus frog
Microhyla fusca Andersson, 1942 Brown rice frog, Dalat pigmy frog
Microhyla heymonsi Vogt, 1911 Taiwan rice frog, Heymon's ricefrog, dark-sided chorus frog, arcuate-spotted pygmy frog, Heymon's narrow-mouthed frog, Heymon's narrow-mouthed toad, burrowing microhylid frog, black-sided narrow-mouthed frog, black-flanked pigmy frog
Microhyla karunaratnei Fernando & Siriwardhane, 1996
Microhyla kodial Kumar and Aravind, 2018[6] Mangaluru narrow-mouthed frog
Microhyla laterite Seshadri et al., 2016[2] Laterite narrow-mouthed frog
Microhyla maculifera Inger, 1989 Sabah rice frog
Microhyla malang Matsui, 2011
Microhyla mantheyi Das, Yaakob, and Sukumaran, 2007
Microhyla marmorata Bain & Nguyen, 2004 Marble pigmy frog
Microhyla mihintalei Wijayathilaka et al., 2016[7] Sri Lanka red narrow-mouthed frog
Microhyla minuta [5] Tiny Narrow-Mouth Frog, Tiny Pigmy Narrow-Mouth Frog
Microhyla mixtura Liu & Hu in Hu, Zhao, & Liu, 1966 Chinese rice frog, mixtured pigmy frog
Microhyla mukhlesuri Hasan et al. 2014
Microhyla mymensinghensis Hasan et al. 2014
Microhyla nanapollexa Bain & Nguyen, 2004 No-thumb pigmy frog
Microhyla nilphamariensis Howlader et al. 2015
Microhyla okinavensis Stejneger, 1901 Okinawa rice frog
Microhyla orientalis Matsui, Hamidy & Eto, 2013[8]
Microhyla ornata (Duméril & Bibron, 1841) Ant frog, ornate narrow-mouthed frog, ornate narrowmouth frog, ornate rice frog, ornate ricefrog, black-throated frog
Microhyla palmipes Boulenger, 1897 Pengalengan rice frog, palmated chorus frog, palmated narrow-mouthed frog
Microhyla perparva Inger & frogner, 1979 Labang Forest rice frog
Microhyla petrigena Inger & frogner, 1979 Kapit rice frog, pothole narrow-mouthned frog
Microhyla picta Schenkel, 1901 Painted rice frog
Microhyla pineticola [5] Pine Narrow-Mouth Frog, Pine Pigmy Narrow-Mouth Frog
Microhyla pulchella [5] Pretty Narrow-Mouth Frog, Pretty Pigmy Narrow-Mouth Frog.
Microhyla pulchra (Hallowell, 1861) Guangdong rice frog, marbled pigmy frog, yellow-legged pigmy frog, beautiful pygmy frog, painted frog, yellow-legged narrow-mouthed frog
Microhyla pulverata Bain & Nguyen, 2004 Dusty speckling venter pigmy frog
Microhyla rubra (Jerdon, 1854) Guangdong rice frog, red narrow-mouthed frog, densely spotted microhylid frog
Microhyla sholigari Dutta & Ray, 2000
Microhyla superciliaris Parker, 1928 Batu Cave rice frog
Microhyla taraiensis Khatiwada, 2017
Microhyla zeylanica Parker & Osman-Hill, 1949 Sri Lanka rice frog

In central Vietnam, several new species of Microhyla have been described in the 2000s:

Phylogeny[edit]

The following phylogeny of the genus Microhyla is from Khatiwada, et al. (2017).[9] 27 species are listed, including various newly described species from South Asia.

Microhyla 

Microhyla achatina

Microhyla nanapollexa

Microhyla petrigena

Microhyla marmorata

Microhyla annectens

Microhyla pulchra

Microhyla berdmorei

Microhyla fowleri

Microhyla mymenshinghensis

Microhyla fissipes

Microhyla mukhlesuri

Microhyla okinavensis

Microhyla mixtura

Microhyla heymonsi

Microhyla mantheyi

Microhyla malang

Microhyla perparva

Microhyla borneensis

Microhyla sholigari

Microhyla laterite

Microhyla superciliaris

Microhyla palmipes

Microhyla butleri

Microhyla rubra

Microhyla taraiensis

Microhyla ornata

Microhyla nilphamariensis

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Frost, Darrel R. 2016. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (Date of access). Electronic Database accessible at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA.
  2. ^ a b c d Seshadri, K. S.; Singal, Ramit; Priti, H.; Ravikanth, G.; Vidisha, M. K.; Saurabh, S.; Pratik, M.; Gururaja, Kotambylu Vasudeva (2016). "Microhyla laterite sp. nov., a new species of Microhyla Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae) from a laterite rock formation in south west India". PLoS ONE. 11 (3): e0149727. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0149727. PMC 4784882. PMID 26960208.
  3. ^ a b Roelants, K.; Gower, D. J.; Wilkinson, M.; Loader, S. P.; Biju, S. D.; Guillaume, K.; Moriau, L.; Bossuyt, F. (2007). "Global patterns of diversification in the history of modern amphibians". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 104 (3): 887–892. doi:10.1073/pnas.0608378104. PMC 1783409.
  4. ^ Peloso P. L., Frost D., Richards S., J, Rodrigues M., T, Donnellan S., Matsui M., Raxworthy C., J, Biju S., Lemmon E., Moriarty, Lemmon A. R. 2015. The impact of anchored phylogenomics and taxon sampling on phylogenetic inference in narrow‐mouthed frogs (Anura, Microhylidae). Cladistics, 0: 1-28
  5. ^ a b c d e Poyarkov, N. A. Jr.; Vassilieva, A. B.; Orlov, N. L.; Galoyan, E. A.; Tran, D. T. A.; Le, D. T. T.; Kretova, V. D.; Geissler, P. (2014). "Taxonomy and distribution of narrow-mouth frogs of the genus Microhyla Tschudi, 1838 (Anura: Microhylidae) from Vietnam with descriptions of five new species". Russian Journal of Herpetology. 21: 89–148.
  6. ^ Perinchery, Aathira (2018-05-16). "Newest frog for India from Karnataka". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2018-05-18.
  7. ^ Wijayathilaka N, Garg S, Senevirathne G, Karunarathna N, Biju S.D, Meegaskumbura M (2016). "A new species of Microhyla (Anura: Microhylidae) from Sri Lanka: an integrative taxonomic approach". Zootaxa. 4066 (3): 331–342. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4066.3.9.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  8. ^ Matsui M, Hamidy A, Eto K (2013). "Description of a new species of Microhyla from Bali, Indonesia (Amphibia, Anura)". Zootaxa. 3670 (4): 579–590. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3670.4.9.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  9. ^ Khatiwada JR, Shu GC, Wang SH, Thapa A, Wang B, Jiang J (2017). "A new species of the genus Microhyla (Anura: Microhylidae) from eastern Nepal." Zootaxa 4254:221-239.

External links[edit]