Microlearning

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Microlearning refers to a set of compact e- learning modules that are designed to reduce learner fatigue. The modules can be educational, professional, or skill based, and are usually designed to be less than 20 minutes long, with a single learning objective or topic.[1] The name originates from the Greek word 'micro' meaning 'small'.

Microlearning concept[edit]

As an instructional technology, microlearning focuses on the design of learning modules through micro steps in digital media environments. These activities can be incorporated into learner's daily routines and tasks. Unlike "traditional" e-learning approaches, microlearning often tends towards push technology through push media, which reduces the cognitive load on the learners. In a wide sense, microlearning can be understood as a metaphor which refers to micro aspects of a variety of learning models, concepts and processes and is capable enough to address challenges associated learning process. Breaking the information down into topical, bite-sized chunks helps to increase attention and promotes higher retention rates. Research shows that microlearning can result in significant increase of exam pass rates (up to 18%).[2] The technique has also been shown to increase learner confidence with the material.[3]

A modern definition of Microlearning refers to a learning technique that involves bite size lessons to engage learners in the process. Furthermore, microlearning marks a transition from common models of learning towards micro perspectives on and the significance of micro dimensions in the process of learning.[4] Microlearning has also been considered as a promising topic in work-based learning and the applications of microlearning have been widely studied in different fields. As of 2020, there were at least 476 relevant publications exploring the concept.[5] The technique is capable to address challenges associated with slow learners.[6] It is functional not only for skill based education but also for sustainable socioeconomic development and without taking care of micro-perspectives in the context of learning, education, training and skill development, a skill based education cannot be imparted effectively.

Framework[edit]

Microlearning framework is characterized by the following parameters:[1]

  • Time. Microlearning modules are specifically designed as concise and short courses.
  • Content. The design allows course content to be divided into smaller segments that would usually cover a single topic.
  • Curriculum. A short course covering a specific topic or a series of short courses covering a bigger module.
  • Form. It could vary depending on its intended use like knowledge nuggets, episodes, skill sets etc.
  • Process. The process of microlearning involves an integrated learning segment that could be in the form of in person session, video, text, followed by an assessment to gauge performance of the learner.
  • Media. In person or In class, distance learning or remote both of which may be based on multimedia activities.

Subscription learning[edit]

Subscription learning provides an intermittent stream of learning-related interactions to those who are subscribed. These learning-related interactions (also called "nuggets") can involve a great variety of learning-related events, including content presentation, diagnostics, scenario-based questions, job aids, reflection questions, assignments, discussions, etc. Nuggets are short, usually presented in less than five to ten minutes. Nuggets are intentionally scheduled over time to support learning, often utilizing research-based findings related to the spacing effect. Learners subscribe (or are subscribed) to one or more series of learning nuggets, called "threads". Learning threads can be predesigned, selecting nuggets based on anticipated learner needs or they can be dynamically created based on learner performance.[7]

Action plan[edit]

  • Microlearning activity can be designed as an individual or as a group learning experience with appropriate prompts to gauge performance of the learners.[8] The focus however is to keep the information short and relevant in order to maintain concentration. The activity itself could include either of the following; reading a paragraph, listen to an informational podcast, watch a video clip, or an infographic etc. Once observation of the content is completed, it is then followed by assessment in the form of short quizzes, Microgames, reflection of viewed content etc. . The content of the design depends upon the mode of delivery. For example, An informational podcast would be more suitable for self paced learner who have access to the relevant source on the other hand reading a paragraph from the book could be more functional for more traditional learners.

Applications (examples)[edit]

  • Screensavers which prompt the user to solve small series of simple tasks after a certain amount of inactivity
  • Quizzes with multiple choice options on cell phones by use of sms or mobile applications (java midlets, symbian)
  • Word of the day as a daily RSS-feed or e-mail
  • Flashcard-software for memorizing content through spaced repetition
  • Short videos (2–10 minutes) either presented standalone or in a series

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Díaz Redondo, Rebeca P.; Caeiro Rodríguez, Manuel; López Escobar, Juan José; Fernández Vilas, Ana (2021-01-01). "Integrating micro-learning content in traditional e-learning platforms". Multimedia Tools and Applications. 80 (2): 3121–3151. doi:10.1007/s11042-020-09523-z. hdl:11093/2088. ISSN 1573-7721. S2CID 254870171.
  2. ^ Sirwan Mohammed, Gona; Wakil, Karzan; M. Nawroly, Sarkhell Sirwan (2018). "The Effectiveness of Microlearning to Improve Students' Learning Ability". International Journal of Educational Research Review. 3 (3): 35. doi:10.24331/ijere.415824. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
  3. ^ McKee, Connor; Ntokos, Konstantinos (2022). "Online microlearning and student engagement in computer games higher education". Research in Learning Technology. 30: 2680. doi:10.25304/rlt.v30.2680. Retrieved March 9, 2022.
  4. ^ Bersin, Josh (March 27, 2017). "The Disruption of Digital Learning: Ten Things We Have Learned". joshbersin.com. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
  5. ^ Leong, Kelvin; Sung, Anna; Au, David; Blanchard, Claire (2021). "A review of the trend of microlearning". Journal of Work-Applied Management. 13: 88–102. doi:10.1108/JWAM-10-2020-0044. ISSN 2205-2062. S2CID 230579545.
  6. ^ Ross, Nick (July 6, 2020). "Microlearning: What it is and 10 Reasons Why it's Best for Company Training". CRN Australia. Retrieved March 28, 2021.(subscription required)
  7. ^ Thalheime, Will (October 2, 2013). "What is Subscription Learning?". worklearning.com. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
  8. ^ Major, Amanda; Calandrino, Tina (2013). "Beyond Chunking: Micro-learning Secrets for Effective Online Design". FDLA Journal. 3.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Giurgiu, Luminiţa (2017) : Microlearning an Evolving Elearning Trend [1]
  • Gassler, Gerhard; Hug, Theo & Glahn, Christian (2004): Integrated Micro Learning – An outline of the basic method and first results. In: Auer, Michael E. & Auer, Ursula (eds.): International Conference on Interactive Computer Aided Learning, ICL 2004, Sept. 29 – Oct. 1, 2004, Villach, Austria (CD-ROM).
  • Gstrein, Silvia & Hug, Theo (2005): Integrated Micro Learning during Access Delays. A new approach to second language learning. In: Zaphiris, Panayiotis (ed.): User-centered computer assisted language learning. Hershey:Idea Group Publishing, pp. 152–175.
  • Hagleitner, Wolfgang; Drexler, Arthur; Hug, Theo (2006). Evaluation of a prototypic version of Knowledge Pulse in the context of a management course. Paper presented at the Multimedia Applications in Education Conference, 2006, September 4–6, FH Joanneum, Graz, Austria.
  • Hug, Theo; Lindner, Martin; Bruck, Peter A. (eds.) (2006): Microlearning: Emerging Concepts, Practices and Technologies after e-Learning. Proceedings of Microlearning 2005. Innsbruck: Innsbruck University Press, 2006.
  • Weber, Charles M. (2003): Rapid Learning in High Velocity Environments. Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.) / Cambridge (U.S.A.).
  • Leong, K., Sung, A., Au, D., & Blanchard, C. (2020). A review of the trend of microlearning. Journal of Work-Applied Management.
  1. ^ Giurgiu, Luminiţa (June 2017). "Microlearning an Evolving Elearning Trend". Science Bulletin. 22: 18–23. doi:10.1515/bsaft-2017-0003. S2CID 148817943.