A micromort (from micro- and mortality) is a unit of risk defined as one-in-a-million chance of death. Micromorts can be used to measure riskiness of various day-to-day activities. A microprobability is a one-in-a million chance of some event; thus a micromort is the microprobability of death. The micromort concept was introduced by Ronald A. Howard who pioneered the modern practice of decision analysis.
Micromorts for future activities can only be rough assessments as specific circumstances will always have an impact. However past historical rates of events can be used to provide a ball-park, average figure.
|Death from||Context||Time period||N deaths||N population||Micromorts per unit of exposure||Reference|
|All causes||England and Wales||2012||499,331||56,567,000||24 per day
8,800 per year
|ONS Deaths Table 5.|
|All causes||Canada||2011||242,074||33,476,688||20 per day
7,200 per year
|All causes||US||2010||2,468,435||308,500,000||22 per day
8,000 per year
|CDC Deaths Table 18.|
|Non-natural cause||England and Wales||2012||17,462||56,567,000||0.8 per day
300 per year
|ONS Deaths Table 5.19.|
|Non-natural cause||US||2010||180,000||308,500,000||1.6 per day
580 per year
|CDC Deaths Table 18|
|Non-natural cause (excluding suicide)||England and Wales||2012||12,955||56,567,000||0.6 per day
230 per year
|Non-natural cause (excluding suicide)||US||2010||142,000||308,500,000||1.3 per day
460 per year
|CDC Deaths Table 18.|
|All causes – first day of life||England and Wales||2007||430 per first day of life||Walker, 2014|
|All causes - first year of life||US||2013||16.7 per day
6100 per year
|CDC Life Tables |
Blastland & Spiegelhalter, 2014
|Murder/homicide||England and Wales||2012/13||551||56,567,000||10 per year||ONS Crime|
|Homicide||Canada||2011||527||33,476,688||15 per year||Statistics Canada|
|Murder and non-negligent manslaughter||US||2012||14,173||292,000,000||48 per year||FBI Table 16|
Leisure and sport
|Death from||Context||Time period||N deaths||N exposure||Micromorts per unit of exposure||Reference|
|Scuba diving||UK: BSAC members||1998–2009||75||14,000,000 dives||5 per dive||BSAC|
|Scuba diving||UK: non-BSAC||1998–2009||122||12,000,000 dives||10 per dive||BSAC|
|Scuba diving||US – insured members of DAN||2000–2006||187||1,131,367 members||164 per year as member of DAN
5 per dive
|Skiing||US||2008/9||39||57,000,000 days skiing||0.7 per day||Ski-injury.com|
|Skydiving||US||2000–2016||413||48,600,000 jumps||8 per jump||USPA|
|Skydiving||UK||1994–2013||41||4,864,268 jumps||8 per jump||BPA|
|Running marathon||US||1975–2004||26||3,300,000 runs||7 per run||Kipps C 2011|
|Base-jumping||Kjerag Massif, Norway||1995–2005||9||20,850 jumps||430 per jump||Soreide 2007|
|Mountaineering||Ascent to Matterhorn||1981–2011||213||about 75,000 ascents
(about 2500 per year)
|about 2840 per ascent attempt||Bachmann 2012|
|Mountaineering||Ascent to Mt. Everest||1922–2012||223||5,656 successful ascents||37,932 per ascent attempt||NASA 2013|
Activities that increase the death risk by roughly one micromort, and their associated cause of death:
- Travelling 6 miles (9.7 km) by motorbike (accident)
- Travelling 17 miles (27 km) by walking (accident)
- Travelling 10 miles (16 km) (or 20 miles (32 km)) by bicycle (accident)
- Travelling 230 miles (370 km) by car (accident) (or 250 miles)
- Travelling 1000 miles (1600 km) by jet (accident)
- Travelling 6000 miles (9656 km) by train (accident)
- Travelling 12,000 miles (19,000 km) by jet in the United States (terrorism)
Increase in death risk for other activities on a per event basis:
- Hang gliding – 8 micromorts per trip
- Ecstasy (MDMA) – Between 0.5 and 13 micromorts per tablet (most cases involve other drugs)
- Being born - 430 micromorts on the day of birth.
- Giving birth (vaginal) - 120 micromorts
- Giving birth (Cesarean) - 170 micromorts
Value of a micromort
Willingness to pay
An application of micromorts is measuring the value that humans place on risk: for example, one can consider the amount of money one would have to pay a person to get him or her to accept a one-in-a-million chance of death (or conversely the amount that someone might be willing to pay to avoid a one-in-a-million chance of death). When put thus, people claim a high number but when inferred from their day-to-day actions (e.g., how much they are willing to pay for safety features on cars) a typical value is around $50 (in 2009). However utility functions are often not linear, i.e. the more a person has already spent on their safety the less they are willing to spend to further increase their safety. Therefore, the $50 valuation should not be taken to mean that a human life (1 million micromorts) is valued at $50,000,000. Furthermore, the local linearity of any utility curve means that the micromort is useful for small incremental risks and rewards, not necessarily for large risks.
Value of a statistical life
Government agencies use a nominal Value of a Statistical Life (VSL) – or Value for Preventing a Fatality (VPF) – to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of expenditure on safeguards. For example, in the UK the VSL stands at £1.6 million for road improvements. Since road improvements have the effect of lowering the risk of large numbers of people by a small amount, the UK Department of Transport essentially prices a reduction of 1 Micromort at £1.60 (US$2.70). The US Department of Transportation uses a VSL of US$6.2 million, pricing a Micromort at US$6.20.
Micromorts are best used to measure the size of acute risks, i.e. immediate deaths. Risks from lifestyle, exposure to air pollution and so on are chronic risks, in that they do not kill straight away, but reduce life expectancy. Ron Howard included such risks in his original 1979 work, for example an additional one micromort from …
- Drinking 0.5 liter of wine (cirrhosis of the liver)
- Smoking 1.4 cigarettes (cancer, heart disease)
- Spending 1 hour in a coal mine (black lung disease)
- Spending 3 hours in a coal mine (accident)
- Living 2 days in New York or Boston in 1979 (air pollution)
- Living 2 months with a smoker (cancer, heart disease)
- Drinking Miami water for 1 year (cancer from chloroform)
- Eating 100 charcoal-broiled steaks (cancer from benzopyrene)
- Travelling 6000 miles (10,000 km) by jet (cancer due to increased background radiation)
Such risks are better expressed using the related concept of a microlife.
- Decision analysis
- Decision theory
- Ellsberg paradox
- List of unusual units of measurement
- Pascal's Wager
- Precautionary principle
- Risk of ruin
- Fry AM, et al. Micromorts—what is the risk?. 2016-02. Accessed 2016-07-30.
- Walker KF, et al. The dangers of the day of birth. 2014-05. Accessed 2016-07-30.
- Howard, R. A. (1980). J. Richard; C. Schwing; Walter A. Albers, eds. On making life and death decisions. Societal Risk Assessment: How Safe Is Safe Enough? General Motors Research Laboratories. New York: Plenum Press. ISBN 0306405547.
- "Deaths Registered in England and Wales (Series DR), 2012" (PDF). Office for National Statistics. 2013-10-22. Retrieved 2014-06-03.
- "Leading causes of death, by sex (Both sexes)". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
- SL Murphy; J Xu & KD Kochanek (2013-05-08). "Deaths: Final Data for 2010" (PDF). US: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2014-06-03.
- "Suicides in the United Kingdom, 2012 Registrations". Office for National Statistics. 2014-02-18. Retrieved 2014-06-11.
- KF Walker; AL Cohen; SH Walker; KM Allen; DL Baines; JG Thornton (2014-02-13). "The dangers of the day of birth". British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 121: 714–8. doi:10.1111/1471-0528.12544. PMID 24521517.
- "Life Tables". cdc.gov. US: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
- Blastland, Michael; Spiegelhalter, David (2014). The Norm Chronicles: Stories and Numbers About Danger and Death (1 ed.). Basic Books. p. 14. ISBN 9780465085705.
- Office for National Statistics. "Crime Statistics, Focus on Violent Crime and Sexual Offences, 2012/13 – ONS". Retrieved 2014-06-12.
- "Leading causes of death, total population, by age group and sex, Canada". Statistics Canada.
- Federal Bureau of Investigation. "Crime in the United States, 2012: Table 16". FBI. Retrieved 2014-06-12.
- British Sub-Aqua Club. "UK Diving Fatalities Review". Archived from the original on 28 July 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- Divers Alert Network (DAN). "Fatalities_Proceedings.pdf" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-06-12.
- Ski-injury.com. "Ski Injury". Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- United States Parachute Association. "Skydiving Safety". Retrieved 2018-04-10.
- British Parachute Association (2012). "How Safe". Retrieved 2014-06-12.
- Kipps, Courtney; Sanjay Sharma; Dan Tunstall Pedoe (2011-01-01). "The incidence of exercise-associated hyponatraemia in the London marathon". British Journal of Sports Medicine. 45 (1): 14–19. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2009.059535. Retrieved 2014-06-12.
- Soreide, Kjetil; Christian Lycke Ellingsen; Vibeke Knutson (May 2007). "How Dangerous is BASE Jumping? An Analysis of Adverse Events in 20,850 Jumps From the Kjerag Massif, Norway". The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care. 62 (5): 1113–1117. doi:10.1097/01.ta.0000239815.73858.88. ISSN 0022-5282. PMID 17495709. Retrieved 2014-06-12.
- "Tod am Matterhorn" (PDF; 2,31 MB). Beobachter (in German).
- "The World's Tallest Mountain". Earth Observatory. NASA. 2 January 2014.
- Spiegelhalter, David (10 February 2009). "230 miles in a car equates to one micromort: The agony and Ecstasy of risk-taking". The Times. London. Retrieved 19 April 2009.
- "Understanding Uncertainty". Understanding Uncertainty. Retrieved 2013-08-24.
- * Howard, Ron Risky Decisions (Slide show), Stanford University
- "The Odds of Airborne Terror". 2009-12-27. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
- Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. MDMA ('ecstasy'): a review of its harms and classification under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. London: UK Home Office, 2009: p 18. http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/publications/agencies-public-bodies/acmd1/mdma-report
- Blastland, Michael; Spiegelhalter, David (2014). The Norm Chronicles: Stories and Numbers About Danger and Death (1 ed.). Basic Books. p. 8. ISBN 9780465085705.
- Walker, K. F.; Cohen, A. L.; Walker, S. H.; Allen, K. M.; Baines, D. L.; Thornton, J. G. (May 2014). "The dangers of the day of birth". BJOG: an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. 121 (6): 714–718. doi:10.1111/1471-0528.12544. ISSN 1471-0528. PMID 24521517.
- Spiegelhalter, David; Blastland, Michael (2013-05-30). The Norm Chronicles: Stories and numbers about danger (Main ed.). London: Profile Books. ISBN 9781846686207.
- Howard, R. A. (1989). "Microrisks for Medical Decision Analysis". International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care. 5 (3): 357–370. doi:10.1017/S026646230000742X. PMID 10295520.
- Russell, Stuart; Norvig, Peter (2009). Artificial Intelligence (3rd ed.). Prentice Hall. p. 616. ISBN 0-13-604259-7.
- Department for Transport GMH, United Kingdom, "TAG Unit 3.4: The Safety Objective", Transport Analysis Guidance—WebTAG http://www.dft.gov.uk/webtag/documents/expert/unit3.4.1.php
- US Department of Transportation, "Treatment of the Economic Value of a Statistical Life in Departmental Analyses—2011 Interim Adjustment", 2011, http://www.dot.gov/policy/transportation-policy/treatment-economic-value-statistical-life
- "Radiation dose issues and risk" (PDF). European Society of Radiology. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 February 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
- Ronald A. Howard (1984). "On Fates Comparable to Death". Management Science. 30 (4): 407–422. doi:10.1287/mnsc.30.4.407.
- Center for the Study & Improvement of Regulation. "What is a MicroMort?". Archived from the original on 15 April 2013.