Microvillous inclusion disease

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Microvillus inclusion disease
Autorecessive.svg
Microvillous inclusion disease has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance.

Microvillus inclusion disease, also known as Davidson's disease, congenital microvillus atrophy and, less specifically, microvillus atrophy (note: microvillus is often misspelled as microvillous), is a rare genetic disorder of the small intestine that is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.[1][2]

Presentation[edit]

It is characterized by chronic, intractable diarrhea in new-born infants, starting in the first few days of life.[3] This results in metabolic acidosis and severe dehydration.[citation needed] Pregnancy and birth are usually normal.

Pathophysiology[edit]

It is caused by a congenital atrophy of apical microvilli and intracellular accumulation of apical enzymes in the epithelial cells of the small intestine.[4]

Diagnosis[edit]

Prenatal screening in utero is currently offered by several medical centers since the gene(s) involved in the disease were recently discovered to be MYO5B;[5][6] Diagnosis is typically made by biopsy of the small intestine.[1]

Biopsy[edit]

The appearance of microvillous inclusion disease on light microscopy is similar to celiac sprue; however, it usually lacks the intraepithelial lymphocytic infiltration characteristic of celiac sprue and stains positive for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).[2] The definitive diagnosis is dependent on electron microscopy.[7]

Differential diagnosis[edit]

The differential diagnosis of chronic and intractable diarrhea is:[8]

  • Intestinal epithelial dysplasia
  • Syndromatic diarrhea
  • Immunoinflammatory enteropathy

Prognosis[edit]

It is nearly always fatal unless, like short bowel syndrome patients, treated with parenteral nutrition or an intestinal transplant.[3] The patient is often classified as being in "intestinal failure" and treated with the cohort of patients known as "short bowel syndrome" patients.

Genetic prevalence[edit]

Microvillus inclusion disease is thought to be extremely rare; only approximately 200 cases have been identified in children in Europe.[9]

One patient, a teenage female living in Arizona, suddenly began to grow microvilli after thirteen years of TPN (Total Parenteral Nutrition) and Lipid dependency. She now enjoys a typical teenage diet and is seen regularly by her Gastroenterologist.

One patient from the UK was documented to achieve nutritional independence at age 3.[10]

On 26 June 2009 a six-year-old girl diagnosed with microvillus inclusion disease became the third person in the UK to die of swine flu.[11]

History[edit]

Microvillus inclusion disease was first described in 1978 by Davidson et al.[12] It was originally described as familial enteropathy.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Chehade, Mirna; Sicherer, Scott H (2005). "Infantile food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome". In David, Timothy J. Recent Advances in Paediatrics 22. London: Royal Society of Medicine Press. p. 140. ISBN 1-85315-572-1. 
  2. ^ a b Mills SE, Carter D, Greenson JK, Oberman HA, Reuter V, Stoler MH. Sternberg's Diagnostic Surgical Pathology. 4th Ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Copyright 2004. ISBN 978-0-7817-4051-7.
  3. ^ a b Salvatore, S.; Hauser, B.; Vandenplas, Y. (2007). "Chronic enteropathy and feeding". In Cooke, Richard J.; Vandenplas, Yvan; Wahn, Ulrich. Nutrition Support for Infants and Children at Risk. Basel, Switzerland; New York: Karger. p. 123. ISBN 3-8055-8194-7. 
  4. ^ Arpin, M.; Crepaldi, T.; Louvard, D. (1999). "Cross-talk between Apical and Basolateral Domains of Epithelial Cells Regulates Microvillus Assembly". In Birchmeier, Walter; Birchmeier, Carmen. Epithelial Morphogenesis in Development and Disease. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic. p. 104. ISBN 90-5702-419-5. 
  5. ^ Mueller T; Hess, MW; Schiefermeier, N; Pfaller, K; Ebner, HL; Heinz-Erian, P; Ponstingl, H; Partsch, J; et al. (2008). "MYO5B mutations cause microvillus inclusion disease and disrupt epithelial cell polarity". Nat Genet. 40 (10): 1163–5. doi:10.1038/ng.225. PMID 18724368. 
  6. ^ Szperl A, Golachowska M, Rings E, IJzendoorn S, et al. (2011). "Functional characterization of mutations in the myosin Vb gene associated with microvillus inclusion disease". J Ped Gastroenterol Nutr. 52 (3): 307–13. doi:10.1097/MPG.0b013e3181eea177. PMC 3058815Freely accessible. PMID 21206382. 
  7. ^ Kennea N, Norbury R, Anderson G, Tekay A (2001). "Congenital microvillous inclusion disease presenting as antenatal bowel obstruction". Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 17 (2): 172–4. doi:10.1046/j.1469-0705.2001.00211.x. PMID 11251929. 
  8. ^ Ruemmele FM (2007). "Chronic enteropathy: molecular basis". Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. Series Set, 2007. 59: 73–85; discussion 85–8. doi:10.1159/000098514. ISBN 3-8055-8194-7. PMID 17245092. 
  9. ^ Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) Microvillus atrophy -251850
  10. ^ Croft NM; Howatson, AG; Ling, SC; Nairn, L; Evans, TJ; Weaver, LT (2000). "Microvillous inclusion disease: An evolving Condition". J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 31 (2): 185–189. doi:10.1097/00005176-200008000-00019. PMID 10941974. 
  11. ^ "Swine flu girl 'had tough life'". BBC News. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 12 May 2010. 
  12. ^ Davidson GP, Cutz E, Hamilton JR, Gall DG (1978). "Familial enteropathy: a syndrome of protracted diarrhea from birth, failure to thrive, and hypoplastic villus atrophy". Gastroenterology. 75 (5): 783–90. PMID 100367. 

External links[edit]

Classification
External resources