Microwave auditory effect
||It has been suggested that this article be merged with Electrophonic hearing. (Discuss) Proposed since August 2016.|
The microwave auditory effect, also known as the microwave hearing effect or the Frey effect, consists of audible clicks (or, with speech modulation, spoken words) induced by pulsed/modulated microwave frequencies. The clicks are generated directly inside the human head without the need of any receiving electronic device. The effect was first reported by persons working in the vicinity of radar transponders during World War II. During the Cold War era, the American neuroscientist Allan H. Frey studied this phenomenon and was the first to publish information on the nature of the microwave auditory effect.
Pulsed microwave radiation can be heard by some workers; the irradiated personnel perceive auditory sensations of clicking or buzzing. The cause is thought to be thermoelastic expansion of portions of the auditory apparatus. Competing theories explain the results of interferometric holography tests differently.
In 2003–04, the WaveBand Corp. had a contract from the U.S. Navy for the design of a MAE system they called MEDUSA (Mob Excess Deterrent Using Silent Audio) intended to remotely, temporarily incapacitate personnel. The project was cancelled in 2005.
Primary Cold War-era research in the U.S.
The first American to publish on the microwave hearing effect was Allan H. Frey, in 1961. In his experiments, the subjects were discovered to be able to hear appropriately pulsed microwave radiation, from a distance of 100 meters from the transmitter. This was accompanied by side effects such as dizziness, headaches, and a pins and needles sensation.
A decade later, an overview, in the American Psychologist, of radiation impacts on human perceptions, cites investigations at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research that demonstrated 'receiverless' wireless voice transmission: "Appropriate modulation of microwave energy can result in direct 'wireless' and 'receiverless' communication of speech."
A 1998 patent describes a device that can scare off birds from wind turbines, aircraft, and other sensitive installations by way of microwave energy pulses. Using frequencies from 1 GHz to about 40 GHz, the warning system generates pulses of milliseconds duration, which are claimed to be sensed by the birds' auditory systems. It is believed this may cause them to veer away from the protected object.
As stated by the above-mentioned journal entry to the American Psychologist, "the averaged densities of energy required to transmit longer messages would approach the current 10mW/cm² limit of safe exposure", which makes the technology improper for human telecommunication. For this very same 'receiverless' wireless sound transmission to human beings, sound from ultrasound is used instead.
Numerous individuals that might be suffering from auditory hallucinations, delusional disorders or other mental illness have alleged that government agents use forms of mind control technologies based on microwave signals to transmit sounds and thoughts into their heads as a form of electronic harassment, referring to the technology as "voice to skull" or "V2K".
There are extensive online support networks and numerous websites maintained by people fearing mind control. California psychiatrist Alan Drucker has identified evidence of delusional disorders on many of these websites and other psychologists are divided over whether such sites reinforce mental troubles or act as a form of group social support.
Psychologists have identified many examples of people reporting ‘mind control experiences’ (MCEs) on self-published web pages that are "highly likely to be influenced by delusional beliefs". Common themes include “Bad Guys” using “psychotronics” and “microwaves”, frequent mention of the CIA’s MKULTRA project and frequent citing of a scientific paper entitled “Human auditory system response to modulated electromagnetic energy”.
- Photoacoustic effect
- Brain-computer interface
- Electrophonic hearing
- Psychological manipulation
- Specific absorption rate – government standards for measurement of human radio frequency exposures
- Cosmic ray visual phenomena
- Allan H. Frey (1962). "Human auditory system response to modulated electromagnetic energy". Journal of Applied Physiology. 17 (4): 689–692. PMID 13895081. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Levy, Barry S.; Wagner, Gregory R.; Rest, Kathleen M. (2005). Preventing occupational disease and injury. American Public Health Association. p. 428. ISBN 978-0-87553-043-7.
- Taylor, Eldon (15 April 2009). Mind Programming: From Persuasion and Brainwashing, to Self-Help and Practical Metaphysics. Hay House, Inc. pp. 100–101. ISBN 978-1-4019-2513-0.
- "Navy search database – summary report: Remote Personnel Incapacitation System". SBIR/STTR Search Database (Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology Transfer). U.S. Navy. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- Hambling, David (3 July 2008). "Microwave ray gun controls crowds with noise". NewScientist. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- D.R. Justesen. "Microwaves and Behavior", Am Psychologist, 392 (Mar): 391–401, 1975.
- Kreithen ML. Patent #5774088 "Method and system for warning birds of hazards" USPTO granted 30 June 1998
- Monroe, Angela (13 November 2012), Electronic Harassment: Voices in My Mind, archived from the original on 2015-08-29, retrieved 2016-03-10
- Weinberger, Sharon (January 14, 2007). "Mind Games". Washington Post. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- Kershaw, Sarah (November 12, 2008). "Sharing Their Demons on the Web". New York Times.
- Bell, Vaughan; Maiden, Carla; Muñoz-Solomando, Antonio; Reddy, Venu. "'Mind control' experiences on the internet: implications for the psychiatric diagnosis of delusions.". Psychopathology. School of Psychology, Cardiff University. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
References and further reading
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- A.H. Frey. Aero Space Med. 32: 1140, 1961.
- P.C. Neider and W.D. Neff. Science 133: 1010,1961.
- R. Niest, L. Pinneo, R. Baus, J. Fleming, and R. McAfee. Annual Report. USA Rome Air Development Command, TR-61-65, 1961.
- A.H. Frey. "Human auditory system response to modulated electromagnetic energy." J Applied Physiol 17 (4): 689–92, 1962.
- A.H. Frey. "Behavioral Biophysics", Psychol Bull 63(5): 322–37, 1965.
- F.A. Giori and A.R. Winterberger. "Remote Physiological Monitoring Using a Microwave Interferometer", Biomed Sci Instr 3: 291–307, 1967.
- A.H. Frey and R. Messenger. "Human Perception of Illumination with Pulsed Ultrahigh-Frequency Electromagnetic Energy", Science 181: 356–8, 1973.
- R. Rodwell. "Army tests new riot weapon", New Scientist September 20, p. 684, 1973.
- A.W. Guy, C.K. Chou, J.C. Lin, and D. Christensen. "Microwave induced acoustic effects in mammalian auditory systems and physical materials", Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 247:194–218, 1975.
- D.R. Justesen. "Microwaves and Behavior", Am Psychologist, 392 (Mar): 391–401, 1975.
- S.M. Michaelson. "Sensation and Perception of Microwave Energy", In: S.M. Michaelson, M.W. Miller, R. Magin, and E.L. Carstensen (eds.), Fundamental and Applied Aspects of Nonionizing Radiation. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 213–24, 1975.
- E.S. Eichert and A.H. Frey. "Human Auditory System Response to Lower Power Density Pulse Modulated Electromagnetic Energy: A Search for Mechanisms", J Microwave Power 11(2): 141, 1976.
- W. Bise. "Low power radio-frequency and microwave effects on human electroencephalogram and behavior", Physiol Chem Phys 10(5): 387–98, 1978.
- J.C. Lin. Microwave Auditory Effects and Applications, Thomas, Springfield Ill, p. 176, 1978.
- P.L. Stocklin and B.F. Stocklin. "Possible Microwave Mechanisms of the Mammalian Nervous System", T-I-T J Life Sci 9: 29–51, 1979.
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- Seaman, Ronald L., "Transmission of microwave-induced intracranial sound to the inner ear is most likely through cranial aqueducts," Mckesson Bioservices Corporation, Wrair United States Army Medical Research Detachment. (PDF)
- Lin, J.C., 1980, "The microwave auditory phenomenon," Proceedings of the IEEE, 68:67–73. Navy-NSF-supported research.
- Lin, JC., "Microwave auditory effect- a comparison of some possible transduction mechanisms". J Microwave Power. 1976 Mar;11(1):77–81. 1976.
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- Fist, Stewart, "Australian exposure standards". Crossroads, The Australian, March 1999.
- Microwave auditory effects and applications, James C. Lin; Publisher: Thomas; ISBN 0-398-03704-3
- United States Department of Defense, Air Force Research Laboratory comprehensive review on RFR-auditory effect in humans
- Kohn B. "Communicating Via the Microwave Auditory Effect" Defense Department Awarded SBIR Contract # F41624-95-C9007, 1993.
- "Auditory Responses to Pulsed Radiofrequency Energy" Bioelectromagnetics Suppl 8: S162-73, 2003.
- Suppes P, Lu Z, and Han B. "Brain wave recognition of words" Proc Natl Acad Sci 94: 14965-69, 1997.
- Suppes P, Han B, and Lu Z. "Brain-wave recognition of sentences" Proc Natl Acad Sci 95: 15861-66, 1998.
- Assadullahi R and Pulvermuller F. "Neural Network Classification of Word Evoked Neuromagnetic Brain Activity" In: Wermter S, Austin J, and Willahaw D (eds.) Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence: Emergent Neurocomputational Architectures Based on Neuroscience Heidelberg Springer, p. 311–20, 2001.
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- "Human auditory system response to modulated electromagnetic energy". Journal of Applied Physiology. July 1962.