|Connections||Network Rail (at Wymondham South Junction)|
|Name||London and North Eastern Railway|
|Built by||Samuel Morton Peto|
|Original gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge|
|Operated by||Mid-Norfolk Railway Preservation Trust|
|Length||17 1⁄2 mi (28.2 km)|
15 mi (24 km) operational
|Preserved gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge|
|Closed to passengers||6 October 1969|
|Closed||4 August 1980 (to freight)|
1989 (to all traffic)
|1974||Wymondham, Dereham and Fakenham Rail Action Committee formed|
|1978||Fakenham & Dereham Society formed|
|1995||Dereham Rash's Green to Yaxham re-opens to passengers|
|1997||Dereham railway station re-opens to passengers|
|1998||Dereham to Wymondham section re-opens to goods|
|1999||Dereham to Wymondham section re-opens to passengers|
|2013||First passenger train (north of Dereham), as far as Hoe|
|2018||First passenger train to Worthing, since 1964|
The Mid-Norfolk Railway (MNR) is a 15-mile (24 km) preserved standard gauge heritage railway, one of the longest in Great Britain. Preservation efforts began in 1974, but the line re-opened to passengers only in the mid-1990s as part of the "New Generation" of heritage railways.
Regular steam and diesel services run 11 1⁄2 miles (18.5 km) through the centre of Norfolk between the market towns of Wymondham and Dereham via Yaxham, Thuxton and Kimberley Park, and occasional sightseer services continue north of Dereham passing the nearby village of Hoe, where there is no station, to the limit of the operational line at Worthing. The line is periodically used for commercial freight operations and staff instruction for mainline railway companies.
It is the southern section of the former Wymondham-Wells branch line of the Norfolk Railway. The branch opened in 1847, was closed to passengers in stages from 1964 to 1969 as part of the Beeching cuts, and was finally fully closed to goods traffic in 1989. (The northern section of this line has been operated by the Wells and Walsingham Light Railway since 1982.)
The MNR is owned and operated by the Mid-Norfolk Railway Preservation Trust (MNRPT, a charitable company limited by guarantee), and is mostly operated and staffed by volunteers. The company owns a further 3 1⁄2 miles (5.6 km) of line, as far as County School railway station, which will make it the third longest heritage railway in England once restoration is complete. The Mid-Norfolk Railway has had a long-term, published ambition to restore the railway as far as Fakenham, but in 2016 the Chairman, Barry Woodgett, informed North Elmham Parish Council that County School would be the final terminus of the MNR, although the railway still retains the eventual intention of reaching Fakenham.
- 1 History
- 2 Present day
- 3 Route details
- 4 Engineering projects
- 5 Rolling stock
- 6 Funding and associated bodies
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The Wymondham to Wells branch was opened in stages between 15 February 1847 and 1857, after Parliamentary consent was given in 1845. The entire line became part of the Great Eastern Railway in 1862. The Wymondham to Dereham section received double track in 1882, while the line north of there remained single track.
Along with the rest of the Great Eastern Railway, the branch became part of the Southern Area of the London and North Eastern Railway when the various British railway companies were grouped into four large companies in 1923. The line was heavily used during World War I and World War II, with extra Air Ministry sidings provided at Dereham in 1943. In the early days of the war, Dereham was used as a reception centre for the construction materials used to build the local airfields.
The nationalisation of the "Big Four" railway companies placed the line as part of the Eastern Region of British Railways on 1 January 1948. The branch line between County School and Wroxham closed to passengers on 15 September 1952, with the section between Foulsham and Reepham closing to goods as well. A stub of the western section, between County School and Foulsham remained open for goods until 31 October 1964, being busiest in the sugar beet season.
The passenger service between Dereham and Wells ended on 5 October 1964. Dereham became an intermediate station for Norwich to King's Lynn services. In June 1965, the Wymondham to Dereham section was reduced to single track with a passing loop at Hardingham. The passenger service from King's Lynn ended on 9 September 1968, with the Midland & Great Northern Joint Railway Society operating the 'East Anglian Branch Line Farewell' DMU special on the final Saturday. The withdrawal of the remaining passenger services, between Wymondham and Dereham, followed in October 1969.
Goods traffic continued after the passenger closure. The 1973 oil crisis led to a meeting being held at Dereham in 1974 by the Railway Development Society in order to petition for the restoration of passenger services between Wymondham and Fakenham. British Rail gave a price of £247,000 for such a restoration, but this proposal was rejected by Norfolk County Council. This meeting resulted in the formation of the Wymondham, Dereham and Fakenham Railway Action Committee.
In 1977 the Wymondham, Dereham and Fakenham Railway Action Committee presented the Norfolk County Chief Planning Officer with a report putting the case for restoring rail passenger services between Norwich, Dereham and Fakenham East.[full citation needed] Complete closure of the line took place in June 1989.
Fakenham and Dereham Railway Society
In 1978 the Fakenham & Dereham Railway Society (F&DRS), a forerunner of the MNR, was formed to preserve the line between these two towns. Its attempt in 1980 to preserve the Ryburgh to Fakenham section of line failed, and the society instead leased Hardingham station in 1983. The small heritage centre had track re-laid in the former goods yard, and acquired a Ruston 0-4-0 diesel locomotive. The centre was commercially unsuccessful, forcing the society to leave the site—which was auctioned in 1986—and move to a temporary location at Yaxham station.
In 1987 Breckland District Council bought the station at County School, and granted the F&DRS a 999-year lease, inviting the society to re-lay track and relocate to the site. The intention was to re-connect the station with British Rail's railhead at North Elmham to connect with charter trains operating over the branch. This plan was abandoned when the complete closure of the line from June 1989 was announced.
Mid-Norfolk Railway Society and Great Eastern Railway (1989) Ltd.
In response to the approaching closure of the entire branch between Wymondham, Dereham and North Elmham, the Great Eastern Railway (1989) Limited formed to save the line. The F&DRS backed this scheme, and signed its lease of County School station over to the company. The society, renamed the Mid-Norfolk Railway Society in 1990, continued to provide financial backing and manpower for the development of the County School site. The running line was extended over 1⁄2 mile (0.80 km) towards North Elmham, and a collection of rolling stock was built up. The first passenger train, a Mk2 brake coach converted to work as a DBSO with an industrial diesel locomotive, operated at the County School site on 2 November 1991.
In 1991 the managing director of the GER (1989) Ltd., Trevor Cleaver, stated that he had raised much of the required finance and that the company intended to provide a regular passenger train service over the line by 1993. About 400 commuters a day were expected to use the service. Plans were also announced for special excursions such as shopping trips to London and summer seaside services. The plans included providing a hotel and conference centre at Dereham, along with a public house and shopping arcade.
During the early 1990s the GER(1989), contrary to the earlier announcements relating to the future of the line, announced plans to lift the railway between Dereham and Wymondham. The MNRS withdrew their support for the GER(1989) and made their own bid for the line.
In 1994 the British Railways Property Board granted the MNRS access to the railway line between Wymondham and North Elmham on a temporary 'care and maintenance' basis. This was in response to increasing levels of vandalism occurring at the site, a problem which had worsened after the Great Eastern company had lifted the track between Norwich Road level crossing and a point just north of the Automatic Open Level Crossings. The first working party was held at Dereham station on Saturday 23 July 1994.
In December 1994 Class 20 diesels 20069 and 20206 were moved by road from County School to the truncated railhead at Dereham. On Christmas Eve, with permission from British Rail, both locomotives made their way along the line to Yaxham station. They were driven by Chris Pearson, a main line driver who had been relief driver on the final train into Dereham in April 1989.
In 1995 Yorkshire Bank called in the receivers to solve concerns with the Great Eastern Railway (1989) Ltd. In June 1995 Breckland Council informed the receivers that they wished for the GER (1989) Ltd. to give up the lease for County School station so that they could review their operations in respect of the site. The GER (1989) Ltd., who stated that they were attracting 12,000 visitors a year to the site, announced that they would contest this decision.
In July 1995, police were called in to investigate the sudden and unauthorised road transfer of two Mid-Norfolk Railway Society Mk 2 coaches to a breaker's yard at nearby Lenwade. In July 1996 Breckland District Council issued a threat to stop trains running at County School station, as it was found that someone other than the leaseholder was operating trains at the site; the lease being non-transferable. In November 1996 Breckland District Council brought in 24-hour security guards at the County School site in order to prevent the stripping of the property after having served an eviction order on the GER(1989) in mid-October.
County School station was boarded up and GER (1989) Ltd rolling stock was concentrated in the isolated yard prior to disposal or scrapping. All track north of the station platforms was then lifted, and, as shown in the photograph, the site was left to become derelict.
Mid-Norfolk Railway Preservation Trust
The Mid-Norfolk Railway Preservation Trust (MNRPT) was formed in 1995 through the merger of the campaign groups and organisations that had been trying to restore passenger services over the route since 1974. The charity aims "to preserve and to renovate reconstruct and operate... the Great Eastern Railway line running between County School at North Elmham... and Wymondham..."
In July 1995 two Mk2 coaches were transferred by road from County School railway station to the truncated railhead at Dereham, where they were placed between the already present Class 20 locomotives. These coaches were then hauled to the MNR's temporary base at Yaxham. A further three coaches were delivered on 17 August.
On 29 November 1995 the section of railway between Yaxham station and a temporary halt built beside a footpath crossing on the Rash's Green industrial estate in Dereham was inspected by Chris Hall, H.M. Principal Inspecting Officer of Railways. Permission to operate passenger trains over this section was granted from Saturday 23 December 1995. 63 trains, each composed of the five Mk2 coaches topped and tailed by the Class 20s, were operated between this date and 14 January 1996. In October 1995 Breckland District Council established a rail working party to consider purchasing the line from British Rail, then leasing it out to a rail group - of which the Mid-Norfolk Railway was the preferred lessee.
On 11 April 1998 the Mid-Norfolk Railway Preservation Trust bought the route between Wymondham and Dereham for £100,000. This included the Dereham station buildings and the 6.5 acres (2.6 ha) goods yard. The British Rail Property Board also sold the 4 1⁄2 miles (7.2 km) of track between Dereham and North Elmham for £25,000. On 17 March 1998 the MNRPT had signed a Tenancy at Will agreement with Breckland District Council to take over the station and trackbed at County School. This agreement was to allow the railway to take control of the station until it could afford to buy it outright, and followed on from the removal of the remaining rolling stock associated with the defunct Great Eastern Railway (1989) Ltd from the site.
The original Dereham station was re-opened to passengers on Saturday 26 July 1997, with the first services being operated by 1890-built Manning Wardle 0-6-0T 'Sir Berkeley', hired from the Keighley and Worth Valley Railway. British Railways Board (Residuary) Limited transferred the line between Wymondham and Dereham to the MNRPT on 23 September 1997. The first preservation-era train to operate between Dereham and Wymondham ran on 8 February 1998, when a works train hauled by 20069 and Ruston & Hornsby 0-4-0 'County School ran as part of preparations for a March freight test train. The first commercial freight train operated on 8 July 1998.
Passenger services between Dereham and Wymondham commenced in 1999, with the opening of Wymondham Abbey railway station. The first passenger train to use the new station, on 2 May 1999, was operated by a Class 108 DMU. Thuxton station opened as a daylight hours only request halt at the same time, although Kimberley Park and Hardingham remained closed.
Following the completion of infrastructure work, such as the replacement of the water tower at Dereham and the provision of an inspection pit, steam passenger services returned to the Dereham to Wymondham Abbey section on Sunday 30 April 2006. These were operated by Great Western Railway pannier tank number 9466 from the Buckinghamshire Railway Centre. The ownership of the section of railway line between Dereham and North Elmham, part of that originally authorised by the Norfolk Railway Extensions, Dereham, Wells and Blakeney Branch Act 1846, was passed to the Mid-Norfolk Railway in October 2001.
Part of the line from County School to Wroxham is now the narrow gauge Bure Valley Railway. The formation between Wells and the religious centre of Walsingham now hosts the miniature Wells and Walsingham Light Railway. Both schemes are independent of the MNR. Another independent scheme, the "Norfolk Orbital Railway" plans to link the MNR to the North Norfolk Railway and the coast at Sheringham. In 2009 the Whitwell & Reepham Preservation Society announced an eventual intention to link up with either the North Norfolk Railway or Mid-Norfolk Railway.
The Mid-Norfolk Railway Preservation Trust is authorised by the Department for Transport to operate the railway in two statutory instruments, The Mid-Norfolk Railway Order 1997 and The Mid-Norfolk Railway Order 2001. The orders detail the length of track and level crossings over which the railway is permitted to operate trains (subject to safety inspections etc.) and refer to both the Norwich and Brandon Railway Act 1845 and the Norfolk Railway Extensions, Dereham, Wells and Blakeney Branch Act 1846.
The 11 1⁄2 miles (18.5 km) section of line between Dereham and Wymondham is in regular use, with a further 3 1⁄2 miles (5.6 km) to Worthing passed for operation, but only used for passengers during special events and for works trains enabling the reconditioning of the derelict line further north. The company also owns the next 2.5 miles (4.0 km) of disused line from Worthing to County School station near North Elmham, although a section of about one mile (1.6 km) lacks track between North Elmham and County School. This makes the Mid-Norfolk Railway one of the longest standard-gauge heritage railways in the United Kingdom. Beyond the railway's holding, the trackbed is mostly intact from County School to Fakenham, and is reserved by the council for railway use. The MNR and other groups plan to restore the line to this third market town.
The MNR's preserved stations include Yaxham, which retains its original signal box and shelters. Trains hauled by both steam and diesel locomotives run on most weekends from the end of February to December, and on Wednesdays and Thursdays in summer. There are also various special events throughout the year.
Guest steam locomotives
Although predominantly diesel-operated, the MNR is not a diesel-only railway. The first train from Dereham after preservation, running between Dereham and Yaxham, was hauled by Manning Wardle 0-6-0 tank locomotive "Sir Berkeley", and the railway has always intended to operate both steam and diesel trains.
In 2000 the railway arranged the loan of Barclay 0-4-0 saddle tank 'Little Barford'. Although the locomotive was too small to operate a scheduled service over the line it was used for a number of crew training runs, and, on Monday 12 June 2000, it became the first steam locomotive in preservation to operate over the entire route between Dereham and Wymondham. Steam also visited the line, although not to operate services, in 2001 when LNER Thompson Class B1 61264 was routed via Dereham for repairs after failing on railtour at Norwich, 20 November.
The 2006 return of steam-hauled passenger services marked the completion of Dereham Station restoration and the installation of steam infrastructure (such as the water tower).
The first locomotive to haul timetabled steam services over the Dereham to Wymondham section since 1955 was GWR 9400 Class 9466. The same locomotive returned to operate the line's steam services in June and July 2007, although Battle of Britain class 34067 Tangmere also visited this year, operating some scheduled trains and hauling the first steam charter from Dereham (to London Liverpool Street), on 5 May. Steam services have continued to operate during summer months.
Mid-Norfolk Railway facilitates commercial freight trains, using its connection with the National Rail network at Wymondham. Dereham yard was used as a servicing depot by Direct Rail Services in late 2007 and 2008 and for storage of Network Rail track plant since 2008.
The road vehicle loading ramp in Dereham yard is frequently used by mainline train operators to load damaged rolling stock onto road vehicles. Such rolling stock usually comes at night (via the connection with the mainline at Wymondham) at slow speed (sometimes on wheelskates) from Crown Point depot in Norwich (where no road-rail loading facilities are available) for onward road movement to specialist repair facilities around the country.
The line has also been used to carry equipment for army units based at Robertson Barracks or undergoing training at the Stanford Training Area, most recently in January 2009. Operation of these trains involves both resident and mainline locomotives.
|17 June 1998||EWS||47241 'Halewood Silver Jubilee'||First trial MOD train, including inspection saloon.|
|8 July 1998||EWS||37263||First MOD train, composed VGA wagons.|
|9 July 1998||EWS||47298||MOD train, composed Warwell and Warflat wagons.|
|17 July 1998||EWS||37707||MOD train, composed VGA, Warwell and Warflat wagons.|
|5 October 1998||EWS||47200 'Herbert Austin'||MOD train, composed VGA wagons.|
|8 October 1998||EWS||47312 'Parsec of Europe'||MOD train, composed Warwell and Warflat wagons.|
|15 October 1998||EWS||47316||MOD train, composed Warwell and Warflat wagons.|
|23 April 1999||EWS||37248 'Midland Railway Centre' + 37178||MOD train, composed VGA, Warwell and Warflat wagons.|
|20 January 2002||EWS||47786 'Roy Castle OBE'||Transfer of fire damaged 86252 from Norwich.|
|26 September 2008||EWS||66105||Trial MOD train.|
|8 January 2009||DB Schenker||66157||MOD train, composed VGA, Warwell and Warflat wagons.|
|8 January 2009||DRS||37087||Collecting Network Rail stoneblower.|
|28 November 2009||DB Schenker||66201||MOD train, composed VGA, Warwell and Warflat wagons.|
Commercial works trains operated on the line between 2018 and 2019, in conjunction with the Kimberley and Hardingham storage project. These were operated by a number of locomotives hired in for the purpose. These included BR Standard Class 4 2-6-4T steam locomotive 80078, BR Class 03 03197 and BR Class 33 33202.
- Training and testing
The Mid-Norfolk Railway is frequently used by mainline companies for crew training and the storage and testing of recommissioned and new on-track plant, including ballast tampers, ballast regulators, stoneblowers and Multi-Purpose Vehicles from companies including Network Rail and Balfour Beatty Rail Ltd. Since 2001 the line has been used annually for low adhesion training, or skidpan training, for crews from Anglia Railways, latterly for National Express East Anglia, where a specially fitted Class 153 treats the track with a slimy solution before the crew practices stopping in a virtual station. The line has also been used for training exercises by East of England Ambulance Service, Norfolk Police and the Fire Brigade, including major incident training involving air ambulances.
Before the preservation of the line, a number of special trains and demonstration services were operated over the line by the Wymondham & Dereham Rail Action Committee (WyDRAC) and the Railway Development Society (RDS) to help maintain pressure for the restoration of passenger services over the line. By the line's closure, twenty special trains had operated, carrying over 5,000 passengers.
The junction with the main line at Wymondham has allowed the Mid-Norfolk Railway to continue to be used by a number of charter and excursion trains, which operate over the line as part of the wider rail network.
|8 May 1999||Hertfordshire Rail Tours||47747 'Res Publica' & 47772||King's Cross to Dereham excursion.|
|21 April 2001||NENTA||47746 'The Bobby' & 47776 'Respected'||Dereham to York excursion.|
|20 April 2002||NENTA||47749 'Atlantic College' & 67008||Dereham to Portsmouth excursion.|
|31 August 2002||NENTA||67006 & 67021||Norwich - Dereham to Bristol excursion.|
|23 November 2002||Hertfordshire Rail Tours||47741 'Resilient' & 66086||King's Cross to Dereham excursion.|
|17 May 2003||NENTA||67006 & 67016||Dereham to York, Durham or Newcastle excursion.|
|2 August 2003||NENTA||47778 'Duke of Edinburgh's Award' & 67026||Dereham to Severn Valley Railway excursion.|
|22 November 2003||Hertfordshire Rail Tours||67008 & 67009||King's Cross to Dereham excursion.|
|21 August 2004||NENTA||47703 & 47832||Dereham to Chester excursion.|
|9 September 2006||NENTA||47703 & 47709||Dereham to Scarborough excursion.|
|5 May 2007||The Railway Touring Company||34067 'Tangmere' & 47812||Norwich to Dereham excursion.|
|11 August 2007||NENTA||47805 & 47853||Dereham to Weymouth excursion.|
|26 March 2011||Hastings Diesels Ltd||1001||Hastings via Tonbridge, East Croydon, Barnes, West Hampstead, Hitchin, Cambridge, Ely and Wymondham to Dereham.|
|14 May 2011||UK Railtours / East Midland Trains||43075/43082 'The Railway Children'||London St. Pancras via the Leicester, Peterborough, Ely and Wymondham to Dereham.|
|18 May 2013||UK Railtours / East Midland Trains||43047/43055||London St. Pancras via Leicester, Peterborough, Ely and Wymondham to Dereham (and then north of Hoe Level Crossing).|
|10 August 2013||Charity Railtours||60054/37605 & 37611||Eastleigh to the Port of Felixstowe via Wymondham Abbey. Train didn't go north of Wymondham Abbey.|
|8 March 2014||Pathfinder Railtours||37402, 37409 and 37218||Railtour from Crewe to Hoe via Wymondham and Dereham.|
|21 June 2014||NENTA||47851 and 47580 County of Essex||Dereham - Norwich - Wymondham - Attleborough - Thetford - Brandon - Ely - March - Peterborough - Doncaster - York - Malton - Scarborough and return.|
|9 September 2014||The Royal Scotsman||47854 and 57313||Scarborough to Dereham|
|10 September 2014||The Royal Scotsman||47854 and 57313||Dereham to NVR|
|4 July 2015||NENTA||47851 and 47804||Dereham to Bristol|
|8 July 2015||Pathfinder Railtours||37607/37612 and 37059||Bristol to Hoe|
Television, film and theatre use
After passenger closure, County School station was used as the set for Weavers Green station in the Anglia Television soap opera of the same name. The same station, heavily disguised, featured as "Gare de Nouvion" (Nouvion railway station) in the penultimate episode of 'Allo 'Allo!, the comedy series set in occupied France (see picture).
An episode of Off the Rails made for Discovery Channel in 2001 featured some to the activities and volunteers on the railway.
In February 2004 County School stood in for Thetford station in a documentary about the arrival of American troops in World War II, and in September 2005 the same location was used by Capriol Films for the film "Peter Warlock, Some Little Joy" about composer Philip Heseltine.  Dereham station, with the railway's Mark 2 coaches, featured in a minor film and the line has also appeared in documentaries for local and national television.
In 2010 former Conservative cabinet minister turned broadcaster and writer Michael Portillo visited the railway to film material for an episode in the second series of the BBC series Great British Railway Journeys. The filming used the Mid-Norfolk's green liveried 1957-built two carriage Class 101 Diesel Multiple Unit.
In 2012 Dereham railway station was used as a stage for productions of the musical The Railway Children, 2016 saw the line and Dereham station featured as "Fallmarsh" station in horror film 'Possum' and the line was used for the filming of the opening scenes of BBC drama Bodyguard in 2018.
The Mid-Norfolk Railway was established as a multi-functional line, with an intention to operate a community service in addition to tourist and freight services. The railway has also stated their belief that a commuter service between Dereham and Norwich remains a viable proposition, with the MNR either running the service themselves or working with an existing train operator. One obstacle on the MNR to running such services is the requirement to operate five manual gated level crossings between Dereham and Wymondham, although level crossing automation is a possibility in the future. In June 2009 the Association of Train Operating Companies published a document (Connecting Communities: Expanding Access to the Rail Network) calling for the restoration of services on a variety of former branch lines, including the Dereham branch. This £30m proposal would see regular services restored between Dereham and Norwich, operated subject to agreement with the Mid-Norfolk Railway Preservation Trust.
In another role within the community, the railway has become a focus point for vintage rallies and other special events. On 19 April 2007 a special reenactment of life in the World War II era was organised by the Mid-Norfolk Railway and hosted at County School station. On 22 June 2009 over a hundred road vehicles from origins of the 70s and earlier were hosted by the railway for a special event.
- County School station was presented with a Highly Commended certificate in the 1990 Ian Allan National Heritage Railway Awards.
- Hardingham station was awarded the Ian Allan Heritage Award in 2001.
- In 2012 the railway was awarded the Heritage Railway Association's Modern Traction Award for "its continued excellence in specialising in the operation of 1970s stock in BR 1970s livery, culminating in a significant bringing together of Nine Class 47 locomotives, approximately 10% of the surviving fleet".
- In December 2013 the railway was awarded the Ian Allan Heritage Railway of the Year Award 2013.
- On 20 March 2011 a car collided with the level crossing gates at Kimberley Park station, demolishing the south gate.
- On Wednesday 7 September 2011 a loaded passenger train collided with a lorry on the Greens Lane un-gated level crossing in Dereham. Nobody was injured in the collision and the train was able to complete its journey after a 45-minute delay.
- On 30 June 2012 GWR steam locomotive 9466 collided with stabled Class 20 diesel D8069 causing damage that the MNR estimated at the time could have run to hundreds of thousands of pounds to repair. No-one was injured.
The Mid-Norfolk Railway Preservation Trust owned trackbed starts in the Wensum valley, a designated Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Candidate Special Area of Conservation, taking a roughly southerly direction. Track is missing between County School and North Elmham, but remains in situ from this point onwards and becomes operational from a point near the hamlet of Hoe. The line soon climbs out of the valley and enters the town of Dereham, passing two of the town's former maltings, including the Grade II* listed Crisps Malting buildings.
Leaving Dereham the route runs roughly southeast, passing over the River Tud, then descending to pass through the head of the Yare valley near the village of Thuxton. After passing Kimberley Park, the restored windmill at Wicklewood can be seen to the west of the line, before the line drops into the Tiffey valley and most services terminate at a halt close to the Grade I listed Wymondham Abbey, a former Benedictine priory founded in 1107 and now serving as the Parish Church. Although not open to regular services, the line continues a further 1 mile (1.6 km) before joining with the main line at Wymondham railway station.
The route of the MNR includes the following stations, listed from north to south:
- Proposed extension
|Fakenham East||Redeveloped||1857||5 October 1964||The station was demolished after closure and the site redeveloped as sheltered housing after final closure in 1980. The Norfolk Orbital Railway owns a section of the formation south from the station, and the restoration plans for the railway, included in the town plan, involve the creation of a replacement station on a new location.
Heading south from the former station site, the route passes over the former M&GN line to King's Lynn. The plans would see a spur, proposed during the original construction of the latter line, being constructed enabling a new station to be located close to the town's former gas works. The line then passes over the River Wensum, along the rear boundary fence of the Pensthorpe Natural Park, whose original creator requested a station to facilitate sustainable transport to and from the site, before reaching Great Ryburgh.
|Ryburgh||Closed / Private||1857||5 October 1964||Remaining buildings are in private ownership, with the original station having been destroyed in an air raid. After final closure in 1981 the platform was cut back and the formation is blocked by temporary maltings structures and a private access driveway.
The closure of the station was raised in the House of Commons due to concerns about whether the roads could cope with the volume of goods sent from the local maltings. The line south of the station is partially in use as permissive footpaths, although two bridge decks have been removed and the section between these is not open to the public. The section is subject to Policy CT7 of Norfolk County Council's adopted Core Strategy. The track route corridor from Fakenham through to County school, the Northern station on the Mid-Norfolk railway being safeguarded for rail use.
- Section Under restoration
|County School||Visitor Centre||1886||5 October 1964||Restored to LNER World War II condition with help from European funding, the station was presented as a museum memorial to the contribution of railways to modern warfare until it was repainted in a different colour scheme in 2010. The station has a car park, picnic area, toilets, and tea room. It serves as the focus for several footpaths in the Wensum Valley. The station's unspoilt isolation has seen it used as a film location on several occasions. The station was presented with a Highly Commended certificate in the 1990 Ian Allan National Heritage Railway Awards.
The line south of the station has been partially relayed, following planning consent for the restoration and operation of the line being granted in 1992. A one mile gap remains between the Mid-Norfolk's tracks at North Elmham and the relayed MNR track at County School, which much of the latter likely to also need to be replaced prior to the restoration of train services. The line runs through the Wensum Valley, with the only level crossing on this section being on a private road owned by the railway company, and no public highways being crossed.
|North Elmham||Closed / Private||20 March 1849||5 October 1964||Building and platform are in private ownership.
Plans exist to relay the track and build a new platform to enable the restoration of passenger services. The current layout in the station and south of the level crossing will need to be removed and relaid as straight track, these changes will happen as funds and volunteer labour allow. The line south of the station is operational, albeit not open to passenger trains at this time. The route passes to the rear of the historic RAF Swanton Morley, and passes the hamlet of Hoe before entering Dereham. There are six public road level crossings and several bridges on this section. The line is very rarely in passenger use as no stations are open to passengers on this section of the railway and due to the lack of signalling systems in Dereham.
- Operational section
|Dereham||Open||15 February 1847||6 October 1969||The headquarters of the railway, and has been restored to 1950s condition with help from European and Government funding. The station has a large car park, and is situated close to the town centre.
The station was originally equipped with 4 platforms, of which two are presently in passenger use, being platforms 2 and 3 which are set back to back and are generally employed as a single platform. The site of the original locomotive shed is now the town's swimming pool, but a replacement locomotive depot has been built in the former goods yard.
The single track line southwards runs through the town, before arriving at the nearby village of Yaxham, and was the first section of the railway restored by the Mid-Norfolk Railway, when a temporary halt was provided at Rash's Green.
|Yaxham||Open||15 February 1847||6 October 1969||The station retains many of its buildings, including the signal box, in private ownership. However, there are no passenger facilities or shelter on the operational platform. Yaxham is also the home of the Yaxham Light Railway, who operate from behind the abolished up platform, and a steam locomotive boiler engineering company based in the former goods yard.
The single track line continues through the station, passing through a sequence of cuttings and embankments before reaching a level crossing at Garvestone where a station has previously been proposed. The line then divides into double track for the extended passing loop and storage siding at Thuxton.
|Thuxton||Open||15 February 1847||6 October 1969||Thuxton's waiting rooms are, as with all the intermediate stations, mostly private. The down platform waiting room has been restored as holiday accommodation, with the station house being a private home.
Work to complete a passing loop at this site, provide operational signalling and lengthen the up platform to accommodate longer and more frequent train services was completed in 2010. The signalling is operated from a new signal box located beside the level crossing. The foundations of the waiting room on the up platform were left in place and are being reconstructed to provide passenger facilities at what is now the main passing point on the route.
Double track extends for a considerable distance south of the station, having been relayed to serve as a storage siding. The single operating line, on the down formation, continues through fields to Hardingham.
|Hardingham||Closed / Private||15 February 1847||6 October 1969||Hardingham station is restored and is passed between Thuxton and Kimberley Park. However this station, apart from the platforms, is private and no scheduled trains stop there. There are no public rights of way from nearby roads to any part of the station. In 2001 the station was awarded the Ian Allan Heritage Award.
The station yard, also in private ownership, is equipped with two maintenance sheds. A variety of mainline and industrial rolling stock is maintained on site. In recent years public trains have stopped specially at Hardingham on the of the Hardingham Fete.
Double track extends southwards from the station, over Danemoor Bank - with the up formation being reserved for use as a storage siding. Approaching Kimberley, a large storage yard has been created on a former rail-served quarry site and part of the up formation as part of a contract to store mainline rolling stock.
|Kimberley Park||Open||15 February 1847||6 October 1969||The station building is a private home, with the up platform having been partially removed. The down platform has been restored for passenger use, and is provided with a small GER-style passenger shelter.
The single track section continues southwards from the station, passing Wicklewood in a deep cutting, and then passing over the main Dereham to Wymondham road close to Crownthorpe before entering the Tiffey Valley and the outskirts of Wymondham.
|Wymondham Abbey||Open||2 May 1999||-||The station is a basic platform built using scaffolding and boards close to Wymondham Abbey. MNR trains do not serve the main Wymondham railway station, which is served by trains on the Breckland Line of the National Rail network. Wymondham and Wymondham Abbey stations are separated by a one-mile (1.6 km) walk through the town centre. During January 2013 some improvement works were made to the station including the replacement of the whole platform surface using pre-coated non-slip phenolic plywood. These boards failed to withstand the weather conditions and were replaced with non-slip GRP boards in late 2014.
Wymondham has a reversing loop provided south of the adjacent level crossing, on the site of an original Norfolk Railway station (the foundations of which being discovered during works on the site), before continuing to the main line junction. At this time this section is not usually operated by passenger services.
Large projects have been completed with help from European and Government funding, including restoration of Dereham station building, construction of a locomotive pit and provisions for steam working. Almost all the work, including maintaining the track and locomotives, running the trains and working the crossings, is by unpaid volunteers - although a condition of recent funding is the creation of a number of paid posts.
Other future projects include the installation of signalling at Dereham and Wymondham, the new Thuxton signal box was commissioned during in summer 2015.
Dereham station restoration
Dereham station had, since closure, been totally stripped out and gutted by a major fire in 1988. In 2002 the line was awarded over £600,000 in grants from the European Union and the East of England Development Agency. This allowed the railway to restore the station and several associated buildings, including the two railway-owned crossing cottages and a World War II pillbox.
In June 2013 a planning application was approved by Breckland District Council for the construction of a footbridge at Dereham Station to link platforms 1 and 2. This was to involve the restoration and assembly of the original footbridge from Whittlesford station. In 2018 this footbridge was sold by the railway.
Dereham locomotive shed
In order to allow for restoration and maintenance of locomotives and rolling stock, the line decided to build a new shed in Dereham yard. In 2014 a suitable 18m x 55m building frame was located near Goole using Ebay, purchased and brought to Dereham. The railway is still looking for funding and donations to complete the project. The site in Dereham Yard was cleared and levelled in early 2015 with the spoil moved north of Hoe to widen an embankment using wagons hired for five days from Network Rail.
In 2018 a new locomotive shed was built, following the award of a £100,000 grant from the European Union. The grant from the EU Leader Fund’s Wensum and Coast Local Area Group amounted to 80% of the project’s total construction cost and is dependent on future job creation.
Thuxton loop and signalling works
The Mid-Norfolk Railway's 2001 Bearer Bond issue proposals included £60,000 for the provision of a passing loop at Hardingham. With this station being in private hands this proposal was abandoned in favour of a loop at Thuxton.
During 2008, the company began construction of the passing loop at Thuxton station to allow hourly departures from Dereham and Wymondham. Preparatory works were carried out late in 2008 and the first phase of work; installing the southern turn out commenced during January 2009, this was completed on schedule during February of the same year. Panels of track for the loop were laid, levelled and ballasted and the both turn outs installed by the end of 2009. The final major task on the track work will see the level crossing widened to accommodate the double track.
The loop was declared operational in September 2010, although with limited signalling working from a covered ground frame and part of the restored up platform remaining out of use. The first scheduled passenger trains to pass at Thuxton did so during the 2010 Autumn Diesel Gala, in which the railway operated at its most intensive service levels ever.
Full signalling will be included as part of the final project including five semaphore and two colour light signals along with two point motors to operate the turnouts. These will be controlled from a new signal box on site sourced from East Winch on the former King's Lynn line. This project has also made the commissioning of the dormant Dereham Central signal box a priority for the company. As of 29 January 2009, over £25,000 has been raised towards the new works taking the appeal over half way. Since becoming operational in September 2010, work has continued on the signalling, the signal box became operational during summer 2015 allowing the temporary ground frame and shed to be removed. A Trap point will be fitted to the exit of the siding south of Thuxton station, as well as additional signals including signals allowing bi-directional movements in the down platform and a ground frame at Garvestone crossing with associated gate locks and distant signals interlocked with Thuxton signal box. The completed scheme will allow the train from Wymondham to arrive before the train from Dereham when two trains are operating, this isn't currently possible. Locomotives will also be able to run round their trains in the station.
County School station restoration
In 1998 the MNRPT signed a Tenancy at Will with Breckland District Council to take over the station and trackbed at County School. The track north of the platforms had been lifted with the remainder overgrown. The station was boarded up, with smashed glass, a stripped interior and broken windows.
The MNR returned the station to use, as a visitor centre rather than an operational railway museum. Over the next year, the MNR spent £28,000 restoring the station buildings to wartime LNER condition, tidying the grounds and removing scrap material left by the former lessee. With additional investment, the station drive, damaged after decades of neglect, was professionally resurfaced, scrub growth was removed from the railway formation opening up the views of the Wensum Valley for walkers, and formation for the restoration of track was prepared. In 2010 it was repainted into MNR house colours.
County School signal box
The original signal box at County School was demolished after passenger closure, but the locking room footings survived and were restored to allow for the delivery of the original signal cabin from Halesworth to be relocated to the site from Halesworth Middle School, where it had been displayed since 1986. In 2017, after deterioration whilst at County School and with no plans for its restoration or use, the Mid-Norfolk Railway decided to allow the removal of the signalbox from its brick built locking room and its transfer to Mangapps Railway Museum in Essex.
Hardingham - Kimberley Park storage capacity
Following months of negotiations in early 2018 with local train operating company Greater Anglia, a £3.25M agreement was reached to provide siding capacity for approximately 30 Class 755 multiple units.
Greater Anglia require a significant increase in siding capacity while they introduce their new fleet of trains as both the old and new fleets will be in East Anglia at the same time. The agreement was announced to the members of the MNRPT at the Trust's AGM on 30 June 2018 with work commencing on site three weeks later. Construction of the sidings is being paid for from upfront storage charges paid by Greater Anglia. As the principal contractor is Sonic Rail Services of Burnham-on-Crouch, the project has been nicknamed "Project Hedgehog" by some of the MNR's volunteers in honour of Sonic the Hedgehog. The Class 755 units will be stored in the sidings during testing, commissioning and driver training prior to being used for passenger services.
The scheme includes:
- Improving the signalling along the line to improve operational flexibility allowing access to the sidings for train movements and for machinery during the construction phase. This will include a "No-Signalman Key Token" (NSKT) Electric Key Token system.
- Laying a fan of sidings north of Kimberley Park on the east of the line at the 4 mile post including a crossover and headshunt. The Up formation south of the accommodation crossing is being levelled to provide space for an extra flat siding.
- Laying a new running line over Danemoor Bank and through the Up platform at Hardingham station. The Up line on Danemoor Bank will then become a long loop siding ending north of the accommodation crossing south of Danemoor Bank. The new Down line will become the new running line.
- Installing a connection into Hardingham yard for the various owners of the separate parts of the old yard in exchange for the land required to fit the double track past the yard.
This project entails reopening the line north of Dereham to County School in stages, initially to Hoe (a hamlet near Gressenhall). The option to build a platform at Hoe using components from the former St Ives branch was considered but it has been decided to focus efforts on restoring the track to North Elmham where better access is available for visitors, although it will still be possible to add a platform at Hoe in the future if it is considered to be of benefit to the railway. The level crossing at Hoe has been rebuilt to accommodate widening of the road. Gradual sleeper replacement, drainage repair and vegetation clearance is ongoing towards North Elmham.
A railway inspector authorised by the Office of Rail Regulation inspected the section between Dereham and Hoe prior to the first passenger train using the track, the inspector set out rules governing the frequency of use and the necessary inspection regime that should be used on this section as well as the maximum speed permitted. The inspector limited the use of the line north of Dereham to 12 days per year for passenger trains due to the lack of operational signalling equipment in the Dereham station area and the absence of a Facing Point Lock on the points immediately north of Norwich Road level crossing, this legally means they must be clipped and locked manually prior to use by passenger trains. The speed limit north of Dereham is 15 mph due to the condition of the track, the speed limit could be increased by adding additional ballast.
Planning permission for the relaying of the line between County School and North Elmham was granted by Breckland District Council on 9 November 1992. A new Railway Order may have to be issued by the Secretary of State under the Transport and Works Act 1992 to operate a railway north beyond the buffers north of North Elmham station (at ), where the (derelict) track ends. The current limit is set in The Mid-Norfolk Railway Order 2001.
The first full passenger train to operate over the section of line between Dereham and Hoe did so on 18 May 2013, being a main line InterCity 125 charter from London St Pancras station. On 19 May 2018 the line between Hoe and Worthing officially opened to passenger trains bringing the operational legth of the railway to over 15 miles. The section north of Dereham will continue to be used on special event days only until full opening to a station at North Elmham is achieved. On 4 March 2018, 5 "Dogfish" ballast hoppers were moved from the siding in Wymondham and used to drop ballast between Hoe and Worthing before being stabled just south of North Elmham level crossing. This was the first train to reach North Elmham from Wymondham since British Rail closed the line.
The Mid-Norfolk Railway has long-term aims to restore the railway as far as Fakenham, and has held talks with North Norfolk District Council and Fakenham Town Council about restoring the route to a proposed new station close to the town centre. This would result in a 23-mile (37 km)-long route through the centre of Norfolk. The former railway route has been protected from development that would be prejudicial to the creation of railway transport links by North Norfolk District Council and Norfolk County Council.
Norfolk Orbital Railway
The Norfolk Orbital Line is a long term proposed railway of which the Mid-Norfolk Railway would form a significant part. It is an ambitious plan to form a line between Sheringham and Wymondham for regular passenger services, joining up with the Network Rail system at either end. These ambitions were aided on 2 January 2008 when Network Rail announced it was giving consideration to allowing construction of a limited use level crossing between the North Norfolk Railway and the Bittern branch line.
In 2009 the Norfolk Orbital Railway attempted to secure a section of the railway formation in Fakenham, but was outbid by a London developer who claimed not to know of the project. The land was once again auctioned on 10 December 2014, and was secured for the railway project for £24,000. In 2016 the project was awarded £60,000 from the Heritage Lottery Fund to help repair the Fakenham bridges, provide an education resource, equipment for the Fakenham Area Conservation Team and to create a walk along the preserved formation for people to enjoy.
The Mid-Norfolk Railway owns a large collection of heritage rolling stock.
Funding and associated bodies
The Mid-Norfolk Railway is owned and operated by Mid-Norfolk Railway Preservation Trust, a registered charity, with finance for the development of the line coming through the commercial operation of the railway and specific funding appeals. The opening of the line was partly funded by a loan from Breckland District Council of £50,000, repayable over 20 years commencing April 2003 and a loan of £25,000, repayable over 18 years commencing June 2001, from South Norfolk District Council. A grant of £50,000 was made by Norfolk County Council, £25,000 from Breckland D.C. and £12,500 from South Norfolk D.C.
In 2001 the railway launched a Bearer Bond issue of up to £300,010, offering annual interest at 4% per annum as well as capital repayment after ten years. The nominal value of the Bonds will be payable on 31 October 2011. The capital projects proposed for this scheme were:
- "1. Part restoration of the Victorian station buildings, goods shed and stables at Dereham, along with the provision of sidings and maintenance facilities. Dereham was also to be provided with watering, coaling and disposal facilities for steam services. (£150,000)
- "2. A runround facility was to be provided at Wymondham Abbey. (£20,000)
- "3. A passing loop was to be provided at Hardingham. (£60,000)
- "4. Essential preparatory work on track restoration on the Northern Section, towards North Elmham. (£25,000)
- "5. Additional passenger rolling stock was to be purchased. (£25,000)"
The MNR also has several supporting bodies based on the line. The majority are locomotive or rolling stock groups. Private owners have based their stock or locomotives at the line.
The Class 37 Locomotive Group was formed in 1984. The group maintains and operates 37003, which arrived at Dereham in February 2009, and are custodians of 37175, which is owned by one of their long-standing members and kept at the Bo'ness & Kinneil Railway.
The Stratford 47 Group formed in 2001 to save a Class 47 diesel formerly at Stratford depot in East London. It now owns three locomotives, with 47367 Kenny Cockbird and 47596 Aldeburgh Festival operational on the Mid-Norfolk Railway.
In December 2011 the B17 Steam Locomotive Trust announced that they would locate themselves and their project to build two replica LNER Class B17 locomotives on the line. One locomotive will be completed to full main line specifications whilst the other will be for exhibition and display for fund raising purposes.
Other railway preservation societies in Norfolk:
- Bure Valley Railway – built on part of the former County School to Wroxham branch.
- North Norfolk Railway – may be connected to the MNR through the Norfolk Orbital Railway
- Wells and Walsingham Light Railway – built on the northern section of the Wymondham to Wells line.
- Whitwell & Reepham railway station
- Yaxham Light Railway – situated at Yaxham station, beside the MNR.
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|accessdate=(help); External link in
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|accessdate=(help); External link in
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- £3 million deal confirmed as Greater Anglia teams up with the Mid Norfolk Railway
- "'Buy a sleeper' push to County School". Heritage Railway (115): 27. 4 September 2008.
- Blastpipe No.39, Winter 1992/93, p.4
- Engineering works to lay and re-lay track and to operate railway between County School and Breckland boundary
- The Mid-Norfolk Railway Order 2001
- Robin, Jones (March 1998). "Dereham needs steam". Steam Railway (215): 68.
- North Norfolk District Council Strategic transport network[permanent dead link]
- "Orbital rail route back on track". Dereham Times. Retrieved 2009-07-11.
- News Article: Part of bygone rail network up for sale
- "Opportunity to buy land at Pudding Norton... deadline December 10th 2014". Norfolk Orbital Railway. Retrieved 27 November 2014.
- Norfolk Orbital Railway project gets closer to reviving old link to Fakenham
- Railway project will steam ahead despite another set back as vandals strike again
- "Bond Issue". Mid-Norfolk Railway Preservation Trust Prospectus: 1–10. October 2001.
- "Class 37 Group". Class 37 Locomotive Group.
- "Class 50 50019". Mid-Norfolk Railway Preservation Trust web site. Archived from the original on 23 February 2009.
- "Stratford 47 Group". Stratford 47 Group.
- Official Facebook page, including nominal allocation of 37688 to MNR
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mid-Norfolk Railway.|
- The Mid-Norfolk Railway - Main Website