Mid back rounded vowel

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Mid back rounded vowel
IPA number 307 430
Entity (decimal) o​̞
Unicode (hex) U+006F U+031E
Braille ⠕ (braille pattern dots-135) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠣ (braille pattern dots-126)

The mid back rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. While there is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the exact mid back rounded vowel between close-mid [o] and open-mid [ɔ], it is normally written ⟨o⟩. If precision is desired, diacritics may be used, such as ⟨⟩ or ⟨ɔ̝⟩, the former being more common. A non-IPA letter ⟨⟩ is also found.

Just because a language has only one non-close non-open back vowel, it still may not be a true-mid vowel. There is a language in Sulawesi, Indonesia, with a close-mid [o], Tukang Besi. Another language in Indonesia, in the Maluku Islands, has an open-mid [ɔ], Taba. In both languages, there is no contrast with another mid (true-mid or close-mid) vowel.

Kensiu, in Malaysia and Thailand, is highly unusual in that it contrasts true-mid vowels with close-mid and open-mid vowels without any difference in other parameters, such as backness or roundedness.


IPA: Vowels
Front Central Back

Paired vowels are: unrounded  rounded

  • Its vowel height is mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a close vowel and an open vowel.
  • Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Unrounded back vowels tend to be centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-back.
  • Its roundedness is protruded, which means that the corners of the lips are drawn together, and the inner surfaces exposed.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[1] bok [bɔ̝k] 'goat' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩. The height varies between mid [ɔ̝] and close-mid [o].[1] See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic Hejazi[2] لـون [lo̞ːn] 'color' See Hejazi Arabic phonology
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[3] [example needed] Contrasts close-mid /o/, true-mid /o̞/ and open-mid /ɔ/ back rounded vowels.[3]
Chinese Mandarin[4] / About this sound [wo̞˨˩˦˥] 'I' See Standard Chinese phonology
Shanghainese[5] [kö̞¹] 'tall' Near-back. Realization of /ɔ/ in open syllables and /ʊ/ in closed syllables.[5]
Czech[6][7] oko [ˈo̞ko̞] 'eye' In Bohemian Czech, the backness varies between back and near-back, whereas the height varies between mid [o̞] and close-mid [o].[6] See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[8][9] måle [ˈmɔ̝̈ːlə] 'measure' Near-back;[8][9] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔː⟩. See Danish phonology
Dutch Amsterdam[10] och [ɔ̝̈χ] 'alas' Near-back;[10] corresponds to open-mid [ɔˁ] in standard Dutch. See Dutch phonology
Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[11] mot [mɔ̝t] 'well' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩.
English Cultivated South African[12] thought [θɔ̝ːt] 'thought' Close-mid [] for other speakers. See South African English phonology
Maori[13] Closer [] in other New Zealand accents.[13]
Scouse[14] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔː⟩.
Some Cardiff speakers[15] Other speakers use a more open, advanced and unrounded vowel [ʌ̈ː].[15]
Received Pronunciation[16] May be as open as [ɔː] for older speakers, and is most often transcribed as such. See English phonology
Estuary[17] coat [kʰo̞ːʔ] 'coat' Rare; commonly a diphthong.[17] It corresponds to /əʊ/ in other British dialects. See English phonology
Yorkshire[18] [kʰo̞t] Corresponds to /əʊ/ in other British dialects. See English phonology
Finnish[19][20] kello [ˈke̞llo̞] 'clock' See Finnish phonology
French Parisian[21] pont [pɔ̝̃] 'bridge' Nasalized; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ̃⟩. See French phonology
German Standard[22] Fond [fõ̞ː] 'background' Nasalized; also described as open-mid [ɔ̃ː].[23][24] Transcribed in IPA with either ⟨õː⟩ or ⟨ɔ̃ː⟩. Present only in loanwords. See Standard German phonology
Bernese dialect[25] Òve [ˈɔ̝v̥ə] 'oven' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩. See Bernese German phonology
Greek Modern Standard[26][27] πως / pos [po̞s̠] 'how' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew[28] שלום [ʃäˈlo̞m] 'peace' Hebrew vowels are not shown in the script. See Niqqud and Modern Hebrew phonology
Ibibio[29] [dó̞] 'there'
Icelandic[30] loft [ˈlɔ̝ft] 'air' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩. The long allophone is often diphthongized to [oɔ].[31] See Icelandic phonology
Inuit West Greenlandic[32] [example needed] Allophone of /u/ before and especially between uvulars.[32] See Inuit phonology
Italian Standard[33] forense [fo̞ˈrɛnse] 'forensic' Common realization of the unstressed /o/.[33] See Italian phonology
Northern accents[34] [example needed] Local realization of /ɔ/.[34] See Italian phonology
Japanese[35] /ko [ko̞] 'child' See Japanese phonology
Korean[36] 보리 / bori [po̞ˈɾi] 'barley' See Korean phonology
Limburgish Hasselt dialect[37] mok [mɔ̝k] 'mug' Typically transcribed IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩.[37]
Norwegian Urban East[38][39] lov [lɔ̝ːʋ] 'law' May be diphthongized to [ɔ̝ə̯]. See Norwegian phonology
Romanian[40] acolo [äˈko̞lo̞] 'there' See Romanian phonology
Russian[41] сухой About this sound [s̪ʊˈxo̞j]  'dry' Some speakers realize it as open-mid [ɔ].[41] See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[42] čvȏr / чво̑р [t͡ʃʋô̞ːr] 'knot' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Shipibo[43] koni [ˈkö̞ni̞] 'eel' Near-back.[43]
Slovak Standard[44][45] ohúriť [ˈɔ̝ɦu̞ːri̞c̟] 'to stun' See Slovak phonology
Slovene[46] oglas [o̞ˈɡlá̠s̪] 'advertisement' Unstressed vowel,[46] as well as an allophone of /o/ before /ʋ/ when a vowel does not follow within the same word.[47] See Slovene phonology
Spanish[48] todo [ˈt̪o̞ð̞o̞] 'all' See Spanish phonology
Tera[49] zo [zo̞ː] 'rope'
Turkish[50][51] kol [kʰo̞ɫ] 'arm' See Turkish phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[52] do [d̪o̞] 'corn tassel'


  1. ^ a b Wissing (2016), section "The rounded mid-high back vowel /ɔ/".
  2. ^ Abdoh (2010:84)
  3. ^ a b Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  4. ^ Lee & Zee (2003), p. 110.
  5. ^ a b Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), p. 328.
  6. ^ a b Dankovičová (1999), p. 72.
  7. ^ Šimáčková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012), pp. 228–230.
  8. ^ a b Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
  9. ^ a b Basbøll (2005), p. 47.
  10. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 132.
  11. ^ Peters (2010), p. 241.
  12. ^ Lass (2002), p. 116.
  13. ^ a b Warren & Bauer (2004), p. 617.
  14. ^ Watson (2007), p. 357.
  15. ^ a b Collins & Mees (1990), p. 95.
  16. ^ Roach (2004), p. 242.
  17. ^ a b Przedlacka (2001), p. 44.
  18. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 180.
  19. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 60, 66.
  20. ^ Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008), p. 21.
  21. ^ Collins & Mees (2013), p. 226.
  22. ^ Mangold (2005), p. 37.
  23. ^ Hall (2003), pp. 106–107.
  24. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 34.
  25. ^ Marti (1985), p. 27.
  26. ^ Arvaniti (2007), p. 28.
  27. ^ Trudgill (2009), p. 81.
  28. ^ Laufer (1999), p. 98.
  29. ^ Urua (2004), p. 106.
  30. ^ Brodersen (2011).
  31. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 57–60.
  32. ^ a b Fortescue (1990), p. 317.
  33. ^ a b Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005), pp. 137–138.
  34. ^ a b Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005), p. 137.
  35. ^ Okada (1991), p. 94.
  36. ^ Lee (1999), p. 121.
  37. ^ a b Peters (2006), p. 119.
  38. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 13, 17.
  39. ^ Popperwell (2010), pp. 16, 25.
  40. ^ Sarlin (2014), p. 18.
  41. ^ a b Jones & Ward (1969), p. 56.
  42. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  43. ^ a b Valenzuela, Márquez Pinedo & Maddieson (2001), p. 282.
  44. ^ Pavlík (2004), pp. 94–95.
  45. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 375.
  46. ^ a b Tatjana Srebot-Rejec. "On the vowel system in present-day Slovene" (PDF). 
  47. ^ Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999), p. 138.
  48. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 256.
  49. ^ Tench (2007), p. 230.
  50. ^ Zimmer & Orgun (1999), p. 155.
  51. ^ Göksel & Kerslake (2005), p. 11.
  52. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 109.