Mid back unrounded vowel

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Mid back unrounded vowel
ɤ̞
ʌ̝
IPA number 315 430
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɤ​̞
Unicode (hex) U+0264 U+031E

The mid back unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is a mid back-central unrounded vowel.[1] Although there is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the exact mid back unrounded vowel between close-mid [ɤ] and open-mid [ʌ] because no language is known to distinguish all three, ⟨ɤ⟩ is normally used. If more precision is desired, diacritics can be used, such as ⟨ɤ̞⟩ or ⟨ʌ̝⟩.

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɤ̞
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bulgarian[2] път [pɤ̞̈t̪] 'path' Near-back.[2] See Bulgarian phonology
Chinese Shanghainese[3] [kɤ̞̈¹] 'ditch' Near-back; tends to be diphthongized to [ɤ̞̈ɯ̞̈] by younger speakers.[4]
Danish Standard[5] læger [ˈleːɤ̞̈] 'doctors' Near-back; one of possible realizations of the sequences /ər, rə, rər/.[5] See Danish phonology
English Cardiff[6] plus [pl̥ɤ̞̈s] 'plus' Near-back.[6][7] In Cardiff, it may be [ə], [ɜ], [ɜ̟] or [ë̞] instead.[6] It corresponds to [ʌ] in other dialects. See English phonology
Norfolk[7]
Estonian[8] kõrv [kɤ̞rv] 'ear' Can be mid central [ə] or close back [ɯ] instead, depending on the speaker.[8] See Estonian phonology
German Chemnitz dialect[9] Schirm [ʃɤ̞̈ˤːm] 'umbrella' Pharyngealized near-back; may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌˤː⟩. It may be realized as [ɪːɒ̯] instead.[9] See Chemnitz dialect phonology
Ibibio[10] [dɤ̞̈k˦] 'enter' Near-back; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩.[10]
Vietnamese Hanoi[11] t [t̻ɤ̞̈˧˨] 'sheet' Near-back.[11] Realization of /ɤ/ (also transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩) according to Kirby (2011). See Vietnamese phonology
Võro Võro [ˈvɤ̞ro̞] 'Võro'

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]