Mid back unrounded vowel
|Mid back unrounded vowel|
|IPA number||315 430|
|Unicode (hex)||U+0264 U+031E|
The mid back unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. While there is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the "exact" mid back unrounded vowel between close-mid [ɤ] and open-mid [ʌ] (since no language is known to distinguish all three), ⟨ɤ⟩ is normally used. If precision is desired, diacritics can be used, such as ⟨ɤ̞⟩ or ⟨ʌ̝⟩.
|IPA vowel chart|
|Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded|
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- Its vowel height is mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a close vowel and an open vowel.
- Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that unrounded back vowels tend to be centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-back.
- It is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded.
|Bulgarian||път||[pɤ̞̈t̪]||'path'||Near-back. See Bulgarian phonology|
|Danish||Standard||læger||[ˈleːɤ̞̈]||'doctors'||Near-back; one of possible realizations of /ɐ/. See Danish phonology|
|English||Cardiff||plus||[pl̥ɤ̞̈s]||'plus'||Near-back. In Cardiff, it may be [ə], [ɜ], [ɜ̟] or [ë̞] instead. It corresponds to [ʌ] in other dialects. See English phonology|
|German||Chemnitz dialect||Schirm||[ʃɤ̞̈ˤːm]||'umbrella'||Pharyngealized near-back; may be transcribed in IPA as ⟨ʌˤː⟩. It may be realized as [ɪːɒ̯] instead. See Chemnitz dialect phonology|
- Asu, Eva Liina; Teras, Pire (2009), "Estonian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 39 (3): 367–372, doi:10.1017/s002510030999017x
- Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5
- Coupland, Nikolas (1990), English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, ISBN 1-85359-032-0
- Khan, Sameer ud Dowla; Weise, Constanze (2013), "Upper Saxon (Chemnitz dialect)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43 (2): 231–241, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000145
- Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2
- Ternes, Elmer; Vladimirova-Buhtz, Tatjana (1999), "Bulgarian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 55–57, ISBN 0-521-63751-1