Middle Eastern Canadians

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Middle Eastern Canadians
Total population
1,366,190[1]
4.0% of the total Canadian population (2016)
Regions with significant populations
Southern Ontario, Southern Quebec, Southwestern BC, Central Alberta, Urban
Languages
Canadian English · Canadian French ·
Arabic · Persian · Armenian · Turkish · Hebrew
Other Middle Eastern languages
Religion
Islam · Christianity · Baháʼí Faith · Judaism · irreligious
Related ethnic groups
Middle Eastern Americans · Arab Canadians · West Asian Canadians · Asian Canadians

Middle Eastern Canadians are Canadians who were either born in or can trace their ancestry to the Middle East, which includes West Asia and North Africa.

History[edit]

Initial settlement[edit]

Individuals from the Middle East first arrived in Canada in 1882, when a group of Syrian and Lebanese immigrants settled in Montreal.[2] Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Palestine were ruled by the Ottoman Empire at that time. As a result, early Arabic immigrants from these countries were referred to as either Turks or Syrians by Canadian authorities.

20th century[edit]

During World War I, Middle Eastern Canadians of Turkish origin were placed in "enemy alien" internment camps.[3]

The Middle Eastern Canadian population grew rapidly during the latter half of the 20th century; the 1979 Iranian Revolution resulted in a spike of immigration to Canada from the West Asian country.[4]

21st century[edit]

The Syrian refugee crisis during the 2010s fueled further growth to the already existing Syrian population; increased immigration from the West Asian country resulted in Syria becoming the third highest source country of immigration to Canada adding 35,000 Syrians becoming permanent residents in 2016.[5]

Demography[edit]

Ethnic and national origins[edit]

Middle Eastern Canadians Demography by Ethnic/National Origins
Ethnic/National
Origin
2016[1]
Pop. %
West Asian 1,011,145 74%
Lebanese 219,555 16.1%
Iranian 210,405 15.4%
– Arab, n.o.s.[a] 111,400 8.2%
Afghan 83,995 6.1%
Syrian 77,045 5.6%
Iraqi 70,925 5.2%
Turkish 63,955 4.7%
Armenian 63,810 4.7%
Palestinian 44,820 3.3%
Israeli 28,735 2.1%
– West Central Asian and
Middle Eastern origins, n.i.e.[b]
28,735 2.1%
– Kurd 16,315 1.2%
Jordanian 14,250 1%
– Assyrian 13,835 1%
– Other 51,850 3.8%
North African 355,045 26%
Moroccan 103,940 7.6%
Egyptian 99,140 7.3%
Algerian 67,335 4.9%
– Berber 37,060 2.7%
Tunisian 25,645 1.9%
Sudanese 19,960 1.5%
– Other 19,480 1.4%
Total population 1,366,190 100%

Language[edit]

The vast majority of Middle Eastern Canadians speak West Asian and North African languages as a mother tongue or second language. The top five middle eastern languages spoken in Canada include Arabic, Farsi, Armenian, Turkish and Hebrew.

Religion[edit]

Islam, Christianity and Judaism are the dominant religions among the middle eastern Canadian population.

Geographical distribution[edit]

Middle Eastern population by province or territory (2016)
Province / territory Population Percentage
Ontario[6] 610,005 4.6%
Quebec[7] 465,920 5.8%
Alberta[8] 120,590 3%
British Columbia[9] 109,400 2.4%
Nova Scotia[10] 19,235 2.1%
Manitoba[11] 15,540 1.3%
Saskatchewan[12] 11,605 1.1%
New Brunswick[13] 8,035 1.1%
Newfoundland and Labrador[14] 3,290 0.6%
Prince Edward Island[15] 1,830 1.3%
Northwest Territories[16] 390 0.9%
Yukon[17] 230 0.7%
Nunavut[18] 130 0.4%
Canada[1] 1,366,190 4%

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Includes responses of 'Arab,' not otherwise specified.
  2. ^ Includes general responses indicating West Asian, Central Asian and Middle Eastern origins as well as more specific responses that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Baloch,' 'Circassian').

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Census Profile, 2016 Census Canada [Country] and Canada [Country]". Statistics Canada. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
  2. ^ "History of Recent Arab Immigration to Canada".
  3. ^ "First World War Timeline". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
  4. ^ "Iranians". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
  5. ^ IRCC (2017). "2017 Annual Report to Parliament on Immigration". Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. Government of Canada. Table 3: Permanent Residents Admitted in 2016, by Top 10 Source Countries. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  6. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census Ontario [Province] and Canada [Country]". Statistics Canada. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
  7. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census Quebec [Province] and Canada [Country]". Statistics Canada. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
  8. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census Alberta [Province] and Canada [Country]". Statistics Canada. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
  9. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census British Columbia [Province] and Canada [Country]". Statistics Canada. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
  10. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census Nova Scotia [Province] and Canada [Country]". Statistics Canada. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
  11. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census Manitoba [Province] and Canada [Country]". Statistics Canada. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
  12. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census Saskatchewan [Province] and Canada [Country]". Statistics Canada. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
  13. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census New Brunswick [Province] and Canada [Country]". Statistics Canada. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
  14. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census Newfoundland and Labrador [Province] and Canada [Country]". Statistics Canada. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
  15. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census Prince Edward Island [Province] and Canada [Country]". Statistics Canada. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
  16. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census Northwest Territories [Territory] and Canada [Country]". Statistics Canada. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
  17. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census Yukon [Territory] and Canada [Country]". Statistics Canada. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
  18. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census Nunavut [Territory] and Canada [Country]". Statistics Canada. 8 February 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2020.