Middle High German
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|Middle High German|
|Region||southern Germany (south of the Benrath line), parts of Austria and Switzerland|
|Era||developed into Early New High German from the 14th century|
Old High German
Middle High German (German: Mittelhochdeutsch), abbreviated MHG (Mhd.), is the term used for the period in the history of the German language between 1050 and 1350. It is preceded by Old High German and followed by Early New High German. In some uses, the term covers a longer period, going up to 1500.
- 1 Varieties
- 2 Writing system
- 3 Phonology
- 4 Grammar
- 5 Periodisation
- 6 Sample text
- 7 Literature
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Sources
- 11 External links
Middle High German is not a unified written language and the term covers two main dialect areas:
- Upper German (Oberdeutsch)
- Central German or Middle German (Mitteldeutsch)
- West Central German (Franconian) (Westmitteldeutsch = Fränkisch)
- East Central German (Ostmitteldeutsch)
The Middle Low German and Middle Dutch areas in the North are not covered by MHG. While there is no standard MHG, the prestige of the Hohenstaufen court gave rise in the late 12th century to a supra-regional literary language (mittelhochdeutsche Dichtersprache) based on Swabian, an Alemannic dialect. However, the picture is complicated by the fact that modern editions of MHG texts have a tendency to use normalised spellings based on this variety (usually called "Classical MHG"), which make the written language appear more consistent than is actually the case in the manuscripts. It is uncertain whether the literary language reflected a supra-regional spoken language of the courts.
An important development in this period was the eastward expansion of German settlement beyond the Elbe-Saale line which marked the limit of Old High German. This process started in the 11th century, and all the East Central German dialects are a result of this expansion.
"Judeo-German" is the precursor of the Yiddish language which is attested in the 13th-14th centuries as a variety of Middle High German written in Hebrew characters.
Middle High German had no standardised spelling. Modern editions, however, generally standardise according to a set of conventions established by Karl Lachmann in the 19th century. There are several important features in this standardised orthography which are not characteristics of the original manuscripts:
- the marking of vowel length is almost entirely absent from MHG manuscripts.
- the marking of umlauted vowels is often absent or inconsistent in the manuscripts.
- a curly-tailed z (⟨ȥ⟩ or ⟨ʒ⟩) is used in modern handbooks and grammars to indicate the /s/ or /s/-like sound which arose from Germanic /t/ in the High German consonant shift. This character has no counterpart in the original manuscripts which typically use <s> or <sz> to indicate this sound
- the original texts often use <i> and <u> for the semi-vowels /j/ and /w/.
A particular problem is that many manuscripts are of much later date than the works they contain, with signs of later scribes modifying the spellings, with greater or lesser consistency, in accordance with the conventions of their own time. There is also considerable regional variation in the spellings of the original texts, which modern editions largely conceal.
|Close||i y||u||iː yː||uː|
|Mid||e/ɛ ø||ə||o||eː øː||oː|
The standardised orthography of MHG editions uses the following vowel spellings:
- Short vowels: ⟨a e i o u⟩ and the umlauted vowels ⟨ä ö ü⟩
- Long vowels: ⟨â ê î ô û⟩ and the umlauted vowels ⟨æ œ iu⟩
- Closing diphthongs: ⟨ei ou⟩; and the umlauted diphthong ⟨öu eu oi⟩
- Opening diphthongs: ⟨ie uo⟩; and the umlauted diphthong ⟨üe⟩
Grammars (as opposed to textual editions) often distinguish between ⟨ë⟩ and ⟨e⟩, the former indicating the mid-open /ɛ/ which derived from Germanic /e/, the latter (often with a dot beneath it) indicating the mid-close /e/ which results from primary umlaut of short /a/. No such orthographic distinction is made in MHG manuscripts.
The etymological distinction made in German spelling between ⟨e⟩ and ⟨ä⟩, with ⟨ä⟩ representing a lower vowel /æ/ arising from the secondary umlaut of /a/, is valid for earlier MHG texts.
By the end of the MHG period, the vowels written ⟨a ä ë e⟩ merge in various ways, depending on the respective dialect. Modern Standard German keeps /a/ separate and has merged /æ ɛ e/ into /ɛ/ written ⟨e⟩ and ⟨ä⟩.
The standardised orthography of MHG editions uses the following consonant spellings:
- Stops: <p t k/c b d g q>
- Affricates: <pf/ph tz/z>
- Fricatives: <v f s ȥ sch ch h>
- Nasals: <m n>
- Liquids: <l r>
- Semivowels: <w j>
The consonant ⟨ȥ⟩ most likely was [s] or [s̪], sharing its place of articulation with /t/, and remains thus in modern dialects. The consonant ⟨s⟩ was most likely [s̺]. It has been voiced word-initially and intervocally in some dialects.
In the later MHG period or shortly after it, /s̺/ merges into /ʃ/ word-initially before consonants, and in the combination ⟨rs⟩, i.e. /rʃ/. In modern Standard German, the latter development has been partially undone, so that the combination spelled ⟨rst⟩, originally pronounced /rʃt/, is now /rst/, probably due to spelling pronunciation. On the other hand, ⟨st⟩ is still pronounced as /ʃt/ word-initially. In some dialects, notably Alemannic German, MGH /s̺/ merges into /ʃ/ in other positions as well.
The charts show the vowel and consonant systems of classical MHG. The spellings indicated are the standard spellings used in modern editions - there is much more variation in the manuscripts.
|close||i||iː||y ⟨ü⟩||yː ⟨iu⟩||u||uː|
|mid||ɛ||ɛː||ø ⟨ö⟩||øː ⟨œ⟩||o||oː|
|open-mid||æ ⟨ä⟩||æː ⟨æ⟩|
- Not all dialects distinguish the three unrounded mid front vowels.
- It is probable that the short high and mid vowels are lower than their long equivalents, as in Modern German, but this is impossible to establish from the written sources.
- The ⟨e⟩ found in unstressed syllables may indicate [ɛ] or schwa [ə].
MHG diphthongs are indicated by the spellings: ⟨ei⟩, ⟨ie⟩, ⟨ou⟩, ⟨öu⟩ and ⟨eu⟩, ⟨üe⟩, ⟨uo⟩, having the approximate values of /ei/, /iə/, /ou/, /øy/, /eu/, /yə/, and /uo/, respectively.
|Plosive||p b||t d||k ⟨k, c⟩ ɡ|
|Fricative||f v ⟨f, v⟩||s z ⟨ȥ⟩ ⟨s⟩||ʃ ⟨sch⟩||x ⟨ch, h⟩||h|
- Precise information about the articulation of consonants is impossible to establish, and will have varied between dialects.
- In the plosive and fricative series, where there are two consonants in a cell, the first is fortis the second lenis. The voicing of lenis consonants varied between dialects.
- MHG has long consonants, and the following double consonant spellings indicate not vowel length as in Modern German orthography, but rather genuine double consonants: pp, bb, tt, dd, ck (for /kk/), gg, ff, ss, zz, mm, nn, ll, rr.
- It is reasonable to assume that /x/ had an allophone [χ] after back vowels, as in Modern German.
||This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: misleading:
Middle High German pronouns of the first person refer to the speaker; those of the second person refer to an addressed person. The pronouns of the third person may be used to replace nominal phrases. These have the same gender, number and case as the original nominal phrase. This goes for other pronouns, too.
|1st sg||2nd sg||3rd sg||1st pl||2nd pl||3rd pl|
- Note: the genitive form is used as an adjective and hence takes on adjective endings following the normal rules. This includes 'unser' and 'iuwer', despite the fact that they already end in -er.
Middle High German nouns were declined according to four cases (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative), two numbers (singular and plural) and three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter), much like Modern High German, though there are several important differences.
|Nominative||dër tac||die tage||diu zît||die zîte||daȥ wort||diu wort|
|Genitive||dës tages||dër tage||dër zît||dër zîte||dës wortes||dër worte|
|Dative||dëm tage||dën tagen||dër zît||dën zîten||dëm worte||dën worten|
|Accusative||dën tac||die tage||die zît||die zîte||daȥ wort||diu wort|
(male) cousin m.
|Nominative||dër veter||die veteren||diu zunge||die zungen||daȥ herze||diu herzen|
|Genitive||dës veteren||dër veteren||dër zungen||dër zungen||dës herzen||dër herzen|
|Dative||dëm veteren||dën veteren||dër zungen||dën zungen||dëm herzen||dën herzen|
|Accusative||dën veteren||die veteren||die zungen||die zungen||daȥ herze||diu herzen|
Note that ë is a short, open /ɛ/, so MHG dër /dɛr/ as opposed to modern /deːr/.
Middle High German articles have a feature called "strength", which influences the declension of the adjectives. There are strong articles, weak articles, and articles that have strong and weak cases. Sometimes this feature is not constant in literature.
The inflected forms depend on the number, the case and the gender of the corresponding noun. Articles have the same plural forms for all three genders.
Definite article (strong)
The instrumental case, only existing in the neuter singular, is used only with prepositions: von diu, ze diu, etc. In all the other genders and in the plural it is substituted with the dative: von dëm, von dër, von dën.
Verbs were conjugated according to three moods (indicative, subjunctive and imperative), three persons, two numbers (singular and plural) and two tenses (present tense and preterite) There was a present participle, a past participle and a verbal noun that somewhat resembles the Latin gerund, but that only existed in the genitive and dative cases.
Furthermore, there were also some irregular verbs.
The present tense conjugation went as follows:
|1. sg.||ich nime||ich nëme|
|2. sg.||du nim(e)st||du nëmest|
|3. sg.||ër nim(e)t||er nëme|
|1. pl.||wir nëmen||wir nëmen|
|2. pl.||ir nëm(e)t||ir nëmet|
|3. pl.||sie nëment||sie nëmen|
Imperative: 2.sg: nim, 2.pl: nëmet Present participle: nëmente Infinitive: nëmen Verbal noun: Genitive: nëmennes, dative: ze nëmenne
The bold vowels demonstrate umlaut; the vowels in brackets were dropped in rapid speech.
The preterite conjugation went as follows:
to have taken
|1. sg.||ich nam||ich næme|
|2. sg.||du næme||du næmest|
|3. sg.||ër nam||er næme|
|1. pl.||wir namen||wir næmen|
|2. pl.||ir namet||ir næmet|
|3. pl.||sie namen||sie næmen|
Past participle: genomen
The present tense conjugation went as follows:
|1. sg.||ich suoche||ich suoche|
|2. sg.||du suoch(e)st||du suochest|
|3. sg.||ër suoch(e)t||er suoche|
|1. pl.||wir suochen||wir suochen|
|2. pl.||ir suoch(e)t||ir suochet|
|3. pl.||sie suochent||sie suochen|
Imperative: 2.sg: suoche, 2.pl: suochet Present participle: suochente Infinitive: suochen Verbal noun: Genitive: suochennes, dative: ze suochenne
The vowels in brackets were dropped in rapid speech.
The preterite conjugation went as follows:
to have sought
|1. sg.||ich suochete||ich suochete|
|2. sg.||du suochetest||du suochetest|
|3. sg.||ër suochete||er suochete|
|1. pl.||wir suocheten||wir suocheten|
|2. pl.||ir suochetet||ir suochetet|
|3. pl.||sie suochetent||sie suocheten|
Past participle: gesuochet
There are several criteria which separate MHG from the preceding Old High German period:
- the weakening of unstressed vowels to <e>: OHG taga > MHG tage ("days")
- the full development of Umlaut and its use to mark a number of morphological categories
- the devoicing of final stops: OHG tag > MHG tac ("day")
Culturally, the two periods are distinguished by the transition from a predominantly clerical written culture to one centred on the courts of the great nobles. The rise of the Swabian Hohenstaufen and then the Luxemburg, Wittelsbach and Habsburg dynasties make the South the dominant region in both political and cultural terms.
Linguistically, the transition to Early New High German is marked by four vowel changes which together produce the phonemic system of modern German:
- Diphthongisation of the long high vowels /iː yː uː/ > /aɪ̯ ɔʏ̯ aʊ̯/, this change didn't occur in Alemannic dialects except for Swabian: MHG hût > NHG Haut ("skin")
- Monophthongisation of the high centering diphthongs /iə yə uə/ > /iː yː uː/, this change didn't occur in most Alemannic and Bavarian dialects: MHG huot > NHG Hut ("hat")
- lengthening of stressed short vowels in open syllables: MHG sagen /zaɡən/ > NHG sagen /zaːɡən/ ("say")
- The loss of unstressed vowels in many circumstances: MHG vrouwe > NHG Frau ("lady")
The centres of culture in the ENHG period are no longer the courts but the towns.
|1||Swer an rehte güete||Whoever to true goodness|
|wendet sîn gemüete,||Turns his mind|
|dem volget sælde und êre.||He will meet with fortune and honour.|
|des gît gewisse lêre||We are taught this by the example of|
|5||künec Artûs der guote,||Good King Arthur|
|der mit rîters muote||who with knightly spirit|
|nâch lobe kunde strîten.||knew how to strive for praise.|
|er hât bî sînen zîten||In his day|
|gelebet alsô schône||He lived so well|
|10||daz er der êren krône||That he wore the crown of honour|
|dô truoc und noch sîn name treit.||And his name still does so.|
|des habent die wârheit||The truth of this is known|
|sîne lantliute:||To his countrymen:|
|sî jehent er lebe noch hiute:||They affirm that he still lives today:|
|15||er hât den lop erworben,||He won such fame that|
|ist im der lîp erstorben,||Although his body died|
|sô lebet doch iemer sîn name.||His name lives on.|
|er ist lasterlîcher schame||Of sinful shame|
|iemer vil gar erwert,||He will forever be free|
|der noch nâch sînem site vert.||Who follows his example.|
This text shows many typical features of Middle High German poetic language. Most Middle High German words survive into modern German in some form or other: this passage contains only one word (jehen 'say' 14) which has since disappeared from the language. But many words have changed their meaning substantially. Muot (6) means 'state of mind', where modern German Mut means courage. Êre (3) can be translated with 'honour', but is quite a different concept of honour from modern German Ehre; the medieval term focusses on reputation and the respect accorded to status in society.
From the beginning of Das Nibelungenlied:
|Middle High German original||Modern High German translation||Shumway translation|
Uns ist in alten mæren wunders vil geseit
Uns wird in alten Erzählungen viel Wunderbares berichtet,
Full many a wonder is told us in stories old,
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Middle High German". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- so defined by ISO 639-3.
- Hermann Paul, Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik, 23rd edition, revised by Peter Wiehl and Siegfried Grosse, Tübingen 1989, pp. 167ff.
- Hermann Paul, Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik, 23rd edition, revised by Peter Wiehl and Siegfried Grosse, Tübingen 1989, pp. 26ff.
- Hermann Paul, Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik, 23rd edn, edited by Peter Wiehl and Sigfried Grosse (Niemeyer, 1989) ISBN 3-484-10233-0
- M.O'C. Walshe, A Middle High German Reader: With Grammar, Notes and Glossary (Oxford University Press, 1974) ISBN 0-19-872082-3
- Joseph Wright, Middle High German Primer, 5th edn revised by M.O'C. Walshe (Oxford University Press, 1955)