Middle Indo-Aryan languages
The Middle Indo-Aryan languages (or Middle Indic languages, sometimes conflated with the Prakrits, which are a stage of Middle Indic) are a historical group of languages of the Indo-Aryan family. They are the descendants of Old Indo-Aryan (attested in Vedic Sanskrit) and the predecessors of the modern Indo-Aryan languages, such as what was then known as Hindustani and today Hindi-Urdu, Odia, Assamese, Maithili, Gujarati, Marathi, Bengali and Punjabi.
The Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA) stage in the evolution of Indo-Aryan languages is thought to have spanned more than a millennium between 600 BCE and 1000 CE, and is often divided into three major subdivisions.
- The early stage is represented by the Ardhamagadhi of the Edicts of Ashoka (c. 250 BC) and Jain Agamas, and by the Pali of the Tripitakas.
- The middle stage is represented by the various literary Prakrits, especially the Shauraseni language and Maharashtri and Magadhi Prakrits. The term Prakrit is also often applied to Middle Indo-Aryan languages (prākṛta literally means "natural" as opposed to saṃskṛta, which literally means "constructed" or "refined"). Modern scholars such as Michael C. Shapiro follow this classification by including all Middle Indo-Aryan languages under the rubric of "Prakrits", while others emphasise the independent development of these languages, often separated from Sanskrit by social and geographic differences.
- The late stage is represented by the Apabhraṃśas of the 6th century and later that preceded early Modern Indo-Aryan languages (such as Braj Bhasha).
The Indo-Aryan languages are commonly assigned to three major groups - Old Indo-Aryan languages, Middle Indo-Aryan languages and Early Modern and Modern Indo-Aryan languages. The classification reflects stages in linguistic development, rather than being strictly chronological.
According to Thomas Oberlies, a number of morphophonological and lexical features of Middle Indo-Aryan languages show that they are not direct continuations of Vedic Sanskrit. Instead they descend from other dialects similar to, but in some ways more archaic than Vedic Sanskrit.
Early phase (3rd century BCE)
- Ashokan Prakrits (3rd century BCE; regional dialects)
- Gandhari (a Buddhist canonical language)
- Pali (a Buddhist canonical language)
- early Ardhamagadhi (language of the oldest Jain sutras)
Middle phase (200 BCE to 700 CE)
- Niya Prakrit
- Ardhamagadhi (later Jain canon)
- Dramatic Prakrits (Maurya period)
- Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit (later texts)
Late phase: Apabhramsa (700 CE to 1500 CE)
- Abahatta (Magadhi Apabhramsa)
The following phonological changes distinguish typical MIA languages from their OIA ancestors:
- The replacement of vocalic liquids 'ṛ' and 'ḷ' by 'a', 'i' or 'u'
- The OIA diphthongs 'ai' and 'au' became the monophthongs 'e' and 'o' which were long in open syllables and short in closed syllables.
- Long vowels become short in overweight and later pre/post-tonic heavy syllables.
- The three sibilants of OIA are reduced to one, either 'ś' (Magadhi) or 's' (elsewhere).
- OIA clusters either became geminates through assimilation (deletion if the output would violate phonotactics) or were split by vowel epenthesis.
- Initially, intervocalic aspirated stops spirantized. Later, all other intervocalic stops were deleted, weakened, or voiced.
- Dentals (and sometimes retroflexes) are palatalized if directly preceding /j/.
- Most final consonants delete except in 'sandhi' junctions. Final 'm' became 'ṃ' instead, which was preserved.
Note that not all of these changes happened in all MIA languages. Archaisms persisted in northwestern Ashokan prakrits like the retention of all 3 OIA sibilants, for example, retentions that would remain in the later Dardic languages.
The following morphological changes distinguish typical MIA languages from their OIA ancestors:
- The dual number in nominal declensions was lost.
- Consonantal stems were thematicised.
- The 'i-/u-' and 'ī-/ū-' declensions were merged into one 'ī-/ū-' declension.
- The dative was eliminated and the genitive took on its former functions.
- Many different case-endings could be used for one verbal paradigm.
- The middle voice eventually disappeared.
- 'Mahyaṃ' and 'tubyaṃ' became used for genitives and 'me' and 'te' for instrumentals.
- New verbal forms based on the present stem coexisted with fossilized forms from OIA.
- Active endings replaced passive endings for the passive voice.
A Middle Indo-Aryan innovation are the serial verb constructions that have evolved into complex predicates in modern north Indian languages such as Hindi and Bengali. For example, भाग जा (bhāg jā) 'go run' means run away, पका ले (pakā le) 'take cook' means to cook for oneself, and पका दे (pakā de) 'give cook' means to cook for someone. The second verb restricts the meaning of the main verb or adds a shade of meaning to it. Subsequently, the second verb was grammaticalised further into what is known as a light verb, mainly used to convey lexical aspect distinctions for the main verb. The innovation is based on Sanskrit atmanepadi (fruit of the action accrues to the doer) and parasmaipadi verbs (fruit of the action accrues to some other than the doer). For example, पका दे (pakā de) 'give cook' has the result of the action (cooked food) going to someone else, and पका ले (pakā le) 'take cook' to the one who is doing the cooking.
Pali is the best attested of the Middle Indo-Aryan languages because of the extensive writings of early Buddhists. These include canonical texts, canonical developments such as Abhidhamma, and a thriving commentarial tradition associated with figures such as Buddhaghosa. Early Pāli texts, such as the Sutta-nipāta contain many "Magadhisms" (such as heke for eke; or masculine nominative singular in -e). Pāli continued to be a living second language until well into the second millennium. The Pali Text Society was founded in 1881 by T. W. Rhys Davids to preserve, edit, and publish texts in Pāli, as well as English translations.
Many texts in Kharoṣṭhi script have been discovered in the area centred on the Khyber Pass in what was known in ancient times as Gandhara and the language of the texts came to be called Gāndhārī. These are largely Buddhist texts which parallel the Pāli Canon, but include Mahāyāna texts as well. The language is distinct from other MI dialects.
An apabhramsa (also: avahatta) was a language developed from Prakrits. Modern Provincial languages developed from different apabhramsas. Patanjali was the first to use the term apabhramsa in his Mahabhasya (200 BC). The term is derived from the Sanskrit word Apabhrasta, and means a corrupted form of Sanskrit. Mostly Jain religious language and spiritual literature of Siddhas was composed in Apabhramsa language.
When the Romani people migrated from Rajasthan, Punjab, Sindh and Afghanistan in the 1st century AD, they were speaking an apabhramsa language pertaining to the Western part of India. They spread to Western countries around the 12th century AD.
Literary work in apabhramsa appeared in 8th century AD. Poets of apabhramsa are as follows:
- Svayambhu - his poem is Pauma Cariu
- Shapiro, Michael C. Hindi. Facts about the world's languages: An encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present. Ed. Jane Garry, and Carl Rubino: New England Publishing Associates, 2001.
- Bubenik, Vit (2007). "Chapter Six: Prākrits and Apabhraṃśa". In Jain, Danesh; Cardona, George. The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. p. 209. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9.
- Shapiro, Hindi.
- Jain, Danesh; Cardona, George (2007-07-26). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. p. 163. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9.
- "The most archaic Old Indo-Aryan is found in Hindu sacred texts called the Vedas, which date to approximately 1500 BCE". Encyclopædia Britannica - Indo-Aryan languages. General characteristics.
- "If in "Sanskrit" we include the Vedic language and all dialects of the Old Indian period, then it is true to say that all the Prakrits are derived from Sanskrit. If on the other hand " Sanskrit " is used more strictly of the Panini-Patanjali language or "Classical Sanskrit," then it is untrue to say that any Prakrit is derived from Sanskrit, except that S'auraseni, the Midland Prakrit, is derived from the Old Indian dialect". Introduction to Prakrit, by Alfred C Woolner. Baptist Mission Press 1917
- Jain, Danesh; Cardona, George (2007-07-26). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. p. 163-220.
- South Asian folklore: an encyclopedia : Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, By Peter J. Claus, Sarah Diamond, Margaret Ann Mills, Routledge, 2003, p. 203
- BPT Vagish Shastri, Bundelkhand Ki Prachinta, Vidvad Gosthi, 1965, Varanasi, India.
- Devendra Kumar Jain, Apabhramsa Bhasa aur Sahitya, Bhartiya Jnanapitha Prakashan, 1966, Calcutta, India.
- P.D.Gune, An Introduction to Comparative Philology, Poona Oriental BookHouse, 1959, Poona, India.
- R.A.Pandey and R.N. Mishra, Pali Prakrat-Apabhramsa Sangraha, Vishwavidyalaya Prakashan, 1968, Varanasi, India
- Vagish Shastri, Gypsy language and grammar, Vol XXI, Yogic Voice Consciousness Institute, 2004, Varanasi, India
- Gāndhārī Language entry in the Encyclopædia Iranica