Middle Turkic languages
|Era||c. 900–1500 CE|
Middle Turkic refers to a phase in the development of the Turkic language family, covering much of the Middle Ages (c. 900–1500 CE). In particular the term is used by linguists to refer to a group of Karluk and Oghuz and related languages spoken during this period in Central Asia, Iran, and other parts of the Middle East occupied by the Seljuk Turks. Its best known literary form is the Karakhanid dialects spoken in Kashgar, Balasaghun and other cities along the Silk Road. The literary language of the Chagatai Khanate is considered a later form of Middle Turkic. Confusingly, the Karluk and Oghuz "Middle Turkic" period overlaps with the East Turkic Old Turkic period, which covers the 8th to 13th centuries.
Literary works of the Middle Turkic period
- The Book of Dede Korkut
- The Epic of Köroğlu
- Book of Wisdom (ديوان حكمت) (Dīvān-i Ḥikmet) by Khoja Akhmet Yassawi.
- Mahmud al-Kashgari's Divânü Lügati't-Türk (in Karluk and Arabic)
- Yusuf Balasaghuni's Kutadgu Bilig (in Karluk)
- Ahmad bin Mahmud Yukenaki (Ahmed bin Mahmud Yükneki) (Ahmet ibn Mahmut Yükneki) (Yazan Edib Ahmed b. Mahmud Yükneki) (w:tr:Edip Ahmet Yükneki) wrote the Hibet-ül hakayik (Hibet ül-hakayık) (Hibbetü'l-Hakaik) (Atebetüʼl-hakayik) (Hibat al-ḥaqāyiq) (هبة الحقايق) (w:tr:Atabetü'l-Hakayık)
- The works of Ali-Shir Nava'i (in the Karluk Chagatai language), including (titles in Persian):
- Gharā’ib al-Ṣighār ("Wonders of Childhood")
- Nawādir al-Shabāb ("Witticisms of Youth")
- Badā’i‘ al-Wasaṭ ("Marvels of Middle Age")
- Fawā’id al-Kibār ("Advantages of Old Age")
- Muḥākamat al-Lughatayn ("Judgment between the Two Languages")
- The Mughal Emperor Babur's Baburnama (in the Karluk Chagatai language)
- Mary Beth Norton (1995). The American Historical Association's guide to historical literature. Oxford University Press. p. 260.
- Peter B. Golden (2010). Turks and Khazars: Origins, Institutions, and Interactions in Pre-Mongol Eurasia. Ashgate/Variorum. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-4094-0003-5.
- Book of Wisdom. World Digital Library. Lithographic Printing House of the Kazan Imperial University. 1904. p. 366.
- "Divan-i Khikmet". Kazakhstan National Commission For UNESCO - natcom.unesco.kz.
- Sinor, Dennis. "Old Turkic and Middle Turkic Languages." History of the Civilizations of Central Asia, vol. IV, 2 (2000), pp. 331–334.