Middle child syndrome
Middle child syndrome is the feeling of exclusion by middle children, due directly to their placement in their family's birth order. This effect occurs because the first child is more prone to receiving privileges and responsibilities (by virtue of being the oldest), while the youngest in the family is more likely to receive indulgences. The second child (or middle child) no longer has their status as the baby and is left with no clear role in the family, or a feeling of being "left out".
It is important to note that there is often a negative connotation surrounding the term "middle child syndrome" but while feelings of neglect or being skipped over and can be common in middle children, they are often excellent communicators, have great interpersonal relationship skills, and are often quicker to feel sympathy. Middle children have sometimes been called the peacemaker within the family.
When thinking about the theory of birth order and the studies that have been done it is important to remember that correlation does not equal causation. Many similar theories regarding birth order seek to classify and box in personality aspects of individuals based on birth order. However, in recent years some have noted that family dynamics have changed in that there are often larger gaps between children, there are merged families with step-siblings as well as blended families because of adoption. All of these factors can affect the way siblings view themselves within the family group. 
Alfred Adler (1870-1937), was an Austrian psychiatrist and worked closely with Freud and founded the school of individual psychology. Specializing in inferiority complex, Adler was a pioneer in psychology as the first to theorize that birth order influences personality. He also believed that birth order had a lasting impact on an individual's methods of coping with stress and problem solving skills in adulthood. Adler's theory revolves around the nuclear family structure, with both parents present in the children's lives, an average space between siblings, and excluding extenuating circumstances such as the birth of twins or a tragedy in the family.
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