A midfielder is an association football position. Midfielders are generally positioned on the field between their team's defenders and forwards. Some midfielders play a more defensive role, breaking up attacks and are more disciplined to their roles they are otherwise known as defensive midfielders, while others blur the boundaries, more mobile, efficient in passing and are commonly as deeplying playmakers, box to box or holding midfielders. The number of midfielders on the team and their assigned roles depends on the team's formation; the collective group of these players on the field is sometimes referred to as the midfield.
Most managers assign at least one midfielder to disrupt the opposing team's attacks, while others may be tasked with creating goals, or have equal responsibilities between attack and defence. Midfielders are the players who typically travel the greatest distance during a match.
Central or centre midfielders are players whose role is divided roughly equally between attack and defence. These players will try to pass the ball to the team's attacking midfielders and forwards and may also help their team's attacks by making runs into the opposition's penalty area and attempting shots on goal themselves.
When the opposing team has the ball, a central midfielder may drop back to protect the goal or move forward and press the opposition ball-carrier to recover the ball. A centre midfielder defending their goal will move in front of their centre-backs in order to block long shots by the opposition and possibly track opposition midfielders making runs towards the goal.
The 4–3–3 and 4–5–1 formations each use three central midfielders. The 4−4−2 formation may use two central midfielders, and in the 4–2–3–1 formation one of the two deeper midfielders may be a central midfielder.
The term box-to-box midfielder refers to central midfielders who have good abilities and are skilled at both defending and attacking. These players can therefore track back to their own box to make tackles and block shots and also run to the opponents' box to try to score. A good box-to-box midfielder needs good passing, vision, control, stamina, tackling and marking in defence, and shooting and dribbling in attack.
Left and right midfielders have a role balanced between attack and defence, similar to that of central midfielders, but they are positioned closer to the touchlines of the pitch. They may be asked to cross the ball into the opponents' penalty area to make scoring chances for their teammates, and when defending they may put pressure on opponents who are trying to cross.
Common modern formations that include left and right midfielders are the 4−4−2, the 4−4−1−1, and the 4−5−1 formations. Jonathan Wilson describes the development of 4−4−2 formation: "…the winger became a wide midfielder, a shuttler, somebody who might be expected to cross a ball but was also meant to put in a defensive shift." A notable example of a right midfielder is David Beckham.
Defensive midfielders are midfield players who focus on protecting their team's goal. These players may defend a zone in front of their team's defence, or man mark specific opposition attackers. Defensive midfielders may also move to the full-back or centre-back positions if those players move forward to join in an attack. Sergio Busquets described his attitude: "The coach knows that I am an obedient player who likes to help out and if I have to run to the wing to cover someone's position, great." A good defensive midfielder needs good passing, marking, tackling, interceptions and great stamina and strength (for their tackling).
A holding or deep-lying midfielder stays close to their team's defence, while other midfielders may move forward to attack. A player in this role will try to protect their goal by disrupting the opponents' attacking moves and stopping long shots on the goal.
The holding midfielder may also have responsibilities when their team has the ball. This player will make mostly short and simple passes to more attacking members of their team but may try some more difficult passes depending on the team's strategy.
A deep-lying playmaker is a holding midfielder who specializes in ball skills such as passing, rather than defensive skills like tackling. When this player has the ball, they may attempt longer or more complex passes than other holding players. They may try to set the tempo of their team's play, retain possession, or build plays through short exchanges, or they may try to pass the ball long to a centre forward or winger, or even pass short to a teammate in the hole, the area between the opponents' defenders and midfielders. In Italy, the deep-lying playmaker is known as a "regista", whereas in Brazil, it is known as a "meia-armador"
Writer Jonathan Wilson described Xabi Alonso's role: "although capable of making tackles, [he] focused on keeping the ball moving, occasionally raking long passes out to the flanks to change the angle of attack."
An attacking midfielder is a midfield player who is positioned in an advanced midfield position, usually between central midfield and the team's forwards, and who has a primarily offensive role.
Some attacking midfielders are called trequartistas or fantasisti (Italian: three-quarter specialist, i.e. a creative playmaker between the forwards and the midfield), known for their deft touch, vision, ability to shoot from range, and passing prowess.
However, not all attacking midfielders are trequartistas – some attacking midfielders are very vertical and are essentially auxiliary attackers who serve to link-up play, hold up the ball, or provide the final pass, i.e. secondary striker.
According to positioning along the field, attacking midfield may be divided into left, right and central attacking midfield roles. A central attacking midfielder may be referred to as a playmaker, or number ten (due to the association of the number 10 shirt with this position). A good attacking midfielder needs good passing abilities, vision, the ability to make long shots, and solid dribbling skills.
These players typically serve as the offensive pivot of the team, and are sometimes said to be "playing in the hole," although this term can also be used to describe the positioning of a deep-lying forward. The attacking midfielder is an important position that requires the player to possess superior technical abilities in terms of passing and dribbling, as well as, perhaps more importantly, the ability to read the opposing defence in order to deliver defence-splitting passes to the strikers.
This specialist midfielder's main role is to create good shooting and goal-scoring opportunities using superior vision, control, and technical skill, by making crosses, through balls, and headed knockdowns to teammates. They may try to set up shooting opportunities for themselves by dribbling or performing a give-and-go with a teammate. Attacking midfielders may also make runs into the opponents' penalty area in order to shoot from another teammate's pass.
Where a creative attacking midfielder, i.e. a playmaker, is regularly utilized, he is commonly the team's star player, and often wears the number 10 shirt. As such, a team is often constructed so as to allow their attacking midfielder to roam free and create as the situation demands. One such popular formation is the 4–4–2 "diamond" (or 4–1–2–1–2), in which defined attacking and defensive midfielders replace the more traditional pair of central midfielders. Known as the "fantasista" or "trequartista" in Italy, in Brazil, the offensive playmaker is known as the "meia atacante," whereas in Argentina and Uruguay, it is known as the "enganche."
The false-attacking midfielder description has been used in Italian football to describe a player who is seemingly playing as an attacking midfielder in a 4–3–1–2 formation, but who eventually drops deeper into midfield, drawing opposing players out of position and creating space to be exploited by team-mates making attacking runs; the false-attacking midfielder will eventually sit in a central midfield role and function as a deep-lying playmaker. The false-attacking midfielder is therefore usually a creative, hard-working, tactically intelligent and technically gifted player, with good vision, movement, positioning, ball control, long passing ability, and an ability to interpret the game, who must also be capable of aiding his team defensively and striking from distance.
"False 10" or "central winger"
The "false 10" or "central winger" is a new type of midfielder recently introduced to football, which differs from the false-attacking midfielder. Much like the "false 9," his/her specificity lies in the fact that, unlike a traditional playmaker who stays behind the striker in the centre of the pitch, her/his goal is to drift wide when in possession of the ball to help both the wingers and fullbacks to overload the flanks. This means two problems for the opposite midfield: either they let him/her drift wide, and his presence with both the winger and the fullback makes it three-on-two out wide; or they follow her/him, but leave space in the centre of the pitch for wingers or onrushing midfielders to take. False 10s are usually traditional wingers who are told to play in the centre of the pitch, and their natural way of playing makes them drift wide. This role is specifically meant to respond to the fact that more and more midfielders are fielded in the centre of the pitch.
In modern football, the terms winger or wide player refer to a non-defender who plays on the left or right sides of the pitch. These terms can apply to left or right midfielders, left or right attacking midfielders, or left or right forwards. Left or right-sided defenders such as wing-backs or full-backs are generally not called wingers.
In the 2−3−5 formation popular in the late 19th century wingers remained mostly near the touchlines of the pitch, and were expected to cross the ball for the team's inside and centre forwards. Traditionally, wingers were purely attacking players and were not expected to track back and defend. This began to change in the 1960s. In the 1966 World Cup, England manager Alf Ramsey did not select wingers from the quarter-final onwards. This team was known as the "Wingless Wonders" and led to the modern 4–4–2 formation.
This has led to most modern wide players having a more demanding role in the sense that they are expected to provide defensive cover for their full-backs and track back to repossess the ball, as well as provide skillful crosses for centre forwards and strikers. Some forwards are able to operate as wingers behind a lone striker. In a three-man midfield, specialist wingers are sometimes deployed down the flanks alongside the central midfielder or playmaker.
Even more demanding is the role of wing-back, where the wide player is expected to provide both defence and attack. As the role of winger can be classed as a forward or a midfielder, so this role blurs the divide between defender and midfielder.
A winger is an attacking midfielder who is stationed in a wide position near the touchlines. Wingers such as Stanley Matthews or Jimmy Johnstone used to be classified as forwards in traditional W-shaped formations, and were formally known as "Outside Right" or "Outside Left," but as tactics evolved through the last 40 years, wingers have dropped to deeper field positions and are now usually classified as part of the midfield, usually in 4–4–2 or 4–5–1 formations (but while the team is on the attack, they tend to resemble 4–2–4 and 4–3–3 formations respectively).
The responsibilities of the winger include:
- Providing a "wide presence" as a passing option on the flank.
- To beat the opposing full-back either with skill or with speed.
- To read passes from the midfield that give them a clear crossing opportunity, when going wide, or that give them a clear scoring opportunity, when cutting inside towards goal.
- To double up on the opposition winger, particularly when he is being "double-marked" by both the team's full back and winger.
The prototypical winger is fast, tricky and enjoys 'hugging' the touchline, that is, running downfield close to the touchline and delivering crosses. However, players with different attributes can thrive on the wing as well. Some wingers prefer to cut infield (as opposed to staying wide) and pose a threat as playmakers by playing diagonal passes to forwards or taking a shot at goal. Even players who are not considered quick, have been successfully fielded as wingers at club and international level for their ability to create play from the flank. Occasionally wingers are given a free role to roam across the front line and are relieved of defensive responsibilities.
The typical abilities of wingers include:
- Technical skill to beat a full-back in a one-to-one situation.
- Pace, to beat the full-back one-on-one.
- Crossing ability when out wide.
- Good off-the-ball ability when reading a pass from the midfield or from fellow attackers.
- Good passing ability and composure, to retain possession while in opposition territory.
- The modern winger should also be comfortable on either wing so as to adapt to quick tactical changes required by the coach.
Traditionally, right-footed players are played on the right wing and left-footed players on the left as a matter of familiarity and comfort. However, in the modern game, coaches usually demand wingers to be able to play on both flanks and to switch sides during play regularly as a quick change of tactics. For instance, a right-footed winger who plays on the left flank (or vice versa; with a player playing on the "opposite" side from his or her strong foot often being referred to as an inverted winger) is more comfortable cutting inside, which suits the styles of playmaker forwards who can cause a threat both by shooting from distance, dribbling towards goal, or sliding through-ball passes to other forwards. Another advantage is that the winger can cut inside, towards the weaker foot of the full-back. Clubs such as Real Madrid often choose to play their wingers on the "wrong" flank for this reason; former Real Madrid coach José Mourinho often played Ángel Di María on the right and Cristiano Ronaldo on the left. Former Bayern Munich manager Jupp Heynckes often played the left-footed Arjen Robben on the right and the right-footed Franck Ribéry on the left. One of the foremost practitioners of playing from either flank was German winger Jürgen Grabowski, whose flexibility helped Germany to third place in the 1970 World Cup, and the world title in 1974.
Although wingers are a familiar part of football, the use of wingers is by no means universal. There are many successful football teams who operate without wingers. A famous example is Milan, who typically play in a narrow midfield diamond formation or in a Christmas tree formation (4–3–2–1), relying on full-backs to provide the necessary width down the wings.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Association football midfielders.|
- "Positions guide: Central midfield". London: BBC Sport. 1 September 2005. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
- "Football / Soccer Positions". Expert Football. Retrieved 21 June 2008.
- Di Salvo, V. (6 October 2006). "Performance characteristics according to playing position in elite soccer.". International Journal of Sports Medicine 28 (3): 222–7. doi:10.1055/s-2006-924294. PMID 17024626. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
- "Formations guide". BBC. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- "Box to box Bowyer". London: BBC Sport. 29 April 2002. Retrieved 21 June 2008.
- Cox, Michael (4 June 2014). "In praise of the box-to-box midfielder". ESPN FC. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- "Wide midfielder". BBC. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
- "Formations guide". London: BBC Sport. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
- Wilson, Jonathan (24 March 2010). "The Question: Why are so many wingers playing on the 'wrong' wings?". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
- Taylor, Daniel (18 February 2010). "Milan wrong to play David Beckham in central midfield says Sir Alex Ferguson". The Guardian (England). Retrieved 22 July 2013.
- Cox, Michael (20 January 2013). "Manchester United nullified Gareth Bale but forgot about Aaron Lennon". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- Cox, Michael (16 July 2010). "The final analysis, part three: brilliant Busquets". zonalmarking.net. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- Cox, Michael (10 February 2013). "How Manchester United nullified threat of Everton's Marouane Fellaini". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- Cox, Michael (3 March 2010). "Analysing Brazil's fluid system at close quarters". zonalmarking.net. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- Lowe, Sid. "Sergio Busquets: Barcelona's best supporting actor sets the stage". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- F., Edward (28 January 2014). "On Going Beyond Holding Midfielders". Cartilage Free Captain. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- Wilson, Jonathan (2013). Inverting the Pyramid. Nation Books. ISBN 9781568589633.
- Wilson, Jonathan (18 December 2013). "The Question: what does the changing role of holding midfielders tell us?". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- Cox, Michael (29 January 2010). "Teams of the Decade #11: Valencia 2001-04". zonalmarking.net. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- Cox, Michael (19 March 2012). "Paul Scholes, Xavi and Andrea Pirlo revive the deep-lying playmaker". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
- Goldblatt, David (2009). The Football Book. Dorling Kindersley. p. 48. ISBN 978-1405337380.
- Dunmore, Thomas (2013). Soccer for Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-51066-7.
- "The Regista And the Evolution Of The Playmaker". Retrieved 5 January 2015.
- "Playmaker". MTV. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
- "Positions in football". talkfootball.co.uk. Retrieved 21 June 2008.
- "The Number 10". RobertoMancini.com. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- Wilson, Jonathan (18 August 2010). "The Question: What is a playmaker's role in the modern game?". TheGuardian.com. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- Cox, Michael (26 March 2010). "How the 2000s changed tactics #2: Classic Number 10s struggle". ZonalMarking.net. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "Tactics: the changing role of the playmaker". Retrieved 5 January 2015.
- James Horncastle (28 June 2012). "Horncastle: Riccardo Montolivo straddles both sides of the Germany/Italy divide". The Score. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
- "Introducing…the central winger?". zonalmarking.net. 3 December 2010. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
- Wilson, Jonathan (2013). "It's a Simple Game". Football League 125. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- Galvin, Robert. "Sir Alf Ramsey". National Football Museum. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2008.
- "Chelsea prayers fly to the wings". FIFA. 5 March 2006. Retrieved 25 June 2008.
- "Positions guide: Wide midfield". London: BBC Sport. 1 September 2005. Retrieved 21 June 2008.
- "Positions guide: Wing-back". London: BBC Sport. 1 September 2005. Retrieved 21 June 2008.