The Force (Star Wars)
The Force is a metaphysical and ubiquitous power in the Star Wars fictional universe. It is wielded by characters in the franchise's films and in many of its spin-off books, games, and comics. In the story, the Jedi utilize the "light side" of the Force, while the Sith exploit what is known as the "dark side". The Force has been compared to aspects of several world religions, and the iconic phrase "May the Force be with you" has become part of the popular culture vernacular.
- 1 Concept and development
- 2 Depiction
- 3 Analysis
- 4 Cultural impact
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
Concept and development
Creation for the original films
George Lucas created the concept of "the Force" to address character and plot developments in Star Wars (1977). He also wanted to "awaken a certain kind of spirituality" in young audiences, suggesting a belief in God without endorsing any specific religion. He developed the Force as a nondenominational religious concept, "distill[ed from] the essence of all religions", premised on the existence of God and distinct ideas of good and evil. Lucas said there is a choice between good and bad, and "the world works better if you're on the good side".
Lucas used the term the Force to "echo" its use by cinematographer Roman Kroitor in 21-87 (1963), in which Kroiter says, "Many people feel that in the contemplation of nature and in communication with other living things, they become aware of some kind of force, or something, behind this apparent mask which we see in front of us, and they call it God". Although Lucas had Kroitor's line in mind specifically, Lucas said the underlying sentiment is universal and that "similar phrases have been used extensively by many different people for the last 13,000 years".
The first draft of Star Wars makes two references to "the Force of Others" and does not explain the concept: King Kayos utters the blessing "May the Force of Others be with you all", and he later says "I feel the Force also". The power of the Force of Others is kept secret by the Jedi Bendu of the Ashla, an "aristocratic cult" in the second draft. The second draft offers a lengthy explanation of the Force of Others and introduces its Ashla light side and Bogan dark side. The Ashla and Bogan are mentioned 10 and 31 times, respectively, and the Force of Others plays a more prominent role in the story. In the second draft, "Luke Starkiller"'s mission is to retrieve the "Kiber Crystal", which can intensify either the Ashla or Bogan powers. The film's shorter third draft has no references to the Ashla, but it mentions the Bogan eight times and Luke is still driven to recover the Kiber Crystal. Lucas finished the fourth and near-final draft on January 1, 1976. This version trims "the Force of Others" down to "the Force", makes a single reference to the Force's seductive "dark side", distills an explanation of the Force to 28 words, and eliminates the Kiber Crystal. Producer Gary Kurtz, who studied comparative religion in college, had long discussions with Lucas about religion and philosophy throughout the writing process. Kurtz told Lucas he was unhappy with drafts in which the Force was connected with the Kiber Crystal, and he was also dissatisfied with the early Ashla and Bogan concepts.
Lucas and screenwriter Leigh Brackett decided that the Force and the Emperor would be the main concerns in The Empire Strikes Back (1980). The focus on the Emperor was later shifted to the third film, Return of the Jedi (1983), and the dark side of the Force was treated as The Empire Strikes Back's main villain.
Prequel films and midi-chlorians
The Phantom Menace (1999) introduces midi-chlorians to explain some characters' Force sensitivity, although Lucas discussed the idea of microscopic creatures connecting characters to the Force as early as August 1977. Lucas based the concept on symbiogenesis, calling midi-chlorians a "loose depiction" of mitochondria. He further said:
[Mitochondria] probably had something – which will come out someday – to do with the beginnings of life and how one cell decided to become two cells with a little help from this other little creature who came in, without whom life couldn't exist. And it's really a way of saying we have hundreds of little creatures who live on us, and without them, we all would die. There wouldn't be any life. They are necessary for us; we are necessary for them. Using them in the metaphor, saying society is the same way, says we all must get along with each other.
Sequel films and other productions
After selling Lucasfilm to Disney in 2012, Lucas said his biggest concern about the franchise's future was the Force being "muddled into a bunch of gobbledegook". When writing The Force Awakens (2015) with Lawrence Kasdan, J. J. Abrams respected that Lucas had established midi-chlorians' effect on some characters' ability to use the Force. As a child, though, he interpreted Obi-Wan Kenobi's explanation of the Force in Star Wars to mean that any character could use its power, and that the Force was more grounded in spirituality than science. Abrams retained the idea of the Force having a light and a dark side, and some characters' seduction by the dark side helps create conflict for the story.
Star Wars Rebels' third season a character called Bendu in homage to the term Lucas originally associated with the Jedi. This character does not align with the franchise's normal dark-or-light duality, and producer Dave Filoni said the character is an extension of his own conversations with Lucas about the nature of the Force. Filoni compared Bendu to Tom Bombadil, a character that is "not really on either side, but seems to be more on the good than the bad".
Obi-Wan Kenobi describes the Force as "an energy field created by all living things" in Star Wars. In The Phantom Menace, Qui-Gon Jinn says microscopic lifeforms called midi-chlorians, which exist inside all living cells, allow some characters to be Force-sensitive; characters must have a high enough midi-chlorian count to feel and use Force. In 1981, Lucas compared using the Force to yoga, saying any character can use its power. Dave Filoni said in 2015 that all Star Wars characters are "Force intuitive": some characters, like Luke Skywalker, are aware of their connection to the Force, while characters such as Han Solo draw upon the Force unconsciously. Filoni said the most potent Force users are characters with a natural affinity for using the Force, as indicated by their midi-chlorian count, who undertake intense training and discipline.
Some characters sensitive to the Force can derive special powers from it, such as telekinesis, mind control, and extrasensory perception. The Force is sometimes referred to in terms of "dark" and "light" sides, with villains like the Sith drawing on the dark side to act aggressively while the Jedi use the light side for defense and peace. The Force is also used by characters who are neither Jedi nor Sith, such as Leia Organa and Kylo Ren. Characters throughout the franchise use their Force powers in myriad ways, including Obi-Wan using a "mind trick" to undermine a stormtrooper's will, Darth Vader choking subordinates, Luke Skywalker having a vision of the future, and Kylo Ren stopping weapons fire mid-air. Film and television use of the Force is sometimes accompanied by a sound effect, such as a "deep rumble" associated with the dark side or a more high-pitched sound associated with benevolent use.
Anakin Skywalker's rise as a light-side Jedi, descent into becoming the Sith Lord Darth Vader, and ultimate redemption to the light side of the Force is the main story arc for the first six Star Wars films. The Force allows "ghosts" of some deceased characters to interact with the living, and Obi-Wan's ghost provides Luke Skywalker with guidance at "critical moments" in The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi. Yoda's arc in the final season of Star Wars: The Clone Wars (2008–2014) depicts him exploring "bigger questions" about the Force, taking various inspirations from the expanded universe such as going deeper into the nature of the dark side. In The Force Awakens, Finn's exposure to the Force helps make him question his upbringing.
Chris Taylor called the Force "largely a mystery" in Star Wars. Taylor ascribes the "more poetic, more spiritual ... and more demonstrative" descriptions of the Force in The Empire Strikes Back to Lawrence Kasdan, who co-wrote the film, but says the film does little to expand audiences' understanding of it. In 1997, Lucas said that the more detail he articulated about the Force and how it works, the more it took away from its core meaning. According to Rob Weinert-Kendt, the "Force theme" in John Williams' score represents the power and responsibility of wielding the Force.
Religion and spirituality
In his 1977 review of Star Wars, Vincent Canby of The New York Times called the Force "a mixture of what appears to be ESP and early Christian faith". The Magic of Myth compares the sharp distinction between the good "light side" and evil "dark side" of the Force to Zoroastrianism, which posits that "good and evil, like light and darkness, are contrary realities". The connectedness between the light and dark sides has been compared to the relationship between yin and yang in Taoism, although the balance between yin and yang lacks the element of evil associated with the dark side. Taylor identifies other similarities between the Force and a Navajo prayer, prana, and qi. Gary Kurtz said the expression "May the Force be with you" was intentionally similar to the Christian dominus vobiscum, "the Lord be with you". Taylor added that the lack of detail about the Force makes it "a religion for the secular age". According to Jennifer Porter, professor of religious studies at the Memorial University of Newfoundland, "the Force is a metaphor for godhood that resonates and inspires within [people] a deeper commitment to the godhood identified within their traditional faith".
Comparison to magic
Paranormal abilities like the Force are a common device in science fiction, and the Force has been compared to the role magic plays in the fantasy genre. The Star Wars films illustrate that characters not familiar with the particulars of the Force associate it with mysticism and magic, such as when an Imperial officer alludes to Darth Vader's "sorcerer's ways". Christina Flotmann distinguishes between the depiction of the Force in the Star Wars franchise and the depiction of magic in the Harry Potter fantasy series, and she describes the Force as a spiritual energy.
Eric Charles points out that the television films Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure (1984) and Ewoks: The Battle for Endor (1985), intended for children, are "fairy tales in a science fiction setting". These films feature magic and other fairy tale motifs rather than the Force and science fiction tropes. Mark Clark said the Ewok Adventure films depict "sorcery" that is completely different than the Force powers depicted in the original and prequel Star Wars films.
Scientific and parascientific perspectives
Astrophysicist Jeanne Cavelos says in The Science of Star Wars that the Force raises questions that scientists have long asked. She points out that the ancient Greeks explored the idea of a "fifth element" that permeated and connected everything in the universe, and that Isaac Newton proposed that the human brain might be able to trigger waves in the ether, giving humans psychic powers. Cavelos's sources are mostly skeptical about a "real world" explanation for the Force, but they explore ideas in areas such as quantum physics, parapsychology, and the notion of science so advanced that it appears magical. Explaining the Force is particularly difficult, Cavelos says, because "it does so many different things". Several scientists have said it is best not to try to explain how the Force works.
Cavelos says the Force "suggests a universe quite different than the one we think we're living in", and that some unknown fields or particles might explain the Force. Cavelos believes vacuum energy is one option to power physical Force feats, and she says a fifth force beyond the four fundamental interactions might account for the Force. Flavio Fenton of the Georgia Institute of Technology School of Physics suggests a fifth force would carry two types of charge — one for the light side and one for the dark — and that each would be carried by its own particle. Nepomuk Otte, also from Georgia Tech, cautions that Newton's third law of motion says telekinesis would apply a force back on the Force-wielding character. Force powers like precognition are challenging to explain because of the implied time travel of information, but Cavelos suggests tachyons traveling faster than light might carry such information. Cavelos explores the possibility of brain implants or sensors being used to detect users' intent and manipulate energy fields to control the Force. Michio Kaku says Luke Skywalker's Jedi training on Dagobah might involve learning to control brain waves, and Cavelos compares such discipline to contemporary patients learning to control prosthetics.
National Geographic compared the Higgs boson's role as "carrier" of the Higgs field to the way Jedi are "carriers" of the Force. A previsualization video highlighting the idea of "kicking someone's ass with the Force" steered LucasArts game designers toward producing The Force Unleashed (2008), which sold six million copies as of July 2009. In 2009, Uncle Milton Toys released a Force Trainer that used electroencephalography to read users' beta waves.
The New Republic, Townhall, The Atlantic, and others have compared various political machinations to the "Jedi mind trick", a Force power used to undermine opponents' perceptions and willpower. A Daily Mail headline announcing Richard LeParmentier's death highlighted that Darth Vader uses the Force to choke LeParmentier's character in Star Wars.
Practitioners of Jediism pray to and express gratitude to the Force. io9 described a kind message to a fan from Mark Hamill, who played Luke Sykwalker, as an example of the light side of the Force.
And then there is that distressing thing called the Force, which is ... Lucas's tribute to something beyond science: imagination, the soul, God in man ... It appears in various contradictory and finally nonsensical guises, a facile and perfunctory bow to metaphysics. I wish that Lucas had had the courage of his materialistic convictions, instead dragging in a sop to a spiritual force the main thrust of the movie so cheerfully ignores.
In her 1980 Washington Post review of The Empire Strikes Back, Judith Martin described the Force as "a mishmash of current cultic fashions without any base in ideas. It doesn't seem to be connected with ethics or a code of decent behavior, either."
The introduction of midi-chlorians in The Phantom Menace was controversial, with Evan Narcisse of Time writing that the concept ruined Star Wars for him and a generation of fans because "the mechanisms of the Force became less spiritual and more scientific". Film historian Daniel Dinello argues, "Anathema to Star Wars fanatics who thought they reduced the Force to a kind of viral infection, midi-chlorians provide a biological interface, the link between physical bodies and spiritual energy." Referring to "midi-chlorians" became a screenwriting shorthand for over-explaining a concept. Although Chris Taylor suggested fans want less detail, not more, in explaining the Force, the introduction of midi-chlorians provided depth to the franchise and fomented engagement among fans and franchise writers. Religion expert John D. Caputo writes, "In the 'Gospel according to Lucas' a world is conjured up in which the intractable oppositions that have tormented religious thinkers for centuries are reconciled ... The gifts that the Jedi masters enjoy have a perfectly plausible scientific basis, even if its ways are mysterious".
"May the Force be with you"
The expression "May the Force be with you" is iconic of the franchise. In 2005, "May the Force be with you" was chosen as number 8 on the American Film Institute's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes list. May 4 is Star Wars Day, taken from the pun "May the Fourth be with you".
President Ronald Reagan in 1985 said "the Force is with us", referring to the United States, to create the Strategic Defense Initiative. The Gospel According to Star Wars asserts that his use of the phrase
was actually perverting [Star Wars]'s "self-dispossessing" (or other-focused) ethos. [The] blessing "May the Force be with you" is the expression of a hope for others ("May the Force be with you), not for ourselves as with Reagan ("The Force is with us"). Moreover, the [Star Wars] blessing is precisely a request for hope for others ("May the Force be with you"), whereas Reagan's claim sounds like a possessive assertion ("The Force is with us").
- Windham, Ryder (1999). Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace Movie Scrapbook. Random House. p. 11. ISBN 9780375800085.
- The Mythology of Star Wars (2000 documentary)
- Taylor, p. 58
- Silberman, Steve (May 1, 2005). "Life After Darth". Wired. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- Taylor, p. 112
- Bouzereau, p. 36
- Taylor, p. 116
- Taylor, pp. 116–117
- Taylor, p. 122
- Bouzereau, p. 37
- Taylor, p. 126
- Taylor, p. 142
- Taylor, p. 144
- Bouzereau, p. 181
- Bouzereau, p. 173
- Bouzereau, p. 182
- Taylor, p. 59
- Rolling Stone, June 2005
- Narcisse, Evan (August 10, 2010). "20,000 Per Cell: Why Midi-chlorians Suck". Time. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- Child, Ben (November 19, 2015). "George Lucas says he would not direct another Star Wars film after criticism". The Guardian. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- Sciretta, Peter (December 7, 2015). "JJ Abrams on Midi-chlorians And The Inclusiveness Of The Force". /Film. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- Woerner, Meredith (August 17, 2015). "J.J. Abrams explains why anyone would still want to join the new Empire in 'Star Wars'". The Los Angeles Times. Tribune Publishing. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- Faraci, Devin (July 20, 2016). "In Star Wars Rebels The Force Isn't Just For The Jedi". Birth.Movies.Death. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
- Sciretta, Peter (September 23, 2016). "Dave Filoni Star Wars Rebels Season 3 Interview". /Film. Retrieved September 25, 2016.
- Rector, Brett (March 16, 2007). "Production Diary: The Concept of The Force Unleashed". Lucasfilm. Retrieved August 31, 2008.
- Brooks, Terry (1999). Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. New York: Ballantine Books.
- Ryan, Mike (May 22, 2013). "Star Wars Prequels Were Mapped Out By George Lucas & Lawrence Kasdan In 1981: Exclusive Excerpt From The Making Of Star Wars: Return of the Jedi". The Huffington Post. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- Star Wars Rebels Discussion at FTW Comics: Dave Filoni, Henry Gilroy, and Kilian Plunkett Part 2. June 2, 2015. Event occurs at 10m, 40s. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
- Siegel, Lucas (July 19, 2016). "Star Wars Rebels Showrunner Dave Filoni Defends and Explains Midi-chlorians". ComicBook.com. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
- Henderson, Mary (1997). Star Wars: The Magic of Myth. Bantam Books. p. 116. ISBN 9780553378108.
- McMillan, Graeme (December 8, 2015). "'Star Wars': J.J. Abrams Explains Why Leia Is a General, Not a Jedi (for Now)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- Anderton, Ethan (August 25, 2015). "JJ Abrams Says Kylo Ren is Not a Sith in The Force Awakens". /Film. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- "Databank: Jedi Mind Trick". StarWars.com. Retrieved January 5, 2016.
- Shapiro, Ben (December 5, 2012). "Jedi Mind Trick Nation". Townhall.com. Retrieved January 5, 2016.
- Gower, Eleanor (April 16, 2013). "Star Wars actor Richard LeParmentier dies aged 66... 35 years after he was choked by Darth Vader". Daily Mail. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- Robey, Tim; O'Hara, Helen; McAloon, Jonathan; Hawkes, Rebecca (December 17, 2015). "14 things Star Wars fans will love about The Force Awakens". The Telegraph. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- Leon, Melissa (December 27, 2015). "Emo Kylo Ren: Star Wars: The Force Awakens' Polarizing Villain". The Daily Beast. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
- "Spark of Rebellion Trivia Gallery". StarWars.com. Lucasfilm. Click on image 5 of 18 with thumbnail of Ezra Bridger. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- Kaminski, Michael (2008). The Secret History of Star Wars. Legacy Works Press. ISBN 9780978465230.
- Seabrook, John (January 6, 1997). "Why Is the Force Still With Us?". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
The scripts for the prequel, which Lucas is finishing now, make it clear that Star Wars, taken as a whole story and viewed in chronological order, is not really the story of Luke at all but the story of Luke’s father, Anakin Skywalker, and how he, a Jedi Knight, was corrupted by the dark side of the Force and became Darth Vader. When I asked Lucas what Star Wars was ultimately about, he said, “Redemption.”
- Breznican, Anthony (July 8, 2015). "'Star Wars: The Force Awakens' theory: What role may Obi-Wan Kenobi play?". Entertainment Weekly. Time Inc. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
- "Dave Filoni on The Lost Missions' Yoda Arc". StarWars.com. Lucasfilm. March 12, 2014. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- Perry, Spencer (November 12, 2015). "J.J. Abrams Talks Luke Skywalker's Mythic Status in Star Wars". ComingSoon.net. CraveOnline. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- Bouzereau, p. 35
- Weinert-Kendt, Rob (2015). "Music of the Galaxy". The Ultimate Guide to Star Wars. Time Inc. Books. ISBN 9781618934802.
- Canby, Vincent (May 26, 1977). "Star Wars—A Trip to a Far Galaxy That's Fun and Funny...". The New York Times. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- Kraemer, Ross; Cassidy, William; Schwartz, Susan L. (2009). Religions Of Star Trek. Basic Books. ISBN 0786750227.
- Jamilla, Nick (2012). "Chapter 12: Defining the Jedi Order". In Brode, Douglas; Deyneka, Leah. Sex, Politics, and Religion in Star Wars: An Anthology. Scarecrow Press. pp. 156–157. ISBN 081088514X.
- Taylor, p. 60
- Taylor, pp. 59–60
- Stratmann, H. G. (2016). Using Medicine in Science Fiction: The SF Writer's Guide to Human Biology. Springer International Publishing. p. 249. ISBN 978-3-319-16015-3. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- Sherman, Aubrey (2014). Wizards: The Myths, Legends, & Lore. Adams Media. p. 157. ISBN 9781440582882. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- Flotmann, Christina (2014). Ambiguity in Star Wars And Harry Potter: A (Post) Structuralist Reading of Two Popular Myths. Transcript Verlag. p. 368. ISBN 978-3-837-62148-8. Retrieved May 21, 2016.
- Flotmann. Ambiguity in Star Wars And Harry Potter. p. 368. Retrieved May 21, 2016.
- Charles, Eric (2012). "The Jedi Network: Star Wars' Portrayal and Inspirations on the Small Screen". In Brode, Douglas; Deyneka, Leah. Myth, Media, and Culture in Star Wars: An Anthology. Scarecrow Press. pp. 129–131. ISBN 978-0-810-88513-4. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- Clark, Mark (2015). "26". Star Wars FAQ: Everything Left to Know About the Trilogy That Changed the Movies. Applause Theatre & Cinema Books. ISBN 9781480360181.
- Cavelos, p. 177
- Cavelos, pp. 179–180
- Cavelos, pp. 178–179
- Hadhazy, Adam (August 11, 2008). "The Science of Star Wars: The Clone Wars -- Q&A with Author Jeanne Cavelos". Scientific American. Springer Nature. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
- Cavelos, p. 179
- Yu, Karen (December 18, 2015). "How real is the science in Star Wars?". University of Cambridge. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
...perhaps there are some wonders in Star Wars that we don’t need to explain.
- Cavelos, pp. 191–192
- Cavelos, p. 180
- Cavelos, p. 191
- Maderer, Jason. "The Science of Star Wars". Georgia Institute of Technology. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- Cavelos, pp. 188–189
- Cavelos, pp. 183–184
- Achenbach, Joel (March 2008). "The God Particle". National Geographic Magazine. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- "Unleashing The Force Part 1: The New Beginning". Star Wars: Force Unleashed. GameTrailers. May 25, 2007. Retrieved August 15, 2008.[dead link]
- Rector, Brett (February 22, 2007). "Production Diary: How It All Began". Lucasfilm. Retrieved August 31, 2008.
- Thorsen, Tor (July 24, 2009). "Force Unleashed unleashing more DLC, Sith Edition". GameSpot. Retrieved July 25, 2009.
- Kaplan, Don (June 30, 2009). "Jedi Mind Trick Do You Can". New York Post. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- Spaeth, Ryu. "Donald Trump's Jedi mind trick is his pledge to the Republican Party". The New Republic. Hamilton Fish V.
- Sanchez, Julian (December 23, 2013). "The War on Terror's Jedi Mind Trick". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- Kay, Katty (January 23, 2016). "Obama's 'Jedi mind trick' and a revealing admission". BBC News. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- Kapell, Matthew; Lawrence, John Shelton (2006). Finding the Force of the Star Wars Franchise: Fans, Merchandise, & Critics. Peter Lang. p. 107. ISBN 9780820463339.
- Trendacosta, Katharine (June 15, 2016). "Mark Hamill Continues to Justify Twitter's Existence". io9. Gawker Media. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
- Simon, John (June 20, 1977). "Star Dust". New York: 71. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- Lincoln, Kevin (December 17, 2015). "Looking Back at New York's Critical 1977 Review of Star Wars". Vulture.com. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- Martin, Judith (May 23, 1980). "The Empire Strikes Back". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- Dinello, Daniel (2005). Technophobia!: Science Fiction Visions of Posthuman Technology. Austin: University of Texas Press. p. 211. ISBN 0-292-70986-2.
- Bell, Chris (December 16, 2015). "Why it's time to stop hating George Lucas". The Telegraph. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
- Musgrove, Mike (October 10, 2014). "Review: How Star Wars Conquered the Universe by Chris Taylor". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
- Caputo, John D. (2001). On Religion. London: Routledge. p. 87. ISBN 0-415-23332-1.
- American Film Institute (2005). "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes". Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- 'Star Wars' Day: May The 4th Be With You, My Fox Chattanooga, May 4, 2010, archived from the original on May 8, 2010.
- de Lama, George (March 30, 1985). "'The Force Is With Us,' Reagan Says". The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
- McDowell, John C. (2007). The Gospel According to Star Wars: Faith, Hope, and the Force. Westminster John Knox. p. 26. ISBN 9781611644258.
- Bouzereau, Laurent (1997). Star Wars: The Annotated Screenplays. Ballentine Books. ISBN 0345409817.
- Cavelos, Jeanne (May 1999). "5. The Force". The Science of Star Wars. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0312209584.
- Taylor, Chris (2014). How Star Wars Conquered the Universe: The Past, Present, and Future of a Multibillion Dollar Franchise (eBook). Basic Books. OCLC 889674238.
- Asher-Perrin, Emily (September 12, 2012). "The "True Nature of the Force" is Way More Complicated Than You Think". Tor Books.
- Bortolin, Matthew (2005). The Dharma of Star Wars. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0861714970.
- Decker, Kevin S.; Eberl, Jason T.; Irwin, William (2009). Star Wars and Philosophy: More Powerful than You Can Possibly Imagine. Open Court Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1435119468.
- Panchin, Alexander Y.; Tuzhikov, Alexander I.; Panchin, Yuri V. (2014). "Midichlorians - the biomeme hypothesis: is there a microbial component to religious rituals?" (PDF). Biology Direct.
- Porter, John M. (2003). The Tao of Star Wars. Humanics Trade Group. ISBN 0893343854.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Star Wars on Wikiquote|
- Text of Ronald Reagan's March 29, 1985, speech to the National Space Club in which he refers to the Force and Star Wars
- Force Choke in the StarWars.com Databank
- Force Lightning in the StarWars.com Databank
- Force Push in the StarWars.com Databank
- Jedi Mind Trick in the StarWars.com Databank
- The Force on Wookieepedia, a Star Wars wiki
- Midichlorians on Wookieepedia, a Star Wars wiki
- May the Force Be With You on Wookieepedia, a Star Wars wiki