Purba Medinipur district

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Purba Medinipur district
পূর্ব মেদিনীপুর জেলা
District of West Bengal
Location of Purba Medinipur district in West Bengal
Location of Purba Medinipur district in West Bengal
Country India
State West Bengal
Administrative division Burdwan
Headquarters Tamluk
Government
 • Lok Sabha constituencies Kanthi (Contai), Tamluk, Ghatal (partly), Medinipur (partly)
 • Assembly seats Tamluk, Panskura Purba, Panskura Paschim, Moyna, Nandakumar, Mahisadal, Haldia, Nandigram, Chandipur, Patashpur, Kanthi Uttar, Bhagabanpur, Khejuri, Kanthi Dakshin, Ramnagar, Egra
Area
 • Total 4,736 km2 (1,829 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 5,094,238
 • Density 1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)
Demographics
 • Literacy 87.66 per cent
 • Sex ratio 936
Major highways NH 6, NH 41
Website Official website
Map of Purba Medinipur showing Tamluk

Purba Medinipur district (pron: purbɔ med̪iːniːpur) or East Midnapore district (pron: ˌmɪd̪naˈpur) is an administrative unit in the Indian state of West Bengal. It is the southernmost district of Burdwan division – one of the three administrative divisions of West Bengal. The headquarters in Tamluk. It was formed on 1 January 2002 after the Partition of Midnapore into Purba Medinipur and Paschim Medinipur which lies at the northern and western border of it. The state of Odisha is at the southwest border; the Bay of Bengal lies in the south; the Hooghly river and South 24 Parganas district to the east; and Howrah district to the north-east.

Purba Medinipur is formed of the sub-divisions of Tamluk, Contai and Haldia of erstwhile Midnapore district.[1] Another sub-division, Egra has been created out of the erstwhile Contai sub-division during the partition of Midnapore. In 2011, the state government has proposed to rename the district as Tamralipta district after the ancient port city of Tamralipta which used to lie near the modern district headquarters.

Purba Medinipur saw many political movements during the British Raj. A parallel government named the Tamralipta Jatiya Sarkar was formed during the Quit India Movement in Tamluk.[2] In 2007, Purba Medinipur witnessed the Nandigram violence, an incident of police firing that killed 14 farmers.[3]

History[edit]

Tamralipta[edit]

Tamralipta, the port in ancient India, is believed by scholars to have been around modern-day Tamluk. It is mentioned in the writings of Ptolemy (150 AD), the Greco-Egyptian writer, Faxian (earlier referred to as Fa Hien) (405-11 AD), the Chinese Buddhist monk, who travelled to India on foot, and Xuanzang (earlier referred to as Hiuen Tsiang) (seventh century AD), the Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller and translator. It was the main port used by Ashoka, the Mauryan emperor. With too much siltation the port lost its importance around 8th century A.D.[4]

Geography[edit]

Overview[edit]

Purba Medinipur district is part of the lower Indo-Gangetic Plain and Eastern coastal plains. Topographically, the district can be divided into two parts – (a) almost entirely flat plains on the west, east and north, (b) the coastal plains on the south. The vast expanse of land is formed of alluvium and is composed of younger and coastal alluvial. The elevation of the district is within 10 metres above mean sea level. The district has a long coastline of 65.5 km along its southern and south eastern boundary. Five coastal CD Blocks, namely, Khejuri II, Contai II (Deshapran), Contai I, Ramnagar I and II, are occasionally affected by cyclones and tornadoes. Tidal floods are quite regular in these five CD Blocks. Normally floods occur in 21 of the 25 CD Blocks in the district. The major rivers are Haldi, Rupnarayan, Rasulpur, Bagui and Keleghai, flowing in north to south or south-east direction. River water is an important source of irrigation. The district has a low 899 hectare forest cover, which is 0.02% of its geographical area.[4][5][6]

Major cities and towns[edit]

Major cities and towns include Panskura, Tamluk, Nandakumar, Contai, Egra, Haldia, Mecheda, Mahisadal, Kajlagarh, Digha, Mandarmani, Khejuri, Ramnagar, Depal, Patashpur, Bhagabanpur, Manglamarro, Chandipur, Kolaghat, Deshopran, Paniparul, Deulihat, Heria, Nandigram.Mugberia,Balighai

Divisions[edit]

Administrative subdivisions[edit]

Purba Medinipur district is divided into the following administrative subdivisions:[7]

Subdivision Headquarters
Area
km2
Population
(2011)
Rural
Population %
(2001)
Urban
Population %
(2001)
Tamluk Tamluk 1084.30 1,791,695 94.08 5.92
Haldia Haldia 683.94 959,934 79.19 20.81
Egra Egra 940.96 958,939 96.96 3.04
Contai Contai 1251.21 1,385,307 93.55 6.45
Purba Medinipur district Tamluk 4,713.00 5,095,875 91.71 8.29

Tamluk subdivision consists of Tamluk municipality, Panskura municipality and seven community development blocks: Nandakumar, Mayna, Tamluk, Shahid Matangini, Panskura–I, Panskura–II and Chandipur (Nadigram–III). Haldia subdivision consists of Haldia municipality and five community development blocks: Mahisadal, Nandigram–I, Nandigram–II, Sutahata and Haldia. Egra subdivision consists of Egra municipality and six community development blocks: Bhagawanpur–I, Bhagawanpur–II, Egra–I, Egra–II, Pataspur–I and Pataspur–II. Contai subdivision consists of Contai municipality and seven community development blocks: Kanthi–I, Kanthi–II, Kanthi–III, Khejuri–I, Khejuri–II, Ramnagar–I and Ramnagar–II.[8]

Tamluk is the district headquarters. There are 21 police stations, 25 development blocks, 5 municipalities and 223 gram panchayats in this district.[8][9]

Other than in the municipality area, each subdivision contains community development blocks which in turn are divided into rural areas and census towns. In total there are 10 urban units: five municipalities and five census towns.[9] Panskura municipality was established in 2001.[10]

Tamluk subdivision[edit]

  • Two municipalities: Tamluk and Panskura
  • Nandakumar community development block consists of rural areas only with 12 gram panchayats.
  • Moyna community development block consists of rural areas with 11 gram panchayats and one census town: Goasafat.
  • Tamluk community development block consists of rural areas with 12 gram panchayats and two census towns: Anantapur and Dakshin Baguan.
  • Sahid Matangini community development block consists of rural areas with 10 gram panchayats and two census towns: Kakdihi and Shantipur.
  • Panskura community development block consists of rural areas only with 14 gram panchayats.
  • Kolaghat community development block consists of rural areas with 13 gram panchayats and four census towns: Kolaghat, Amalhara, Mihitikri and Kharisha.
  • Chandipur community development block consists of rural areas with 10 gram panchayats and two census towns: Kotbar and Ershal.

Haldia subdivision[edit]

  • One municipality: Haldia.
  • Mahshadal community development block consists of rural areas with 11 gram panchayats and one census town: Garh Kamalpur.
  • Nandigram I community development block consists of rural areas with 10 gram panchayats and one census town: Nandigram.
  • Nandigram II community development block consists of rural areas with 7 gram panchayats and one census town: Ashadtalya.
  • Sutahata community development block consists of rural areas with 6 gram panchayats and one census town: Barda
  • Haldia community development block consists of rural areas only with 4 gram panchayats.

Egra subdivision[edit]

  • One municipality: Egra.
  • Bhagabanpur I community development block consists of rural areas with 10 gram panchayats and two census towns: Benudiya and Hincha Gerya.
  • Egra I community development block consists of rural areas only with 8 gram panchayats.
  • Egra II community development block consists of rural areas only with 8 gram panchayats.
  • Patashpur I community development block consists of rural areas only with 9 gram panchayats.
  • Patashpur II community development block consists of rural areas only with 7 gram panchayats.

Contai subdivision[edit]

  • One municipality: Contai.
  • Contai I community development block consists of rural areas only with 8 gram panchayats.
  • Deshapran community development block consists of rural areas with 8 gram panchayats and one census town: Basantia.
  • Contai III community development block consists of rural areas only with 8 gram panchayats.
  • Khejuri I community development block consists of rural areas only with 6 gram panchayats.
  • Khejuri II community development block consists of rural areas only with 5 gram panchayats.
  • Ramnagar I community development block consists of rural areas with 9 gram panchayats and one census town: Khadalgobra.
  • Ramnagar II community development block consists of rural areas only with 8 gram panchayats.
  • Bhagabanpur II community development block consists of rural areas only with 9 gram panchayats.

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2011 census Purba Medinipur district has a population of 5,094,238,[11] roughly equal to the United Arab Emirates[12] or the US state of Colorado.[13] This gives it a ranking of 20th in India (out of a total of 640).[11] The district has a population density of 1,076 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,790/sq mi).[11] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 15.32%.[11]

Purba Medinipur has a sex ratio of 936 females for every 1000 males,[11]

Educational facilities in Purba Medinipur district:[14]
High School (including higher secondary school)–456
Junior High School–189
Junior High Madarsa–5
High Madarsa–8
Senior Madarsa–2
Primary School–3217
Sishu Sikhsha Kendra–1516
Ishwar chandra Jana Chetna Centre–3089
College–15
Engineering colleges–2
Skill development institutions–44

Economy[edit]

In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Purba Medinipur one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).[15] It is one of the 11 districts in West Bengal receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).[15]

Literacy and education[edit]

According to the 2011 census, the district has a literacy rate of 87.66[16] up from 80.20% of 2001 census. As per 2001 census, this district had a male literacy rate of 89.1% and female literacy rate was 70.7%. The education index of this district is 0.74[14] and it is ranked first in literacy in comparison to other districts of West Bengal.[17]

Given in the table below (data in numbers) is a comprehensive picture of the education scenario in Purba Medinipur district for the year 2013-14. It may be noted that primary schools include junior basic schools; middle schools, high schools and higher secondary schools include madrasahs; technical schools include junior technical schools, junior government polytechnics, industrial technical institutes, industrial training centres, nursing training institutes etc.; technical and professional colleges include engineering colleges, polytechnics, medical colleges, para-medical institutes, management colleges, teachers training and nursing training colleges, law colleges, art colleges, music colleges etc. Special and non-formal education centres include sishu siksha kendras, madhyamik siksha kendras, centres of Rabindra mukta vidyalaya, recognised Sanskrit tols, institutions for the blind and other handicapped persons, Anganwadi centres, reformatory schools etc.[18]

Paramanandapur Jagannath Institution is a very popular boy's high school in the Medinipur region. It is situated in Balaipanda, Paramanandapur area of Moyna in Purba Medinipur.

Subdivision Primary
School
Middle
School
High
School
Higher Secondary
School
General
College, Univ
Technical /
Professional Instt
Non-formal
Education
Institution Student Institution Student Institution Student Institution Student Institution Student Institution Student Institution Student
Tamluk 1,084 84,258 78 5,789 77 43,408 144 171,516 6 12,728 17 2,747 2,704 112,411
Haldia 557 43,173 40 5,082 54 36,767 77 83,659 5 9,792 16 6,256 1,359 59,879
Egra 629 41,418 76 11,537 49 32,167 74 90,730 3 9,498 2 154 1,595 62,200
Contai 983 50,945 99 10,557 81 46,690 102 120,128 5 12,223 10 1,602 2,316 90,552
Purba Medinipur district 3,253 219,794 293 32,965 261 159,032 397 466,093 19 44,241 45 10,759 7,974 375,042

Healthcare[edit]

The table below (all data in numbers) presents an overview of the medical facilities available and patients treated in the hospitals, health centres and sub-centres in 2014 in Purba Medinipur district.[19]

Subdivision Health & Family Welfare Deptt, WB Other
State
Govt
Deptts
Local
bodies
Central
Govt
Deptts /
PSUs
NGO /
Private
Nursing
Homes
Total Total
Number
of
Beds
Total
Number
of
Doctors
Indoor
Patients
Outdoor
Patients
Hospitals
Rural
Hospitals
Block
Primary
Health
Centres
Primary
Health
Centres
Tamluk 1 - 7 14 - - - 70 92 1,506 96 61,84 1,251,099
Haldia 1 2 3 10 - - - 19 35 803 67 27,586 757,876
Egra 1 1 4 11 - - - 21 38 489 42 23,699 419,829
Contai 2 - 8 16 - - - 22 48 688 88 59,882 890,607
Purba Medinipur district 5 3 22 51 - - - 132 213 3,486 293 172,251 3,319,411

Tourism[edit]

The coastal region of Purba Medinipur district is in the face of river Hoogly. With good coastal, landform, seasonal, rural and heritage diversity, it offers potential for tourism in its typical coastlines and rural areas. The famous tourist spots are[14]

Tamluk (Tamralipta)[edit]

Bargabhima Temple, Tamluk

Tamluk, district headquarters of Purba Medinipur district is situated on the bank of river Rupnarayan which is a very popular picnic spot. The other places are:

  • Temple of Devi Barghobhima is a 1150 years old Kali temple and is considered as one of the 51 Shakti Peethas. According to Puran, the gorali of left feet of Sati/Parvati fell here when Lord Vishnu cut the sacred body of Goddess Sati into several pieces to make Lord Shiva quiet.
  • Archeological Museum of Tamluk is a must-see place. It contains artefacts of tamra (copper) and has preserved a tamralipta with Greek inscriptions. It preserves the historical heritage of Bengal.
  • Rakhit Bati is another important place to visit in Tamluk. In the beginning of 19th century it was famous as a secret centre of the then revolutionary parties Anusilan Samiti and Gupta Samiti.
  • There are many other ancient temples in Tamluk town to visit, i.e., Jagannath Temple, Hari Temple, Mahaprabhu Temple, Ram Jiu Temple, Rajbari Temple etc.

Panskura[edit]

It is a municipality upgraded in 2002. It is one of the busiest towns in East Midnapore district. Panskura is known as "Place of Flowers" with large supplies of flower to other places. Panskura is also known for its green vegetables wholesale market near the railway station. It is open every day after 10pm till 7am next morning with a regular gathering of lakhs of people. Panskura is one of the busiest railway stations which extends up to Digha or Haldia directly through this station or by bus. The river Kansabati is a good picnic spot and Mahakali (Bhavatarini) temple near by old Panskura bazar is a pilgrimage spot.Panskura is also well known for its cultural side . Lots of cultural schools and institute is there. Panskura is famous for the recitation institute Chandabani [ছন্দবাণী].

Mahishadal[edit]

Mahishadal is only 16 km from Tamluk town where you can visit the Mahishadal Rajbari and the museum there, do boating in the attached park. Geonkhali is a place 8 km from Mahishadal, a perfect picnic spot at the junction (mohona) of three rivers.

New Digha Beach

Digha[edit]

Digha is a seaside resort town of Purba Medinipur district and, at the northern end of the Bay of Bengal, is the most popular seaside resort of West Bengal. Renowned for its beaches, Digha is visited by thousands of tourists every year.

Mandarmani[edit]

Mandarmani is a small virgin beach on Bay of Bengal under Kalindi Gram Panchayat, only 14 km from Digha-Contai Road from Chaulkhola Bus Stop. It is a small fishing harbour and a fast developing tourist spot.

Haldia[edit]

Haldia, a city and a municipality in Purba Medinipur, is a major seaport approximately 50 km southwest of Kolkata near the mouth of the Hooghly River, one of the tributaries of the Ganges. It is being developed as a major trade port for Kolkata, intended mainly for bulk cargoes.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jana, Naresh (31 December 2001). "Tamluk readies for giant's partition". The Telegraph (Kolkata). Retrieved 1 September 2008. 
  2. ^ "Sushil Dhara:Dreams of '42 Service in '90s". janasamachar.net. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  3. ^ "Red-hand Buddha: 14 killed in Nandigram re-entry bid". The Telegraph. 15 March 2007. Retrieved 15 March 2007. 
  4. ^ a b "District Human Development Report: Purba Medinipur" (PDF). Chapter I Introduction. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2016. 
  5. ^ "Brief Industrial Profile of Purba Midnapur District" (PDF). Ministry of Micro Small and Medium Industries, Government of India. Retrieved 18 November 2016. 
  6. ^ "Mapping Dynamics of land utilization and its changing Patterns of Purba Medinipure District - W.B". researchgate.net. Retrieved 18 November 2016. 
  7. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Purba Medinipur". Table 2.2, 2.4(a). Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 13 November 2016. 
  8. ^ a b "Directory of District, Sub division, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal, March 2008". West Bengal. National Informatics Centre, India. 19 March 2008. Retrieved 6 December 2008. 
  9. ^ a b "Administration Setup". Official website of Purba Medinipur district. Retrieved 6 December 2008.  Archived 25 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ "Municipalities: Panskura Municipality". Department of Urban Development, West Bengal. Retrieved 6 December 2008. 
  11. ^ a b c d e "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011. 
  12. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 1 October 2011. United Arab Emirates 5,148,664 
  13. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 September 2011. Colorado 5,029,196 
  14. ^ a b c "Official website of the Purba Medinipur District". Retrieved 29 October 2012. 
  15. ^ a b Ministry of Panchayati Raj (8 September 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme" (PDF). National Institute of Rural Development. Retrieved 27 September 2011. 
  16. ^ "District Census 2011". Retrieved 29 October 2012. 
  17. ^ List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate
  18. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Purba Medinipur". Basic data: Table 4.4, 4.5, Clarifications: other related tables. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 17 November 2016. 
  19. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Purba Medinipur". Table 3.1, 3.3. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 17 November 2016. 

External links[edit]