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The midnight sun is a natural phenomenon that occurs in the local summer months in places north of the Arctic Circle or south of the Antarctic Circle, when the sun remains visible at the local midnight. Around the summer solstice (approximately 21 June in the north and 22 December in the south) the sun is visible for the full 24 hours, given fair weather. The number of days per year with potential midnight sun increases the farther towards either pole one goes. Although approximately defined by the polar circles, in practice the midnight sun can be seen as much as 55 miles (90 km) outside the polar circle, as described below, and the exact latitudes of the farthest reaches of midnight sun depend on topography and vary slightly year-to-year.
There are no permanent economically autonomous human settlements south of the Antarctic Circle, only research stations, so the countries and territories whose populations experience it are limited to those crossed by the Arctic Circle: Canada (Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut), Greenland, Iceland, Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and the United States (Alaska). A quarter of Finland's territory lies north of the Arctic Circle and at the country's northernmost point the sun does not set at all for 60 days during summer. In Svalbard, Norway, the northernmost inhabited region of Europe, there is no sunset from approximately 19 April to 23 August. The extreme sites are the poles where the sun can be continuously visible for a half year.
Since the axial tilt of the Earth is considerable (approximately 23 degrees 27 minutes) the sun does not set at high latitudes in (local) summer. The duration of sunlight increases from one day during the summer solstice at the polar circle to several weeks only 100 km closer to the pole, to six months at the poles. At extreme latitudes, it is usually referred to as polar day.
At the poles themselves, the sun rises and sets only once each year. During the six months that the sun is above the horizon, it spends the days continuously moving in circles around the observer, gradually spiralling higher and reaching its highest circuit of the sky at the summer solstice.
Due to atmospheric refraction and also because the sun is a disk rather than a point, the midnight sun may be experienced at latitudes slightly below the polar circle, though not exceeding one degree (depending on local conditions). For example, Iceland is known for its midnight sun, even though most of it (Grímsey is the exception) is slightly south of the Arctic Circle. For the same reasons, the period of sunlight at the poles is slightly longer than six months. Even the northern extremities of Scotland (and those places on similar latitudes such as St. Petersburg) experience twilight in the northern sky at around the summer solstice.
Observers at heights appreciably above sea level can experience extended periods of midnight sun as a result of the 'dip' of the horizon viewed from altitude.
Time zones and daylight saving time
The term the "midnight sun" refers to the phenomenon of the consecutive only 24 hours of sunlight north of the Arctic Circle or south of the Antarctic Circle. There are, however, some instances which are sometimes referred to as "midnight sun", even though they are in reality due to time zones and the observance of daylight saving time. For instance, in Fairbanks, Alaska, which is south of the Arctic Circle, the sun sets at 12:47 am at the summer solstice. This is because Fairbanks is 51 minutes ahead of its idealized time zone (as most of the state is on one time zone) and in addition the state of Alaska observes daylight saving time. (Fairbanks is at about 147.72 degrees west, corresponding to UTC−9 hours 51 minutes, and is on UTC−9 in winter.) This means that solar culmination occurs at about 1:51 pm instead of at 12 noon.
If a precise moment for the genuine "midnight sun" is required, the observer's longitude, the local civil time and the equation of time must be taken into account. The moment of the sun's closest approach to the horizon coincides with its passing due north at the observer's position, which occurs only approximately at midnight in general. Each degree of longitude east of the Greenwich meridian makes the vital moment exactly 4 minutes earlier than midnight as shown on the clock, while each hour that the local civil time is ahead of coordinated universal time (UTC, also known as GMT) makes the moment an hour later. These two effects must be added. In addition the equation of time (which depends on the date) must be added: a positive value on a given date means that the sun is running slightly ahead of its average position, so the value must be subtracted.
As an example, at the North Cape of Norway at midnight on June 21/22, the longitude of 25.9 degrees east makes the moment 103.2 minutes earlier by clock time; but the local time, 2 hours ahead of GMT in the summer, makes it 120 minutes later by clock time. The equation of time at that date is -2.0 minutes. Therefore, the sun's lowest elevation occurs 120 - 103.2 + 2.0 minutes after midnight: at 00.19 Central European Summer time. On other nearby dates the only thing different is the equation of time, so this remains a reasonable estimate for a considerable period. The sun's altitude remains within half a degree of the minimum of about 5 degrees for about 45 minutes either side of this time.
Locations where the sun is less than 6 (or 7) degrees below the horizon which are above 60° 34’ (or 59° 34’) latitude that are south of the Arctic Circle or north of the Antarctic Circle experience midnight twilight instead, so that daytime activities, such as reading, are still possible without artificial light on a clear night.
White Nights have become a common symbol of Saint Petersburg, Russia, where they occur from about June 11 to July 2, and the last 10 days of June are celebrated with cultural events known as the White Nights Festival.
When to see the midnight sun
The Midnight Sun is visible at the Arctic Circle from June 12 until July 1. This period extends as one travels further north.
At Cape Nordkinn, Norway, known as the northernmost point of Continental Europe, this period extends approximately from May 14 to July 29. On the Svalbard archipelago further north, this period extends from April 20 to August 22.
Effect on people
The midnight sun is also an issue for those who observe religious rules based around the 24-hour day/night cycle. In the Jewish community there is a body of law which attempts to deal with adherence to the Mitzvah in such conditions. Another affected religion is Islam, where fasting during daylight hours in Ramadan would imply total abstinence. Also, Muslims have 5 obligatory prayers daily which are timed according to position of the sun, so it becomes difficult for them to decide the prayer times; however, they can follow the timings of the closest place that has a normal sun cycle or the timings of Mecca.
- In the film Insomnia and its American remake, the protagonist suffers from insomnia partially brought on by the midnight sun while investigating a murder north of the Arctic Circle (Norway in the original, and Alaska in the remake, although the actual Alaskan location of Nightmute is in fact some 6 degrees of latitude south of the Arctic Circle and therefore well out of the zone of possible midnight sun).
- In "The Midnight Sun", an episode of The Twilight Zone, the Earth is on a collision course with the sun, causing a midnight sun effect.
- The episode of Northern Exposure entitled "Midnight Sun" explores the effects of the phenomenon on the small Alaskan town's residents.
- In the Stephen Sondheim musical A Little Night Music, the two Night Waltzes deal specifically with the phenomenon of Midnight Sun.
- Led Zeppelin's "Immigrant Song" mentions the midnight sun in the lyrics ("We come from the land of ice and snow/From the midnight sun where the hot springs flow") after their visit to Reykjavik, Iceland during their tour of Iceland, Bath and Germany in the summer of 1970.
- Singer Tinashe refers to the Midnight Sun in the song of the same name on her project Black Water
- Sonata Arctica's song "The Wolves Die Young" also mentions the midnight sun in the lyrics ("This is the day when the wolves die young, they'll never see a new midnight sun")
- "A Dustland Fairytale" by The Killers mentions the midnight sun ("Is there still magic in the midnight sun, or did you leave it back in '61?")
- The titular protagonist of Warren Zevon's song "Roland the Headless Thompson Gunner" was born in "the land of the midnight sun," referring to Norway.
- Poison's song "Ride the Wind" references the midnight sun ("Never going back until I touch the midnight sun")
- In the song Tonight, I Celebrate My Love by Peabo Bryson and Roberta Flack the "Midnight sun" is mentioned in the lyrics: "tonight I celebrate my love for you, and the "midnight sun" is gonna come shining through".
- Midnight Sun (Lionel Hampton and Sonny Burke song)
- Scottish singer Maggie Reilly's second album, recorded in 1993, is called Midnight Sun and its first track is called "Follow the Midnight Sun". Also her song "Gaia" from her first album Echoes (1992) references the midnight sun in its chorus.
- Halsey's song Empty Gold also mentions the midnight sun in the lyrics ("Dark as midnight sun/Smoke as black as charcoal fills into our fragile lungs").
- Strawbs's album Hero and Heroine includes a song titled Midnight Sun.
- Pytheas, ancient Greek geographer from Massalia and first person to describe the midnight sun
- Eagle Summit, which experiences midnight sun despite being south of the Arctic Circle because of altitude
- Polar night - The opposite phenomenon experienced in winter: a day without sunrise.
- Midnight Sun Solar Race Team - A solar race car team: With the midnight sun phenomenon, a solar-powered vehicle can continue driving 24 hours a day
- H. Spencer Jones, General Astronomy (Edward Arnold, London, 1922), Chapters I-III
- Great Soviet Encyclopedia
- Trygve B. Haugan, ed. Det Nordlige Norge Fra Trondheim Til Midnattssolens Land (Trondheim: Reisetrafikkforeningen for Trondheim og Trøndelag. 1940)
- Lutgens F.K., Tarbuck E.J. (2007) The Atmosphere, Tenth Edition, page 39, PEARSON, Prentice Hall, NJ.
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