Migratory locust

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Migratory locust
Female migratory locust
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Orthoptera
Suborder: Caelifera
Family: Acrididae
Tribe: Locustini
Genus: Locusta
Linnaeus, 1758
L. migratoria
Binomial name
Locusta migratoria
  • Acridium migratorium
  • Acridium plorans
  • Pachytylus australis (Saussure, 1884)
  • Pachytylus migratorius (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Pachytylus migratorioides (Fairmaire & L.J. Reiche, 1849)

The migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) is the most widespread locust species, and the only species in the genus Locusta. It occurs throughout Africa, Asia, Australia and New Zealand. It used to be common in Europe but has now become rare there. Because of the vast geographic area it occupies, which comprises many different ecological zones, numerous subspecies have been described. However, not all experts agree on the validity of some of these subspecies.

Many other species of grasshopper with gregarious and possibly migratory behaviour are referred to as 'locusts' in the vernacular, including the widely distributed desert locust.

At 6.5 Gbp,[1] the migratory locust possesses one of the largest known insect genomes.[2]


The migratory locust is polyphenic. It transitions between two main phenotypes in response to population density; the solitary phase and the gregarious phase. As the density of the population increases the locust transforms progressively from the solitary phase towards the gregarious phase with intermediate phases:

Solitaire = solitary phase → transiens congregans (intermediate form) → gregarious phase → transiens[check spelling] dissocians (intermediate form) → solitaire = solitary phase.

Pigmentation and size of the migratory locust vary according to its phase (gregarious or solitary form) and its age. Gregarious larvae have a yellow to orange covering with black spots; solitary larvae are green or brown. The gregarious adult is brownish with yellow, the latter colour becoming more intense and extensive on maturation. The solitary adult is brown with varying extent of green colour depending on the colour of the vegetation. Gregarious adults vary in size between 40 and 60 mm according to the sex; they are smaller than the solitary adults.

The phase transition may be mediated by DNA methylation in the brain. Expression of the DNA methyltrasferase gene Dnmt3 is high in the brain of the gregarious form, decreases in gregarious locusts when they are isolated, and increases in solitary locusts when they are crowded. Knock-down reduces phase-related locomotor activity.[3] Transcriptionally, Dnmt3 is linked with phase-core transcriptional factor, hormone receptor HR3.[3]


Increased extracellular K+ was found to cause membrane depolarization in muscle activating nerves by Hoyle 1953. This then in turn reduces the nerve potential, with the final result of reducing the force output of said muscle. He also found chronic cold temperatures to increase K+ in the haemolymph. These changes affect L. migratoria's nerve states because – as with insects and animals in general – nerve cells have a high K permeability, which allows K+'s transmembrane distribution to determine most cellular diffusion potential. This is shaping and will continue to shape the distribution of L. migratoria's range under climate change.[4]

Relationship with humans[edit]

Economic impact[edit]

Adult female (top), adult male (bottom left), fifth instar nymph (bottom right)

Locusts are highly mobile, and usually fly with the wind at a speed of about 15 to 20 kilometres per hour (9.3 to 12.4 mph). Swarms can travel 5 to 130 km or more in a day. Locust swarms can vary from less than one square kilometre to several hundred square kilometres with 40 to 80 million individuals per square kilometre. An adult locust can consume its own weight (several grams) in fresh food per day. For every million locusts, one ton of food is eaten.

In Africa, the last serious widespread plague of L. m. migratorioides occurred from 1928 to 1942. Since then, environmental transformations have made the development of swarms from the African migratory locust unlikely. Nevertheless, potential outbreaks are constantly monitored as plagues can be devastating. The Malagasy migratory locust (L. m. capito) still regularly swarms (roughly twice every ten years). The desert locust, which is very similar to the African migratory locust, remains a major threat too.

Locust survey and control are primarily the responsibility of the Ministry of Agriculture in locust-affected countries and are operations undertaken by national locust units. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations provides information on the general locust situation to all interested countries and gives warnings and forecasts to those countries in danger of invasion.

As food[edit]

The migratory locust is an edible insect.[5][6] In Europe, the migratory locust is officially approved for the use in food in Switzerland (since May 2017).[7] On 2 July 2021, the European Food Safety Agency published a scientific opinion stating that the consumption of migratory locust in frozen, dried or grounded state is safe for humans.[8] On 12 November 2021, the EU member states gave their green light for the EU Commission to authorize the placing on the market of migratory locust as a food. This is one of the final steps in the novel food authorization procedure. As a next step, the Commission will now adopt a legal act.[9]

Subspecies of Locusta migratoria[edit]

L. m. migratorioides female (solitary)
L. m. migratorioides male (solitary)

L. migratoria is found over a vast geographic area, and its range covers many different ecological zones. Because of this, numerous subspecies have been described; however, not all experts agree on the validity of some of these subspecies.[10]

  • L. m. burmana Ramme, 1951
  • L. m. capito Saussure, 1884 (Malagasy migratory locust: Madagascar)
  • L. m. cinerascens Fabricius, 1781 (Italy, Spain)
  • L. m. manilensis (Meyen, 1835) 1 (eastern Asia)
  • L. m. migratoria (Linnaeus, 1758) (Eurasian migratory locust: West and Central Asia, eastern Europe)
  • L. m. migratorioides (Fairmaire & L.J. Reiche, 1849) (African migratory locust: Africa and Atlantic islands)
  • L. m. tibetensis Chen, Yonglin, 1963
  • L. m. danica (Linnaeus, 1767) = L. m. migratoria (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • L. m. gallica Remaudičre, 1947 = L. m. migratoria (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • L. m. solitaria Carthy, 1955 = L. m. migratoria (Linnaeus, 1758)

Other species called 'locusts'[edit]

Other species of Orthoptera that display gregarious and migratory behaviour are called locusts. This includes:

The Senegalese grasshopper (Oedaleus senegalensis) also often displays locust-like behaviour in the Sahel region.


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Wang, Xianhui; Fang, Xiaodong; Yang, Pengcheng; Jiang, Xuanting; Jiang, Feng; Zhao, Dejian; Li, Bolei; Cui, Feng; Wei, Jianing; Ma, Chuan; Wang, Yundan; He, Jing; Luo, Yuan; Wang, Zhifeng; Guo, Xiaojiao; Guo, Wei; Wang, Xuesong; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Meiling; Hao, Shuguang; Chen, Bing; Ma, Zongyuan; Yu, Dan; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Yabing; Fan, Dingding; Han, Lijuan; Wang, Bo; Chen, Yuanxin; Wang, Junwen; Yang, Lan; Zhao, Wei; Feng, Yue; Chen, Guanxing; Lian, Jinmin; Li, Qiye; Huang, Zhiyong; Yao, Xiaoming; Lv, Na; Zhang, Guojie; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Baoli; Kang, Le (2014). "The locust genome provides insight into swarm formation and long-distance flight". Nature Communications. 5: 2957. Bibcode:2014NatCo...5.2957W. doi:10.1038/ncomms3957. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 3896762. PMID 24423660.
  2. ^ Li, Sheng; Zhu, Shiming; Jia, Qiangqiang; Yuan, Dongwei; Ren, Chonghua; Li, Kang; Liu, Suning; Cui, Yingying; Zhao, Haigang; Cao, Yanghui; Fang, Gangqi; Li, Daqi; Zhao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jianzhen; Yue, Qiaoyun; Fan, Yongliang; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Feng, Qili; Zhan, Shuai (2018). "The genomic and functional landscapes of developmental plasticity in the American cockroach". Nature Communications. 9 (1): 1008. Bibcode:2018NatCo...9.1008L. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-03281-1. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 5861062. PMID 29559629. CC BY icon.svg This article contains quotations from this source, which is available under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license
  3. ^ a b Hou, Li; Wang, Xuesong; Yang, Pengcheng; Li, Beibei; Lin, Zhe; Kang, Le; Wang, Xianhui (2020). "DNA methyltransferase 3 participates in behavioral phase change in the migratory locust". Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 121: 103374. doi:10.1016/j.ibmb.2020.103374. PMID 32283278.
  4. ^ Overgaard, Johannes; MacMillan, Heath A. (2017-02-10). "The Integrative Physiology of Insect Chill Tolerance". Annual Review of Physiology. Annual Reviews. 79 (1): 187–208. doi:10.1146/annurev-physiol-022516-034142. ISSN 0066-4278.
  5. ^ Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; van Itterbeeck, Joost; Heetkamp, Marcel J. W.; van den Brand, Henry; van Loon, Joop J. A.; van Huis, Arnold; Hansen, Immo A. (29 December 2010). "An Exploration on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Production by Insect Species Suitable for Animal or Human Consumption". PLOS ONE. 5 (12): e14445. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...514445O. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014445. PMC 3012052. PMID 21206900.
  6. ^ Barsics, F., 2010. L'alimentation des Populations locales de Madagascar productrices de Vers à Soie. - Univ. de Liège.: 1-84.
  7. ^ Bundesamt für Lebensmittelsicherheit und Veterinärwesen (2017-04-28): "Insects as food" (German only)
  8. ^ EFSA (2 July 2021): Safety of frozen and dried formulations from migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) as a Novel food pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. In: EFSA Journal. Vol. 19, Issue 7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2021.6667.
  9. ^ European Commission (2 November 2021): Approval of second insect as a Novel Food.
  10. ^ Chapuis, M-P.; Lecoq, M.; Michalakis, Y.; Loiseau, A.; Sword, G. A.; Piry, S.; Estoup, A. (1 August 2008). "Do outbreaks affect genetic population structure? A worldwide survey in a pest plagued by microsatellite null alleles". Molecular Ecology. 17 (16): 3640–3653. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.03869.x. PMID 18643881. S2CID 4185861.


  • Walker, Annette; Heath, Eric (2000). The Reed Handbook of Common New Zealand Insects. Auckland: Reed. ISBN 978-0-7900-0718-2.
  • Steedman, Alison, ed. (1988). Locust Handbook (2nd ed.). London: Overseas Development Natural Resources Institute. ISBN 978-0-85954-232-6.

External links[edit]