Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Miguel Ángel The Third
Born (1946-01-08) January 8, 1946 (age 72)
Culiacán, Sinaloa, Mexico
Nationality Mexican
Other names El Padrino (The Godfather)
Occupation Drug lord
Criminal penalty 37-year sentence
Criminal status Incarcerated
Conviction(s) Drug trafficking, murder
Partner(s) Ernesto Fonseca Carrillo, Rafael Caro Quintero

Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo (born January 8, 1946), commonly referred to by his alias El Padrino ("The Godfather"), is a convicted Mexican drug lord who formed the Guadalajara Cartel in the 1980s, and controlled almost all of the drug trafficking in Mexico and the corridors along the Mexico–United States border.

Gallardo was arrested for the murder of Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) agent Enrique Camarena, who was tortured to death on one of Gallardo's ranches. He is serving a 37-year sentence in the maximum security prison known as Altiplano.

Early life and career[edit]

Born on a ranch in Bellavista on the outskirts of Culiacán, Sinaloa, Félix Gallardo first graduated high school and studied business in college. However he then took a job as a Mexican Federal Judicial Police agent.[1] He worked as a family bodyguard for the governor of Sinaloa state Leopoldo Sanchez Celis, whose political connections Gallardo used to help build his drug trafficking organization. Gallardo was also the godfather of Celis' son Rodolfo.[2][3][4] Félix Gallardo started working for drug traffickers brokering Corruption of state officials, and together with Rafael Caro Quintero and Ernesto Fonseca Carrillo, whom previously worked in the Avilés criminal organization, took control of the trafficking routes after Avilés was killed in a shootout with the Police.[citation needed]

Connections to Colombian cartels[edit]

In the early 1980s, drug interdiction efforts increased around Florida which was then the major shipping destination for illegal drug traffickers. As a result, the Colombian cartels began to utilize Mexico as their primary transhipment point. Juan Matta-Ballesteros (a CIA asset) was Gallardo's primary connection to the Colombian cartels. Matta-Ballesteros had originally introduced Gallardo's predecessor, Alberto Sicilia-Falcon to Santiago Ocampo of the Cali Cartel, the head of one of the largest U.S. cocaine smuggling rings. Rather than taking cash payments for their services, the smugglers in the Guadalajara cartel took a 50% cut of the cocaine they transported from Colombia. This was extremely profitable for them, with some estimating that the trafficking network operated by Felix Gallardo, Ernesto Fonseca Carrillo, and Caro Quintero was pulling in $5 billion annually.[5][2][6][7]

Until the end of the 1980s, the Sinaloa coalition headed by Felix Gallardo (composed of what is today the Sinaloa, Tijuana, Juarez, and Pacifica Sur cartels) had an almost complete monopoly on illegal drug traffic in Mexico.[8][2]

Murder of DEA Agent Enrique Camarena[edit]

An undercover agent from the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Enrique Camarena managed to infiltrate deep into the drug trafficking organization and had become close to Félix Gallardo. In 1984, acting on information from Camarena, 450 Mexican soldiers backed by helicopters destroyed a 1,000 hectare (≈2,500 acre) marijuana plantation known as 'Rancho Búfalo' in Chihuahua, Mexico (known to be protected by Mexican DFS intelligence agents), as part of "Operation Godfather". Thousands of farmers worked the fields at Rancho Buffalo, and the annual production was later valued at US$8 billion. All of this took place with the knowledge of local police, politicians, and the military.[2][9] Camarena was also beginning to expose the connections between drug traffickers, Mexican law enforcement, and high-ranking government officials within the PRI, which Gallardo considered to be a major threat to the Guadalajara cartel's operations throughout Mexico.[6]

Félix Gallardo ordered the kidnapping of Enrique Camarena. On February 7, 1985, Jalisco police officers on the cartel's payroll kidnapped Camarena as he left the U.S. consulate. His helicopter pilot, Alfredo Zavala Avelar, was also kidnapped soon afterwards.[2][9] They were both brought to a ranch owned by Gallardo and brutally tortured over the course of 30 hours. On February 9, Camarena was killed when a hole was made in his head with a powerful electric drill. His shrink-wrapped body was later found, along with Avelar's, in a shallow hole on a ranch in Michoacan state.[6]

Camarena's murder prompted one of the largest DEA homicide investigations ever undertaken, Operation Leyenda.[2][10] A special unit was dispatched to coordinate the investigation in Mexico, where corrupt officials were being implicated. Investigators soon identified Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo and his two close associates: Ernesto Fonseca Carrillo and Rafael Caro Quintero as the primary suspects in the kidnapping. Under enormous pressure from the US, Fonseca and Quintero were quickly apprehended, but Félix Gallardo still enjoyed political protection.[2]

Arrest[edit]

Félix Gallardo kept a low profile and in 1987 moved with his family to Guadalajara city. Félix Gallardo was arrested in Mexico on April 8, 1989.[11] He was charged by the authorities in Mexico and the United States with the kidnapping and murder of United States DEA Agent Enrique Camarena, racketeering, drug smuggling and multiple violent crimes.[12]

According to US officials, Felix Gallardo also spent time as the Sinaloa governor's house guest, which governor Antonio Toledo Corro has denied. When asked about his association with Felix Gallardo, governor Toledo said he was "unaware of any outstanding arrest warrants" against Félix Gallardo.[11] The arrest of Félix Gallardo was the catalyst to exposing the widespread corruption at political and law enforcement levels in Mexico. Within days of his arrest, and under pressure from the media, several police commanders were arrested and as many as 90 officers deserted.[11] No politicians were charged.[citation needed]

Incarceration[edit]

While incarcerated, he remained one of Mexico's major traffickers, maintaining his organization via mobile phone until he was transferred in the 1990s to the Altiplano maximum security prison,[4][13] where he is serving a 37-year sentence.[14][15]

As he grew older, Félix Gallardo complained that he lived in poor conditions while in jail. He says that he suffers from vertigo, deafness, loss of an eye, and blood circulation problems. He lives in a 240 × 440 cm cell, which he is not allowed to leave, even to the recreational area.[16] In March 2013 Félix Gallardo started a legal process to continue his prison sentence at home when he reaches his 70th birthday on 8 January 2016.[17] On 29 April 2014 a Mexican federal court denied Félix Gallardo's petition to be transferred from the maximum-security prison to a medium-security one.[18] On 18 December 2014, federal authorities approved his request to transfer him to a medium-security prison in Guadalajara (State of Jalisco) due to his declining health conditions.[19]

Division of territory[edit]

After his arrest, Félix Gallardo decided to divide up the trade he controlled as it would be more efficient and less likely to be brought down by law enforcement.[2][20] Félix Gallardo instructed his lawyer to convene the nation's top drug narcos in 1989 at a house in the resort of Acapulco where he designated the plazas or territories. The Tijuana route would go to his nephews, the Arellano Felix brothers.[21][22] The Ciudad Juárez route would go to the Carrillo Fuentes family.[21][22] Miguel Caro Quintero would run the Sonora corridor.[21] Joaquín Guzmán Loera and Héctor Luis Palma Salazar were left the Pacific coast operations, with Ismael Zambada García joining them soon after and thus becoming the Sinaloa Cartel.[21][22] The control of the Matamoros, Tamaulipas corridor – then becoming the Gulf Cartel – was left undisturbed to Juan García Ábrego,[21][22] who was not a party to the 1989 pact.[23]

Félix Gallardo still planned to oversee national operations, but when he was transferred to a high-security prison in 1993, he lost any remaining control over the other drug lords.[2][24]

Memoirs[edit]

In 2008, the investigative journalist Diego Enrique Osorno was able to contact Félix Gallardo through his 13-year-old son. Through this connection, the first memoirs of a Mexican drug lord were brought forth from out of the prison, written in secret, hurriedly, by hand, and through ailing vision. The memoirs give narrative to his arrest and presentation before police, explains a bit of his family tree, jumping from one topic to another.[25] Selections of the 35 pages[26] were published in the Mexican magazine Gatopardo, with background by the journalist.

Family[edit]

Sandra Ávila Beltrán, a former member of the Sinaloa Cartel, is his niece.[27]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Astorga, Luis (1999); "Cocaine in Mexico: A Prelude to 'los Narcos'" in Gootenberg, Paul (ed.) Cocaine: Global Histories; Routledge; p. 187
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Beith, Malcolm (2010). The Last Narco. New York, New York: Grove Press. pp. 40–55. ISBN 978-0-8021-1952-0.
  3. ^ Kenny, Paul et al., eds. (2012). "The Mexican State and Organized Crime: An Unending Story". Mexican Security Failure. Routledge. p. 17. ISBN 9781136650505.
  4. ^ a b Warner, Judith A. (2010). U.S. Border Security: A Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 188. ISBN 9781598844078.
  5. ^ Scott, Peter Dale & Marshall, Jonathan (1998). Cocaine Politics: Drugs, Armies, and the CIA in Latin America. University of California Press. pp. 82–85. ISBN 9780520921283.
  6. ^ a b c Cockburn, Alexander & St-Clair, Jeffrey (1998). Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs, and the Press. Verso. p. 349. ISBN 9781859841396.
  7. ^ Marcy, William (2010). The Politics of Cocaine: How U. S. Foreign Policy Has Created a Thriving Drug Industry in Central and South America. Chicago Review Press. p. 299 (fn 154). ISBN 9781569765616.
  8. ^ Siegel, Dina & van de Bunt, H.G., eds. (2012). Traditional Organized Crime in the Modern World: Responses to Socioeconomic Change. Springer. pp. 153–154. ISBN 9781461432128.
  9. ^ a b Bunck, Julie M. & Fowler, Michael R. (2012). Bribes, Bullets, and Intimidation: Drug Trafficking and the Law in Central America. Penn State Press. p. 278. ISBN 9780271048666.
  10. ^ "Camarena Investigation Leads to Operation Leyenda" (pdf 1.73MB). A Tradition of Excellence, History: 1985–1990. DEA. January 15, 2009. p. 64. Retrieved 2013-01-20.
  11. ^ a b c Rohter, Larry (1989-04-16). "In Mexico, Drug Roots Run Deep". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-02-08.
  12. ^ "DEA Fugitive: FELIX-GALLARDO, Miguel Angel". U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). Archived from the original on 2009-12-21. Retrieved 2010-02-08.
  13. ^ "Under the Volcano: Narco Investment in Mexico". PBS -Frontline. 1995. Retrieved 2010-02-08.
  14. ^ The 'godfather' of Mexico's cartels has been sentenced for killing of a DEA agent. Christopher Woody. 30 August 2017.
  15. ^ "Miguel Angel Félix Gallardo, a 18 años en prisión, ya casi no ve ni oye". El Universal (in Spanish). 2008-09-04. Retrieved 2011-01-19.
  16. ^ Soto, Gabriela (22 February 2013). "Acusa Félix Gallardo pésimas condiciones al interior del Altiplano". Ríodoce (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 5 March 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
  17. ^ "Pide Félix Gallardo cumplir sentencia en casa". Noroeste (in Spanish). Editorial Noroeste, S.A. de C.V. 26 March 2013. Archived from the original on 30 April 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
  18. ^ "Niegan traslado al narcotraficante Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo". Proceso (in Spanish). 29 April 2014. Archived from the original on 30 April 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
  19. ^ Carrasco Araizaga, Jorge (18 December 2014). "Por enfermedad, va Félix Gallardo a penal de mediana seguridad" (in Spanish). Proceso. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  20. ^ How Mexico's Underworld Became Violent. Patrick Corcoran, InSight Crime. 31 March 2013.
  21. ^ a b c d e Tijuana Cartel. 13 February 2018.
  22. ^ a b c d "Mexico's Illicit Drug Networks and the State Reaction". By Nathan P. Jones. Georgetown University Press, Apr 15, 2016 – Political Science – 240 pages. ISBN 9781626162969
  23. ^ "Police Reform in Mexico: Informal Politics and the Challenge of Institutional Change". By Daniel Sabet. Stanford University Press, May 2, 2012 – Political Science – 296 pages. ISBN 0804782067.
  24. ^ "The Politics of Drug Violence: Criminals, Cops and Politicians in Colombia and Mexico". By Angelica Duran-Martinez. Oxford University Press, Dec 13, 2017 – Political Science – 320 pages.
  25. ^ Osorno, Diego Enrique (May 2009). "Memoria de un Capo [Memoirs of a Capo]". Nuestra Aparente Rendición. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  26. ^ [1]
  27. ^ Tuckman, Jo (October 6, 2007). "Queen of the Pacific has Mexico hooked as she faces drug charges". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2007-10-07.

External links[edit]