Miguel Miramón

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Miguel Miramón y Tarelo
General Miguel Miramón.jpg
Substitute President of Mexico
by the Plan of Tacubaya
In office
2 February 1859 – 13 August 1860
Preceded byJosé Mariano Salas
Succeeded byJosé Ignacio Pavón
Provisional President of Mexico
by the Plan of Tacubaya
In office
15 August 1860 – 24 December 1860
Preceded byJosé Ignacio Pavón
Personal details
Born(1832-09-29)29 September 1832
Mexico DF
Died19 June 1867(1867-06-19) (aged 34)
Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro Arteaga
Cause of deathExecution (by firing squad)
Resting placePanteón de San Fernando Mexico city
Political partyConservative
Spouse(s)Concepción Lombardo
Alma materHeroic Military Academy (Mexico)

Miguel Gregorio de la Luz Atenógenes Miramón y Tarelo, known as Miguel Miramón, (29 September 1832[1] – 19 June 1867) was a Mexican conservative general and politician. He served as anti-constitutional interim conservative President of Mexico in opposition to the constitutional president, Benito Juárez of the Liberal Party. He was one the youngest rulers and the first not born during Spanish colonial rule.[2]

Early life[edit]

Miramón was born in Mexico City into a family of partial French heritage. At the age of 15, he was taken prisoner during the United States assault on Chapultepec Castle in the Mexican–American War. In his late teens and early twenties he rose through the army ranks rather quickly, becoming famous for his personal charisma, his competence as a soldier and his guerrilla tactics.[citation needed]

Early career[edit]

He was a staunch conservative, a supporter of monarchy, aristocracy and religious privileges for the Catholic Church, which supported his military efforts against the constitutional forces with loans.[3]

Miguel Miramón wearing a general's court dress during Maximilian's reign

During the War of Reform, he fought in the central lowlands on the side of a reactionary military junta, which had staged a coup d'état in defiance of the Constitution of 1857. Several presidents were appointed by the junta as factions within the junta vied for power. Miramón's faction eventually prevailed, and on 2 February 1860, not yet 30 years old, he assumed the presidency.[2] However, neither he nor any of the other presidents of the junta was recognized by the constitutional forces led by President Benito Juárez, and they were not recognized by the United States, which appointed an ambassador to Juárez's government instead.[citation needed]

On 11 April 1859, Miramón earned the enmity of much of the populace for ordering the execution of not only captured officers of the constitutional forces but also the doctors who had treated their wounds and also numerous civilians deemed too sympathetic to the constitutional armies, which had just suffered a defeat in attempting to retake the capital from the junta now headed by Miramón.[4] As a result of this massacre, General Degollado of the constitutional army ordered officers of the anticonstitutional armies shot upon capture.

Between 12 August and 15 August 1860, he left the presidency to an interim, José Ignacio Pavón. According to some sources, he also used the Mexico City police to raid the residence of the British consul (who was actively supporting the liberals) and steal 600,000 pesos to finance a conservative levy.[citation needed] He maintained hostilities against the liberals until he was savagely defeated by the troops of Gen. Jesús González Ortega in San Juan del Río, Querétaro, on 22 December. Two days later, he resigned and fled to Havana, Cuba.[2]

Second Empire[edit]

The Execution of Emperor Maximilian (1868–69), flanked by Generals Miguel Miramón and Tomás Mejía by Eduard Manet, oil on canvas, 252 x 305 cm. Kunsthalle Mannheim

While in France, he never took part in the negotiations between the Mexican monarchists, Napoleon III and the Archduke Maximilian of Austria.[citation needed] When he returned to Mexico on July 28, 1863, the archduke, now crowned as Emperor Maximilian of Mexico, appointed him as Great Marshal of the Imperial Army and sent him to Berlin to study military tactics. He returned in 1866 and organized the imperial defenses against the Republicans.[citation needed]

On 19 February 1867, Miramon arrived at Santiago de Querétaro to repel the siege against the emperor. He took charge of the infantry and sent General Tomás Mejía to take charge of the cavalry. Almost three months later, the emperor decided to capitulate against the advice of Miramón, who had been seriously wounded in action. On 19 June all three were shot for treason on the order of President Benito Juárez, the republican leader. The execution took place at the Cerro de las Campanas, in the outskirts of Querétaro.[2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Miguel Miramon (president of Mexico) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-07-06.
  2. ^ a b c d "Miguel Miramón". Presidentes.mx (in Spanish). Retrieved June 8, 2019.
  3. ^ History of Mexico: 1824–1861 – Hubert Howe Bancroft, William Nemos, Thomas Savage, Joseph Joshua Peatfield – Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-07-06.
  4. ^ History of Mexico: 1824–1861 – Hubert Howe Bancroft, William Nemos, Thomas Savage, Joseph Joshua Peatfield – Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-07-06.

External links[edit]