Mihajlo Pupin

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Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin
Михајло Идворски Пупин
Pupin c. 1890
Born(1854-10-09)9 October 1854
Died12 March 1935(1935-03-12) (aged 80)
CitizenshipAustrian-Serb (1858–1883)
American (1883–1935)
Alma materColumbia University (BA)
University of Berlin (PhD)
Known forLong-distance telephone communication
AwardsElliott Cresson Medal (1905)
IEEE Medal of Honor (1924)[1]
Edison Medal (1920)[2]
Pulitzer Prize (1924)
John Fritz Medal (1932)
Scientific career
Doctoral studentsRobert Andrews Millikan
Edwin Howard Armstrong

Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin (Serbian Cyrillic: Михајло Идворски Пупин, pronounced [miˈxǎjlo ˈîdʋoɾski ˈpǔpin]; 4 October 1858[3][4] – 12 March 1935), also known as Michael Pupin, was a Serbian physicist, physical chemist and philanthropist based in the United States.

Pupin is best known for his numerous patents, including a means of greatly extending the range of long-distance telephone communication by placing loading coils (of wire) at predetermined intervals along the transmitting wire (known as "pupinization"). Pupin was a founding member of National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) on 3 March 1915, which later became NASA,[5] and he participated in the founding of American Mathematical Society and American Physical Society.

In 1924, he won a Pulitzer Prize for his autobiography. Pupin was elected president or vice-president of the highest scientific and technical institutions, such as the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, the New York Academy of Sciences, the Radio Institute of America, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He was also an honorary consul of Serbia in the United States from 1912 to 1920 and played a role in determining the borders of newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.[6][7]

Early life and education[edit]

Pupin's birthplace

Mihajlo Pupin was an ethnic Serb,[8][9][10] born on 4 October (22 September, O.S.) in the village of Idvor (in the modern-day municipality of Kovačica, Serbia) in the region of Banat, in the Military Frontier of the Austrian Empire, 1858. He always remembered the words of his mother and cited her in his autobiography, From Immigrant to Inventor (1925):

My boy, If you wish to go out into the world about which you hear so much at the neighborhood gatherings, you must provide yourself with another pair of eyes; the eyes of reading and writing. There is so much wonderful knowledge and learning in the world which you cannot get unless you can read and write. Knowledge is the golden ladder over which we climb to heaven; knowledge is the light which illuminates our path through this life and leads to a future life of everlasting glory.[11]

Pupin went to elementary school in his birthplace, to Serbian Orthodox school, and later to German elementary school in Perlez. He enrolled in high school in Pančevo, and later in the Real Gymnasium. He was one of the best students there; a local archpriest saw his enormous potential and talent, and influenced the authorities to give Pupin a scholarship.

Because of his activity in the "Serbian Youth" movement, which at that time had many problems with Austro-Hungarian police authorities, Pupin had to leave Pančevo. In 1872, he went to Prague, where he continued the sixth and first half of the seventh year. After his father died in March 1874, the twenty-year-old Pupin decided to cancel his education in Prague due to financial problems and to move to the United States.

When I landed at Castle Garden, forty-eight years ago, I had only five cents in my pocket. Had I brought five hundred dollars, instead of five cents, my immediate career in the new, and to me perfectly strange, land would have been the same. A young immigrant such as I was then does not begin his career until he has spent all the money which he has brought with him. I brought five cents, and immediately spent it upon a piece of prune pie, which turned out to be a bogus prune pie. It contained nothing but pits of prunes. If I had brought five hundred dollars, it would have taken me a little longer to spend it, mostly upon bogus things, but the struggle which awaited me would have been the same in each case. It is no handicap to a boy immigrant to land here penniless; it is not a handicap to any boy to be penniless when he strikes out for an independent career, provided that he has the stamina to stand the hardships that may be in store for him.[12]

Studies in America and Ph.D.[edit]

Pupin c. 1935

For the next five years in the United States, Pupin worked as a manual laborer (most notably at the biscuit factory on Cortlandt Street in Manhattan) while he learned English, Greek and Latin. He also gave private lectures. After three years of various courses, in the autumn of 1879 he successfully finished his tests and entered Columbia College, where he became known as an exceptional athlete and scholar. A friend of Pupin's predicted that his physique would make him a splendid oarsman, and that Columbia would do anything for a good oarsman. A popular student, he was elected president of his class in his Junior year. He graduated with honors in 1883 and became an American citizen at the same time.

After Pupin completed his studies, with emphasis in the fields of physics and mathematics, he returned to Europe, initially the United Kingdom (1883–1885), where he continued his schooling supervised by John Tyndall at the University of Cambridge. He obtained his Ph.D. at the University of Berlin under Hermann von Helmholtz and in 1889 he returned to Columbia University to become a lecturer of mathematical physics in the newly formed Department of Electrical Engineering. Pupin's research pioneered carrier wave detection and current analysis.[13]

First meeting of the NACA in 1915 (Pupin seated first from right)

He was an early investigator into X-ray imaging, but his claim to have made the first X-ray image in the United States is incorrect.[14] He learned of Röntgen's discovery of unknown rays passing through wood, paper, insulators, and thin metals leaving traces on a photographic plate, and attempted this himself. Using a vacuum tube, which he had previously used to study the passage of electricity through rarefied gases, he made successful images on 2 January 1896. Edison provided Pupin with a calcium tungstate fluoroscopic screen which, when placed in front of the film, shortened the exposure time by twenty times, from one hour to a few minutes. Based on the results of experiments, Pupin concluded that the impact of primary X-rays generated secondary X-rays. With his work in the field of X-rays, Pupin gave a lecture at the New York Academy of Sciences. He was the first person to use a fluorescent screen to enhance X-rays for medical purposes. A New York surgeon, Dr. Bull, sent Pupin a patient to obtain an X-ray image of his left hand prior to an operation to remove lead shot from a shotgun injury. The first attempt at imaging failed because the patient, a well-known lawyer, was "too weak and nervous to be stood still nearly an hour" which is the time it took to get an X-ray photo at the time. In another attempt, the Edison fluorescent screen was placed on a photographic plate and the patient's hand on the screen. X-rays passed through the patients hand and caused the screen to fluoresce, which then exposed the photographic plate. A fairly good image was obtained with an exposure of only a few seconds and showed the shot as if "drawn with pen and ink." Dr. Bull was able to take out all of the lead balls in a very short time.[15][16]

Pupin coils[edit]

Pupin's 1899 patent for loading coils, archaically called "Pupin coils", followed closely on the pioneering work of the English polymath Oliver Heaviside, which predates Pupin's patent by some seven years. The importance of the patent was made clear when the American rights to it were acquired by American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T), making him wealthy. Although AT&T bought Pupin's patent, they made little use of it, as they already had their own development in hand led by George Campbell and had up to this point been challenging Pupin with Campbell's own patent. AT&T were afraid they would lose control of an invention which was immensely valuable due to its ability to greatly extend the range of long-distance telephones and especially submarine ones.

World War I research[edit]

When the United States joined the First World War in 1917, Pupin was working at Columbia University, organizing a research group for submarine detection techniques.[17] Together with his colleagues, professors Wils and Morcroft, he performed numerous experiments with the aim of discovering submarines at Key West and New London. He also conducted research in the field of establishing telecommunications between places. During the war, Pupin was a member of the state council for research and state advisory board for aeronautics. For his work he received acclamation from President Warren G. Harding, which was published on page 386 of his autobiography.[18]

Yugoslavia borders[edit]

Pupin in 1916

By World War I, Pupin was as well-known for Serbian nationalism as science. He wrote that the assassination of Franz Ferdinand in June 1914 "was ... prepared in Vienna" when Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina began in 1878. Pan-Serb ideology was, Pupin said, "a natural heritage of every true Serb".[19] As a politically influential figure in America, Pupin participated in the final decisions of the Paris peace conference after the war, when the borders of the future kingdom (of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians) were drawn. Pupin stayed in Paris for two months during the peace talk (April–May 1919) on the insistence of the government.[20]

My home town is Idvor, but this fact says little because Idvor can't be found on the map. That is a small village which is found near the main road in Banat, which belonged to Austro-Hungary, and now is an important part of Serbs, Croatians and Slovenians Kingdom. This province on the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, was requested by the Romanians, but their request was invalid. They could not negate the fact that the majority of the inhabitants were Serbs, especially in the Idvor area. President Wilson and Mr. Lancing knew me personally and when found out that I was originally from Banat, Romanian reasons lost its weight.[21]

According to the London agreement from 1915. it was planned that Italy should get Dalmatia. After the secret London agreement France, England and Russia asked from Serbia some territorial concessions to Romania and Bulgaria. Romania should have gotten Banat and Bulgaria should have gotten a part of Macedonia all the way to Skoplje.[20]

In a difficult situation during the negotiations on the borders of Yugoslavia, Pupin personally wrote a memorandum on 19 March 1919 to American president Woodrow Wilson, who, based on the data received from Pupin about the historical and ethnic characteristics of the border areas of Dalmatia, Slovenia, Istria, Banat, Međimurje, Baranja and Macedonia, stated that he did not recognize the London agreement signed between the allies and Italy.[citation needed]

Mihajlo Pupin foundation[edit]

National Home Mihajlo I. Pupin, Pupin's Foundation in his in his hometown of Idvor (Vojvodina, Serbia). Today is the part of the Memorial Complex in Idvor, which is dedicated to the life and work of Mihajlo Pupin and protected as a cultural monument of exceptional importance

In 1914, Pupin formed "Fund Olimpijada Aleksić-Pupin" within the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts[22] to commemorate his mother Olimpijada for all the support she gave him through life. Fund assets were used for helping schools in old Serbia and Macedonia, and scholarships were awarded every year on the Saint Sava day. One street in Ohrid was named after Mihajlo Pupin in 1930 to honour his efforts. He also established a separate "Mihajlo Pupin fund" which he funded from his own property in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, which he later gave to "Privrednik" for schooling of young people and for prizes in "exceptional achievements in agriculture", as well as for Idvor for giving prizes to pupils and to help the church district.[23]

Thanks to Pupin's donations, the library in Idvor got a reading room, schooling of young people for agriculture sciences was founded, as well as the electrification and waterplant in Idvor.[24] Pupin established a foundation in the museum of Natural History and Arts in Belgrade. The funds of the foundation were used to purchase artistic works of Serbian artists for the museum and for the printing of certain publications. Pupin invested a million dollars in the funds of the foundation.[23]

In 1909,[citation needed] he established one of the oldest Serbian emigrant organizations in the United States called "Union of Serbs – Sloga." The organization had a mission to gather Serbs in immigration and offer help, as well as keeping ethnic and cultural values. This organization later merged with three other immigrant societies.[25]

Other emigrant organizations in to one large Serbian national foundation, and Pupin was one of its founders and a longtime president (1909–1926).

He also organized "Kolo srpskih sestara" (English: Circle of Serbian sisters) who gathered help for the Serbian Red Cross, and he also helped the gathering of volunteers to travel to Serbia during the First World War with the help of the Serbian patriotic organization called the "Serbian National Defense Council" which he founded and led. Later, at the start of the Second World War this organization was rehabilitated by Jovan Dučić and worked with the same goal. Pupin guaranteed the delivery of food supplies to Serbia with his own resources, and he also was the head of the committee that provided help to the victims of war. He also founded the Serbian society for helping children which provided medicine, clothes and shelter for war orphans.[26]

Literary work[edit]

Pupin Hall at Columbia University

Besides his patents he published several dozen scientific disputes, articles, reviews and a 396-page autobiography under the name Michael Pupin, From Immigrant to Inventor (Scribner's, 1923).[27] He won the annual Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography.[28][29] It was published in Serbian in 1929 under the title From pastures to scientist (Od pašnjaka do naučenjaka).[30] Beside this he also published:

  • Pupin Michael: Der Osmotische Druck und Seine Beziehung zur Freien Energie, Inaugural Dissertation zur Erlangung der Doctorwurde, Buchdruckerei von Gustav Shade, Berlin, June 1889.
  • Pupin Michael: Thermodynamics of Reversible Cycles in Gases and Saturated Vapors, John Wiley & Sons. 1894.
  • Pupin Michael: Serbian Orthodox Church (South Slav Monuments) J. Murray. London, 1918.
  • Pupin Michael: Yugoslavia. (In Association for International Conciliation Amer. Branch —Yugoslavia). American Association for International Conciliation. 1919.
  • Pupin Michael: The New Reformation; from Physical to Spiritual Realities, Scribner, New York, 1927.
  • Pupin Michael: Romance of the Machine, Scribner, New York, 1930.
  • Pupin Michael: Discussion by M. Pupin and other prominent engineers in Toward Civilization, edited by C. A. Beard. Longmans, Green & Co. New York, 1930.

Pupin Hall[edit]

Columbia University's Physical Laboratories building, built in 1927, is named Pupin Hall in his honor. It houses the physics and astronomy departments of the university. During Pupin's tenure, Harold C. Urey, in his work with the hydrogen isotope deuterium demonstrated the existence of heavy water, the first major scientific breakthrough in the newly founded laboratories (1931). In 1934 Urey was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the work he performed in Pupin Hall related to his discovery of "heavy hydrogen".[31]


Statue of Pupin in Novi Sad
Pupin's bust above the entrance of the National Home in Idvor, the work of sculptor Ivan Meštrović

Pupin released about 70 technical articles and reviews[32] and 34 patents.[33]

Patents released in America
Number of patent Date
U.S. patent 519,346 Apparatus for telegraphic or telephonic transmission 8 May 1894
U.S. patent 519,347 Transformer for telegraphic, telephonic or other electrical systems 8 May 1894
U.S. patent 640,515 Art of distributing electrical energy by alternating currents 2 January 1900
U.S. patent 640,516 Electrical transmission by resonance circuits 2 January 1900
U.S. patent 652,230 Art of reducing attenuation of electrical waves and apparatus therefore 19 June 1900
U.S. patent 652,231 Method of reducing attenuation of electrical waves and apparatus therefore 19 June 1900
U.S. patent 697,660 Winding-machine 15 April 1902
U.S. patent 707,007 Multiple telegraphy 12 August 1902
U.S. patent 707,008 Multiple telegraphy 12 August 1902
U.S. patent 713,044 Producing asymmetrical currents from symmetrical alternating electromotive process 4 November 1902
U.S. patent 768,301 Wireless electrical signalling 23 August 1904
U.S. patent 761,995 Apparatus for reducing attenuation of electric waves 7 June 1904
U.S. patent 1,334,165 Electric wave transmission 16 March 1920
U.S. patent 1,336,378 Antenna with distributed positive resistance 6 April 1920
U.S. patent 1,388,877 Sound generator 3 December 1921
U.S. patent 1,388,441 Multiple antenna for electrical wave transmission 23 December 1921
U.S. patent 1,415,845 Selective opposing impedance to received electrical oscillation 9 May 1922
U.S. patent 1,416,061 Radio receiving system having high selectivity 10 May 1922
U.S. patent 1,456,909 Wave conductor 29 May 1922
U.S. patent 1,452,833 Selective amplifying apparatus 24 April 1923
U.S. patent 1,446,769 Aperiodic pilot conductor 23 February 1923
U.S. patent 1,488,514 Selective amplifying apparatus 1 April 1923
U.S. patent 1,494,803 Electrical tuning 29 May 1923
U.S. patent 1,503,875 Tone producing radio receiver 29 April 1923

Honors and tributes[edit]

Mihajlo Pupin was:[34][35]


Private life[edit]

The grave of Michael Pupin in Woodlawn Cemetery
Pupin's burial site in Woodlawn Cemetery

After going to America, he changed his name to Michael Idvorsky Pupin, stressing his origin. His father was named Constantine and mother Olimpijada and Pupin had four brothers and five sisters. In 1888 he married American Sarah Catharine Jackson from New York, with whom he had a daughter named Barbara Ivanka Pupin who was born in 1899 in Yonkers, New York, and died on August 2, 1962, in New York.[41][42] Pupin and his wife were married for eight years; she died from pneumonia at the age of 37.

Pupin had a reputation not only as a great scientist but also a fine person. He was known for his manners, great knowledge, love of his homeland and availability to everyone. Pupin was a great philanthropist and patron of the arts. He was a devoted Orthodox Christian and was the chief financial benefactor of St. Sava Monastery founded in 1923.[43]

Mihajlo Pupin died in New York City in 1935 at age 76 and was interred at Woodlawn Cemetery, Bronx.


He is included in The 100 most prominent Serbs.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ IEEE Global History Network (2011). "IEEE Medal of Honor". IEEE History Center. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  2. ^ IEEE Global History Network (2011). "IEEE Edison Medal". IEEE History Center. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  3. ^ Although Pupin's birth year is sometimes given as 1854 (and Serbia and Montenegro issued a postage stamp in 2004 to commemorate the 150th anniversary of his birth), peer-reviewed sources list his birth year as 1858. See:
    • Daniel Martin Dumych, "Pupin, Michael Idvorsky (4 Oct. 1858 – 12 Mar. 1935)," American National Biography Online, Oxford University Press, 2005. Accessed 11 March 2008.
    • Bergen Davis, "Biographical Memoir of Michael Idvorksy Pupin", National Academy of Sciences of the United States Biographical Memoirs, tenth memoir of volume XIX (1938), pp. 307–323. Accessed 11 March 2008.
    • According to Pupin's obituary notice in the New York Times, (14 March 1935, p. 21), he died "in his 77th year." Accessed via ProQuest, 11 March 2008.
  4. ^ The Tesla Memorial Society tribute webpage, though dedicated to a "150 years" birthday celebration in 2004, includes a photo of Pupin's gravestone showing the dates 4 October 1858 and 12 March 1935. Accessed 9 October 2011.
  5. ^ "NASA – First Meeting". Nasa.gov. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  6. ^ "Пупинови успеси у Сен Жермену". Politika Online. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
  7. ^ "The role of Michael Pupin in solving of Serbian national question | Request PDF". ResearchGate. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
  8. ^ Pupin, Michael (30 November 2005). From Immigrant to Inventor – Michael Pupin – Google Boeken. Cosimo. pp. 2–9, 26. ISBN 9781596055155. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  9. ^ "порекло-михајла-пупина". June 2021.
  10. ^ "Mihajlo-Pupin".
  11. ^ "Centar za savremenu edukaciju - Michael I. Pupin : From Immigrant to Inventor". 11 February 2009. Archived from the original on 11 February 2009. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
  12. ^ Pupin, Michael (30 November 2005). From Immigrant to Inventor – Michael Pupin – Google Boeken. Cosimo. ISBN 9781596055155. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  13. ^ "Engineering and Technology History Wiki" (PDF). 16 May 2022.
  14. ^ Nicolaas A. Rupke, Eminent Lives in Twentieth-Century Science and Religion, page 300, Peter Lang, 2009 ISBN 3631581203.
  15. ^ William R. Hendee, E. Russell Ritenour, Medical Imaging Physics, page 227, John Wiley & Sons, 2003 ISBN 047146113X.
  16. ^ Pupin, pp. 307–308
  17. ^ "Scientist and inventor – Mihailo Pupin | EEP". Electrical-engineering-portal.com. 11 April 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  18. ^ "Australian Web Archive". webarchive.nla.gov.au. 23 August 2006. Archived from the original on 2 March 2004. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  19. ^ Pupin, Michael (13 July 1914). "Serb and Austrian". The Independent. pp. 67–68. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  20. ^ a b http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/0350-3593/2004/0350-35930402071G.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  21. ^ Pupin, Michael (2005). From Immigrant to Inventor – Michael Pupin – Google Boeken. Cosimo. ISBN 9781596055155. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  22. ^ "САНУ, Српска академија наука и уметности – Фондови и задужбине". Sanu.ac.rs. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  23. ^ a b "Zadužbinarstvo – za dobrobit svog naroda | Glas javnosti". Glas-javnosti.rs. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  24. ^ "Domovina u srcu | Ostali članci". Novosti.rs. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  25. ^ "Vreme 1073 – Atlas naucnika: Sta je meni Mihajlo Pupin". Vreme.com. 27 July 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  26. ^ "Српска народна одбрана у Америци у Првом и Другом светском рату". Snd-us.com. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  27. ^ "From immigrant to inventor". Library of Congress Catalog Record. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
  28. ^ "Biography or Autobiography". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
  29. ^ "Pulitzer Prize – WikiCU, the Columbia University wiki encyclopedia". Wikicu.com. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  30. ^ "Sa pasnjaka do naucenjaka – Mihajlo Pupin". Gerila.com. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  31. ^ "Harold C. Urey – Facts". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  32. ^ Michael Idvorsky Pupin Summary. Retrieved 11 August 2019 – via www.bookrags.com.
  33. ^ "Michael Idvorsky Pupin". c250.columbia.edu. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
  34. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  35. ^ "Prilozi. : Mihajlo Pupin". Mihajlopupin.info. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  36. ^ "Gugl obilježava 157. godinu od rođenja Mihajla Pupina – Vijesti online". Vijesti.me. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  37. ^ "Timeline". Institute Mihailo Pupin. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
  38. ^ "IEC - Techline > Pupin, Mihajlo". 21 September 2007. Archived from the original on 21 September 2007. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
  39. ^ "Grad Zrenjanin – Počasni građani". Zrenjanin.rs. Archived from the original on 27 August 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  40. ^ "Pupin je na Luni, bo tudi na Bledu dobil spomenik?". slovenskenovice.si. 2 February 2013. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  41. ^ "Barbara Pupin Smith". Geni.com. 1889. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  42. ^ "THE SCIENCE WITH THE SOUL - WITH PUPIN THE WORLD IS BEAUTIFUL". RYL (in Serbian). 16 January 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  43. ^ https://www.assemblyofbishops.org/assets/files/news/scoba/AtlasOfMonasteriesSecondEditionBookmarkedOptimumSize.pdf

Further reading[edit]

  • Michael Pupin, "From Immigrant to Inventor" (Charles Scribner's Sons, 1924)
  • Edward Davis, "Michael Idvorsky Pupin: Cosmic Beauty, Created Order, and the Divine Word." In Eminent Lives in Twentieth-Century Science & Religion, ed. Nicolaas Rupke (Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 2007), pp. 197–217.
  • Bergen Davis: Biographical Memoir of Michael Pupin, National Academy of Sciences of the United States Biographical Memoirs, tenth memoir of volume XIX, New York, 1938.
  • Daniel Martin Dumych, Pupin Michael Idvorsky, Oxford University Press, 2005. Accessed 11 March 2008
  • Lambić Miroslav: Jedan pogled na život i delo Mihajla Pupina, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Tehnički fakultet "Mihajlo Pupin", Zrenjanin, 1997.
  • S. Bokšan, Mihajlo Pupin i njegovo delo, Naučna izdanja Matice srpske, Novi Sad, 1951.
  • S. Gvozdenović, Čikago, Amerika i Vidovdan, Savez Srba u Rumuniji-Srpska Narodna Odbrana, Temišvar-Čikago, 2003.
  • J. Nikolić, Feljton Večernjih novosti, galerija srpskih dobrotvora, 2004.
  • P. Radosavljević, Idvorski za sva vremena, NIN, Br. 2828, 2005.
  • R. Smiljanić, Mihajlo Pupin-Srbin za ceo svet, Edicija – Srbi za ceo svet, Nova Evropa, Beograd, 2005.
  • Savo B. Jović, Hristov svetosavac Mihajlo Pupin, Izdavačka ustanova Sv. arh. sinoda, Beograd, 2004.
  • Dragoljub A. Cucic, Michael Pupin Idvorsky and father Vasa Zivkovic, 150th Anniversary of the Birth of Mihajlo Pupin, Banja Luka, 2004.

External links[edit]