Mihrab

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Mihrab (Arabic: محراب‎, miḥrāb, pl. محاريب maḥārīb) is a niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla, the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca towards which Muslims should face when praying. The wall in which a mihrab appears is thus the "qibla wall".

The minbar, which is the raised platform from which an imam (leader of prayer) addresses the congregation, is located to the right of the mihrab.

Etymology[edit]

The word miḥrāb comes from Old South Arabian (possibly Sabaic) 𐩣𐩢𐩧𐩨 mḥrb meaning a certain part of a palace,[1] as well as "part of a temple where 𐩩𐩢𐩧𐩨 tḥrb (a certain type of visions) is obtained,"[2][3] from the root word 𐩢𐩧𐩨 ḥrb "to perform a certain religious ritual (which is compared to combat or fighting and described as an overnight retreat) in the 𐩣𐩢𐩧𐩨 mḥrb of the temple."[2][3] It may also possibly be related to Ethiopic ምኵራብ məkʷrab "temple, sanctuary,"[4][5] whose equivalent in Sabaic is 𐩣𐩫𐩧𐩨 mkrb of the same meaning,[2] from the root word 𐩫𐩧𐩨 krb "to dedicate" (cognate with Akkadian 𒅗𒊒𒁍 karābu "to bless" and related to Hebrew כְּרוּב kerūḇ "cherub (either of the heavenly creatures that bound the Ark in the inner sanctuary)").

Arab lexicographers traditionally derive the word from the Arabic root ح ر ب (Ḥ-R-B) relating to "war, fighting or anger," (which, though cognate with the South Arabian root,[6] does not however carry any relation to religious rituals) thus leading some to interpret it to mean a "fortress", or "place of battle (with Satan),"[7] the latter due to mihrabs being private prayer chambers. The latter interpretation though bears similarity to the nature of the 𐩢𐩧𐩨 ḥrb ritual.

History[edit]

Mihrab from Al-Khasiki Mosque in Baghdad, built by caliph Harun al-Rashid, 192 AH (807 CE), Iraq Museum

The word mihrab originally had a non-religious meaning and simply denoted a special room in a house; a throne room in a palace, for example. The Fath al-Bari (p. 458), on the authority of others, suggests the mihrab is "the most honorable location of kings" and "the master of locations, the front and the most honorable." The Mosques in Islam (p. 13), in addition to Arabic sources, cites Theodor Nöldeke and others as having considered a mihrab to have originally signified a throne room.

The term was subsequently used by the Islamic prophet Muhammad to denote his own private prayer room. The room additionally provided access to the adjacent mosque, and the Prophet would enter the mosque through this room. This original meaning of mihrab – i.e. as a special room in the house – continues to be preserved in some forms of Judaism where mihrabs are rooms used for private worship. In the Qur'an, the word (when in conjunction with the definite article) is mostly used to indicate the Holy of Holies. The verse "then he [i.e. Zechariah] came forth to his people from the mihrab"[19:11], for example, is inscribed on or over some mosque niches.[8]

During the reign of Uthman ibn Affan (r. 644–656), the Caliph ordered a sign to be posted on the wall of the mosque at Medina so that pilgrims could easily identify the direction in which to address their prayers (i.e. that of Mecca). The sign was however just a sign on the wall, and the wall itself remained flat. Subsequently, during the reign of Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (Al-Walid I, r. 705–715), Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet) was renovated and the governor (wāli) of Medina, Umar ibn AbdulAziz, ordered that a niche be made to designate the qibla wall (which identifies the direction of Mecca), and it was in this niche that Uthman's sign was placed.

Eventually, the niche came to be universally understood to identify the qibla wall, and so came to be adopted as a feature in other mosques. A sign was no longer necessary.

Architecture[edit]

Mihrabs are a relevant part of Islamic culture and mosques. Since they are used to indicate the direction for prayer, they serve as an important focal point in the mosque. They are usually decorated with ornamental detail that can be geometric designs, linear patterns, or calligraphy. This ornamentation also serves a religious purpose. The calligraphy decoration on the mihrabs are usually from the Qur'an and are devotions to God so that God's word reaches the people.[9] Common designs amongst mihrabs are geometric foliage that are close together so that there is no empty space in-between the art.[9]

Great Mosque of Córdoba[edit]

The mihrab in the Great Mosque of Cordoba is a highly decorated piece of art that draws one's attention. It is a contribution made by Al-Hakam II that is not just used for prayer.[10] It is used as a place of convergence in the mosque, where visitors could be amazed by its beauty and gilded designs. The entrance is covered in mosaics "which links to the Byzantium tradition, produced by the craftsmen sent by Emperor Nicephorus II. These mosaics extend along the voussoirs with a geometric and plant-based design, but also in the inscriptions which record verses from the Koran".[10] This mihrab is also a bit different from a normal mihrab due to its scale. It takes up a whole room instead of just a niche.[11] This style of mihrab set a standard for other mihrab construction in the region.[12] The use of the horseshoe arch, carved stucco, and glass mosaics made an impression for the aesthetic of mihrabs, "although no other extant mihrab in Spain or western North Africa is as elaborate."[12]

Great Mosque of Damascus[edit]

The Great Mosque of Damascus was started by al-Walid in 706.[13] It was built as a hypostyle mosque, built with a prayer hall leading to the mihrab, "on the back wall of the sanctuary are four mihrabs, two of which are the mihrab of the Companions of the Prophet in the eastern half and the great mihrab at the end of the transept".[13] The mihrab is decorated similarly to the rest of the mosque in golden vines and vegetal imagery. The lamp hanging in the mihrab has been theorized as the motif of a pearl, due to the indications that dome of the mihrab has scalloped edges.[14] There have been other mosques that have mihrabs similar to this that follow the same theme, with scalloped domes that are "concave like a conch or mother of pearl shell.[14]

Present-day use[edit]

Today, mihrabs vary in size, are usually ornately decorated and often designed to give the impression of an arched doorway or a passage to Mecca.

In exceptional cases, the mihrab does not follow the qibla direction. One example is the Mezquita of Córdoba, Spain that points northeast by east instead of southeast. Among the proposed explanations, there is the localization of the ancient Roman cardo street besides the old temple the Mezquita was built upon.

Another is the Masjid al-Qiblatayn, or the Mosque of the Two Qiblas. This is where the Prophet Muhammad received the command to change the direction of prayer from Jerusalem to Mecca, thus has two prayer niches. In the 21st century the mosque was renovated, and the old prayer niche facing Jerusalem was removed, and the one facing Mecca was left.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lipiński, Edward (2001). Semitic Languages: Outline of a Comparative Grammar. Peeters Publishers. p. 224. ISBN 978-90-429-0815-4. Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  2. ^ a b c Biella, Joan Copeland (2018). Dictionary of Old South Arabic, Sabaean Dialect. BRILL. ISBN 9789004369993.
  3. ^ a b American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language - mihrabs (5th ed.). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. 2016. ISBN 978-0544454453.
  4. ^ Dillmann, August; Munzinger, Werner (1865). Lexicon linguae aethiopicae cum indice latino. Lipsiae, T.O. Weigel. pp. 835–836. Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  5. ^ Nöldeke, Theodor (1910). Neue Beiträge zur semitischen Sprachwissenschaft / von Theodor Nöldeke. Straßburg: Karl J. Trübner. p. 52. Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  6. ^ "Semitic Roots Repository - View Root". www.semiticroots.net. Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  7. ^ Sheikho, Mohammad Amin (October 2011). Unveiling the Secrets of Magic and Magicians. Amin-sheikho.com. Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  8. ^ Kuban, Doğan (1974), The Mosque and Its Early Development, Muslim Religious Architecture, Leiden: Brill, p. 3, ISBN 90-04-03813-2.
  9. ^ a b Terasaki, Steffie. "Mihrab". courses.washington.edu. Retrieved 2019-11-05.
  10. ^ a b "Mihrab". Mihrab. Retrieved 2019-11-05.
  11. ^ "Mezquita de Córdoba | The Meaning of the Great Mosque of Cordoba in the Tenth Century". Archnet. p. 83. Retrieved 2019-11-05.
  12. ^ a b Bloom, Jonathan M.; Sheila S., Blair (2009). Bloom, Jonathan M; Blair, Sheila S (eds.). "The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture". doi:10.1093/acref/9780195309911.001.0001. ISBN 9780195309911. Retrieved 2019-11-17.
  13. ^ a b Grafman, Rafi; Rosen-Ayalon, Myriam (1999). "The Two Great Syrian Umayyad Mosques: Jerusalem and Damascus". Muqarnas. 16: 8. JSTOR 1523262.
  14. ^ a b Flood, Finbarr Barry (2001). The Great Mosque of Damascus: Studies on the Makings of an Ummayyad Visual Culture. BRILL. ISBN 9789004116382.