Mihrimah Sultan

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Mihrimah Sultan
مهر ماه سلطان
İmparator Süleyman’ın Kızı Cameria (Mihrimah Sultan).jpg
Portrait by Cristofano dell'Altissimo titled Cameria Solimani, 16th century
Born (1522-03-21)21 March 1522
Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
Died 25 January 1578(1578-01-25) (aged 55)
Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
Burial Süleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul
Spouse Damat Rüstem Pasha
Issue Ayşe Hümaşah Sultan
Sultanzade Murad Bey
Sultanzade Mehmed Bey
House House of Osman
Father Suleiman the Magnificent
Mother Hürrem Sultan
Religion Islam

Mihrimah Sultan (Ottoman Turkish: مهر ماه سلطان‎, Turkish pronunciation: [mihɾiˈmah suɫˈtan]) (21 March 1522 – 25 January 1578) was an Ottoman princess, as daughter of Suleiman the Magnificent, 10th Ottoman Sultan, and his legal wife Hürrem Sultan.[1][2] She was most powerful imperial princess in the Ottoman history, even compared with imperial lady who held the title valide sultan, and one of the prominent figure during Sultanate of Women.

Name[edit]

Mihrimah Sultan's name is also spelled Mihrumah, Mihr-î-Mâh, Mihrî-a-Mâh or Mehr-î-Mâh. Mehr-î-Mâh means "Sun (lit. clemency, compassion, endearment, affection) and Moon". Among to some Westerner, she was also known as Cameria. Her portrait by Cristofano dell’Altissimo entitled as Cameria Solimani.

Other Ottoman imperial princesses who also named “Mihrimah” and also Mihrimah Sultan’s close relative were:

  • Mihrimah’s niece as daughter of Şehzade Bayezid, son of Suleiman the Magnificent and Mihrimah’s younger full-brother.
  • Mihrimah’s grandniece as daughter of Murad III, son of Selim II and Mihrimah’s nephew.

Biography[edit]

Portrait by Titian, c. 1555
A letter that has written by Mihrimah Sultan to Sigismund II Augustus in 1548

Mihrimah born in Constantinople (Istanbul), 21 March 1522 during the reign of her father, Suleiman the Magnificent. Her mother was Hürrem, orthodox priest’s daughter, who was sultan’s concubine in that time. Mihrimah had one elder full-brother, Mehmed (born 1521), and four younger full-brothers, Abdullah (born 1522), Selim (born 28 May 1524), Bayezid (born 1525), and Cihangir (born 9 December 1531). She also had half-siblings: Mustafa son of Mahidevran, Murad son of Gülfem, Mahmud, and Raziye. In 1533 or 1534,[3] Hürrem freed and married by Suleiman and became his legal wife, made Mihrimah had a free women as mother.

In Constantinople, 26 November 1539 at the age of seventeen, Mihrimah was married off to Rüstem, Governor of Diyarbakır. Five years later, her husband was selected by Suleiman to become Grand Vizier. Though the union was unhappy, Mihrimah flourished as a patroness of the arts and continued her travels with her father until her husband's death.

Mihrimah was not like other imperial princess in the Ottoman history. She active in political affairs even in foreign courts and had access to considerable economic resources. She also became chief of imperial harem during the reign of Selim II. Her ability and power and her running the affairs of the harem in the same manner in which only sultan's mother did, and even more, made Mihrimah was appointed as a stand-in Valide Sultan for Selim II, although she was not called by this title officially on any historical record.

Politic affair[edit]

Mihrimah traveled throughout the Ottoman Empire with her father as he surveyed the lands and conquered new ones. In international politics, Hürrem sent letters to Sigismund II, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, and the contents of her letters were mirrored in letters written by Mihrimah, and sent by the same courier, who also carried letters from the sultan and her husband Rüstem Pasha the Grand Vizier.[2] Therefore, it is most probable that Hürrem and Mihrimah were well known even among ordinary Ukrainians.[4]

One of the popular, and also controversial story about Mihrimah was about her rivalry with her half-brother Mustafa, although less popular than her mother and her husband’s story. Mihrimah, along with her mother Hürrem who was Ottoman Haseki Sultan and her husband Rüstem who was Ottoman Grand Vizier, made a strong alliance and became dominated power in divan and inner circle of palace. Unfortunately for Mustafa, this condition became great obstacle for him to access to the throne, although he supported by Janissaries.

Although there is no proof of Hürrem’s or Mihrimah’s direct involvement, Ottoman sources and foreign accounts indicate that it was widely believed that the three worked first to eliminate Mustafa so as ensure the throne to Hürrem’s son and Mihrimah’s full-brother, Bayezid.[2] The rivalry ended in a loss for the Mustafa when he was executed by his own father’s command in 1553 during the campaign against Safavid Persia because of fear of rebellion. Although this stories not based on first-hand sources,[3] this fear of Mustafa was not unreasonable. Had Mustafa ascended to the throne, all Mihrimah’s full-brothers (Selim, Bayezid, and Cihangir) would have likely been executed, according to the fratricide custom of the Ottoman dynasty, which required all brothers of the new sultan be executed to avoid feuds among imperial siblings.[4]

Mihrimah also became Suleiman’s advisor, his confidant and his closest relative, especially when Suleiman’s other relatives and companion death or exiled one by one, like Mustafa (executed in October 1553), Mahidevran (lost her status in the palace after Mustafa’s death), Cihangir (death in November 1553), Hürrem (death in April 1558), Rüstem (death in July 1561), Bayezid (executed in September 1561), and Gülfem (death in 1561 or 1562). After Hürrem’s death, Mihrimah took her mother’s place as her father councelor, urging him to undertake the conquest of Malta and sending him news and forwarding letters for him when he was absent from capital.[2]

Economic power[edit]

Beside her great political intelligence, Mihrimah also had access to considerable economic resources and often funded major architectural projects. She promising to build 400 galleys at her own expense to encouraged Suleiman in his campaign against Malta. When her brother ascended to the throne as Selim II, she lent him some 50,000 gold sovereigns to sate his immediate needs.

Mihrimah also sponsored a number of major architectural projects. Her most famous foundations are the two Istanbul-area mosque complexes that bear her name, both designed by her father's chief architect, Mimar Sinan. Mihrimah Sultan Mosque (Turkish: Mihrimah Sultan Camii), also known as İskele Mosque (Turkish: Iskele Camii), which is one of Üsküdar's most prominent landmarks and built between 1546 and 1548. The second mosque is also named as Mihrimah Sultan Mosque at the Edirne Gate, at the western wall of the old city of Constantinople, was one of Sinan's most imaginative designs, using new support systems and lateral spaces to increase the area available for windows. Its building took place from 1562 to 1565.

There is a myth about these two Mosques. It is said that Mimar Sinan fell in love with Mihrimah and built the smaller mosque in Edirnekapı without palace approval, on his own, dedicated to his love. The legend continues to say that on 21 March (when day time and night time are equal and Mihrimah's alleged birthday, hence the name) at the time of sunset, if you have clear view of both mosques, you will notice that as the sun sets behind the only minaret of the mosque in Edirnekapı, the moon rises between the two minarets of the mosque in Üsküdar. Even became historical debates claiming if that is real or not, this story became one of the Istanbul popular urban legend until now.

Later life and death[edit]

Mihr-i Mâh Sultan was buried next to her father Suleiman the Magnificient inside his türbe at Süleymaniye Camii.

Mihrimah’s life was uncertain after Selim’s death in 1574. First opinion say that Mihrimah lost her all power and retired in Old Palace. Other opinion say that Mîhr-i Mâh kept her position in Topkapı Palace and sharing her power until her death with Nur-Bânû, new Valide Sultan, although her formal position, and also other imperial princesses, was under Nur-Bânû Valide Sultan, Murad’s mother, and Safiye Haseki Sultan, Murad’s wife.

Mihrimah died in Constantinople, 25 January 1578 during reign of her nephew Murad III, outliving all of her siblings. She was buried in Süleyman Mosque complex.

In popular culture[edit]

In the 2011–2014 TV series Muhteşem Yüzyıl, she is portrayed by Pelin Karahan.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "The Imperial House of Osman: Genealogy". Archived from the original on 2 May 2006. 
  2. ^ a b c d Peirce, Leslie P. (1993). The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508677-5. 
  3. ^ a b Yermolenko, Galina (April 2005). "Roxolana: "The Greatest Empresse of the East". DeSales University, Center Valley, Pennsylvania. 
  4. ^ a b Yermolenko, Galina I. (1988). Roxolana in Europan Literature, History and Culture. Ashgate Publishing Limited. 

References[edit]

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