Miju language

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Not to be confused with Miji language.
Kaman
Geman
Miju
Pronunciation [kɯ˧˩mɑn˧˥]
Region Arunachal Pradesh, India
Ethnicity Miju Mishmi
Native speakers
18,000 (2006)[1]
possibly Sino-Tibetan (Midzuish), or a language isolate
  • Kaman
Language codes
ISO 639-3 mxj
Glottolog miju1243[2]

Kaman (Geman, Geman Deng), or Miju (Miju Mishmi, Midzu), is a small language of India and slightly into China. Long assumed to be a Sino-Tibetan language, it may actually be a language isolate.[3]

Locations[edit]

In China, the Miju are known as the Deng 僜人. The Deng number over 1,000 in Zayü County, Tibet, China, with 1,000 of the Deng having the autonym tɑ31 ruɑŋ53 (大让), and 130 having the autonym kɯ31 mɑn35 (格曼) (Gemanyu Yanjiu). They are also neighbors with the Idu or i53 du31 (义都) people.

In India, Miju is spoken in Hawai Circle and the Parsuram Kund area of Lohit District, Arunachal Pradesh (Boro 1978,[4] Dasgupta 1977[5]). Ethnologue reports that Miju is spoken in 25 villages located in high altitude areas to the east of upper Lohit and Dau valleys, which are located east of the Haguliang, Billong, and Tilai valleys.

Phonology[edit]

These are the sounds in the Miju/Kaman language.[6]

Consonants[edit]

Consonant phonemes
  Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar

(Palato-
alveolar
)
Retroflex Palatal Palata-
lized
velar
Labia-
lized
velar
Glottal
Plosive p, b         t, d                 k, ɡ ʔ  
Affricate             ts dz , tʃʰ                    
Fricative     f v θ ð s z ʃ                   ɣʷ
Nasal   m           n       ɳ   ɲ            
Trill               r                        
Tap or flap                       ɽ                
Approximant w     ʋ                   j            
Lateral approximant               l       ɭ                

Vowels[edit]

Monophthong phonemes
  Front Central Back
Close i ɨ u
Close-mid     o
Open-mid ɛ ə ʌɔ
Open   a  

Tones[edit]

There are three main tones in the Miju language, rising (á), falling (à), and level (ā).[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kaman at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Miju-Mishmi". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Blench, Roger; Post, Mark (2011), (De)classifying Arunachal languages: Reconstructing the evidence (PDF) 
  4. ^ Boro, A. 1978. Miju dictionary. Shillong: Research Department, Arunachal Pradesh Administration.
  5. ^ Dasgupta, K. 1977. A phrase book in Miju. Shillong: Director of Information and Public Relations, Arunachal Pradesh.
  6. ^ Blench, Roger (2015), Kman ethno-ophresiology; characterising taste, smell and texture in a language of Arunachal Pradesh 
  7. ^ Blench, Roger; Kri, Sokhep; Ngadong, Kruleso; Masong, Barum (2015), Kman Reading and writing Kman