Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis

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Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis
Born22 September [O.S. 10 September] 1875
Senoji Varėna, Vilna Governorate, Russian Empire (now Lithuania)
Died10 April [O.S. 28 March] 1911 (aged 35)
Marki, Congress Poland, Russian Empire (now Poland)
Known forPainting, music composition
Notable work
  • Spring Sonata
  • In the Forest
SpouseSofija Kymantaitė-Čiurlionienė

Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis (Polish: Mikołaj Konstanty Czurlanis; 22 September [O.S. 10 September] 1875 – 10 April [O.S. 28 March] 1911) was a Lithuanian composer, painter, choirmaster, cultural figure, and writer in Polish.[1][2]

Čiurlionis contributed to symbolism and art nouveau, and was representative of the fin de siècle epoch. He has been considered one of the pioneers of abstract art in Europe.[3] During his short life, he composed about 400 pieces of music and created about 300 paintings, as well as many literary works and poems. The majority of his paintings are housed in the M. K. Čiurlionis National Art Museum in Kaunas, Lithuania. His works have had a profound influence on modern Lithuanian culture.


Childhood and early music studies[edit]

Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis was born in Senoji Varėna, a town in southeastern Lithuania which at the time was part of the Russian Empire. His mother Adelė née Radmanaitė (Radmann) (1854-1919) was descended from a Lutheran family of Bavarian origin, born in Vileikiai village (Lazdijai region). His father Konstantinas Čiurlionis (1851-1914, born in Guobiniai) was an organist and a choirmaster who briefly played the organ in Liškiava, which is where the couple met.

The newly formed family moved to Senoji Varėna, where their eldest child, Mikalojus, was born. There were nine siblings altogether: Mikalojus Konstantinas (1875-1911), Marija (1879-1969), Juzė (1882-1969), Povilas (1884-1945), Stasys (1887-1944), Petras (1890-1924), Jonas (1891-1955), Valerija (1896-1955), and Jadvyga (1898-1992).

Even though Čiurlionis' family spoke Polish, Mikalojus Konstantinas could understand and read Lithuanian, albeit he was not proficient and would receive assistance from his fiancée from 1907 onwards.[4]

In 1878, his family moved to Druskininkai, 30 miles (48 km) away, where his father went on to serve as the town organist. This is where Mikalojus Konstantinas, called Konstantinas or Kastukas by the family, started publicly displaying his musical proficiency - he was a musical prodigy: he could play by ear at the age of five and could sight-read music freely by the age of seven. He would often fill in for his father playing the organ at Mass, while he played piano at home.[5] A family friend, doctor Jozef Markiewicz noticed his natural talent and upon Mikalojus' graduation from the folk school of Druskininkai, wrote a letter to the Lithuanian noble Michał Mikołaj Ogiński recommending to enroll M. K. Čiurlionis to the Palace Orchestra School in Plungė.[6]

A house in Vilnius where Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis lived – now hosts a museum of M. K. Čiurlionis

M. K. Čiurlionis studied in the Plungė Palace Orchestra School from 1889 to 1893.[7] Here he played the flute, received his first orchestra uniform and musical theory basics. He would often travel with the orchestra to play concerts in Rietavas, Palanga, Riga. He had a close relationship with M. Ogiński, and so the Duke granted him a scholarship which allowed the composer to study in Warsaw.

Life abroad[edit]

Supported by Prince Ogiński' scholarship Čiurlionis studied piano and composition at Warsaw Institute of Music from 1894 to 1899.[8] He studied piano with the guidance of Antoni Sygietyński [pl], composition with the guidance of the composer Zygmunt Noskowski. Here he met the future Polish composer and director or Warsaw Conservatory Eugeniusz Morawski-Dąbrowa [pl]. Together they've discussed music and paintings, critiqued each other's compositions, went on vacation in Morawski's parents' place in Zakroczym. Here he met his friend's sister Maria Morawska. Father, after noticing the love of his young daughter and at the time unknown artist, intervened and married Maria of to a widower. M. K. Čiurlionis buried himself in work: wrote preludes, fugues, canons, variation cycles for the piano. For his graduation, in 1899, he wrote a cantata for mixed chorus and symphonic orchestra titled De Profundis, and received the diploma for composition specialty. He declined the offer to become the orchestra master for Lublin's Music Society Choir and continued creating - in 1900 he finished his first symphonic poem "In the Forest", which was dedicated to E. Morawski.

After receiving the approval and further scholarship from M. Ogiński, in 1901 M. K. Čiurlionis joined the Leipzig Conservatory, where he was taught composition by Carl Reinecke, contrapunto by Salomon Jadassohn. Though he was not proficient in German,[9] he still enrolled to aesthetics, history, psychology classes. It is apparent from the letters[9] that M. K. Čiurlionis felt very lonely in Leipzig and he wanted to come back to Druskininkai, he kept constantly writing letters to his family and E. Morawski.

As he was in Leipzig, he listened to and studied the works of G. F. Haendel, P. Tchaikovsky, R. Wagner, F. Liszt, H. Berlioz, R. Strauss, created the symphonic overture "Kęstutis". Since he couldn't come back home, he started drawing during his free time.[9] The sudden death of M. Ogiński and disrupted financial support made it harder to finish the Conservatory, but he succeeded in receiving the teacher's license from Leipzig's Conservatory.

Interest in painting[edit]

M. K. Čiurlionis returned to Warsaw in 1902 and joined the Warsaw Drawing school where he was taught drawing by Jan Kauzik. As he was living in Warsaw, he had to work as a private music tutor to support himself and his brothers who were also studying in Warsaw. With the strong decision to paint, he refused to teach at Warsaw's Institute of Music. In 1903, he painted the 7 painting cycle "Funeral Symphony", but also did not forget music: he started creating his second symphonic poem "The Sea".

He continued his painting studies in Warsaw School of Fine Arts from 1904 to 1906.[8] His main teacher in Warsaw was symbolist painter Kazimierz Stabrowski, who was also the founder of the first lodges of the Theosophical Society in Poland and passed to Čiurlionis an interest in Theosophy and other esoteric subjects.[10] In the School he was taught drawing by Karol Tichy [pl], Konrad Krzyżanowski, sculpture by Xawery Dunikowski, painting by Ferdynand Ruszczyc, went to the organized plein-airs. In 1904 he has shown 19 of his works (stained glass projects, cycle of 6 paintings "The Storm", book covers) in the private exhibition of the School. In 1905 there was M. K. Čiurlionis exhibition, where he has shown the 10-painting cycle "Fantasies", in the same year he has also participated in the first annual exhibition of Warsaw School of Arts.

As he was working as a private music tutor, he has acquainted himself with the family of Wolmans, who quickly became his friends. He had an especially warm relationship with Bronisława Wolman, who sponsored M. K. Čiurlionis' painting. As a thank you, M. K. Čiurlionis gifted her numerous paintings including "Friendship" (1906/1907). In 1905 B. Wolman invited M. K. Čiurlionis with a couple of his friends to resort town of Anapa, near the Black Sea. Here M. K. Čiurlionis traveled the Caucasus, painted, photographed,[11] searched for inspiration.

B. Wolman gave M. K. Čiurlionis money for his trip in Europe: he went to Prague, Dresden, Nuremberg, Munich, Vienna, the artist adored the works of Van Dyck, Rembrandt, Böcklin. In 1906 he has shown his works in the exhibition of Warsaw's School of Fine Arts in Saint Petersburg (the cycles "Creation of the World", "Day", "The Storm" and other creations). Articles started appearing in the press about M. K. Čiurlionis, the first Lithuanian article was in "Vilniaus žinios" (no. 123).[12]

Dedication to Lithuania[edit]

In 1906, M. K. Čiurlionis wrote to his brother Povilas: "I am going to dedicate all of my previous and future work to Lithuania".[9] As he received the invitation to participate in the First Exhibition of Lithuanian Art in 1907 at Vileišis Palace, Vilnius, he sent his paintings (33 paintings shown), and also helped organizing it. Soon after this event, the Lithuanian Art Society was founded, and Čiurlionis was one of its 19 founding members.

In 1907 M. K. Čiurlionis moved to Vilnius[13] and actively involved himself in the cultural life: he was elected to the board of Lithuanian Art Society, was the choirmaster of choir "Vilniaus kanklės". During his visit to the dress rehearsal of "Blinda" by Gabrielius Landsbergis-Žemkalnis he met the writer Sofija Kymantaitė[14] (1886–1958). Together with her and the Lithuanian Art Society they prepared the Second Exhibition of Lithuanian Art, discussed the creation of "Folk Palace" (art museum).

Together with Sofija (fiancée) they went to Palanga in 1908, and on 1 January 1909 they got married, later visited Sofija's parents in Kuliai, Karklėnai, Sofija's uncle in Plungė, stayed in Druskininkai.

Fight for Recognition and Death[edit]

Trying to become more known, M. K. Čiurlionis followed his friends' advice and left for Saint Petersburg in 1908. Here he met Mstislav Dobuzhinsky, who introduced the Lithuanian artist to the Russian Artist Society.[15] To have enough money, he had to once again become a private music tutor. While being in Saint Petersburg, M. K. Čiurlionis did not forget Lithuania: he offered Lithuanian Art Society to create a music section, sent harmonized folk songs to "Vilniaus kanklės" choir, together with Sofija wrote music for their opera "Jūratė".

In 1909, after the wedding and parent visits, both newlyweds came to Saint Petersburg. Here M. K. Čiurlionis paintings were exhibited in "Salon" exhibition, in the Sixth Exhibition of Russian Artist Society, among them - his newest painting - "Rex" (1909). Few of his paintings he has also sent to the First Spring Exhibition of Vilnius Artist Society, to the Thirteenth Art Lover Society "Sztuka" Exhibition in Krakow. In March, 1909, Sofija and M. K. Čiurlionis came back to Lithuania, where they helped organizing the Third Art Exhibition of Lithuanian Art, painted the "Rūta" Society hall curtain, wrote the critique essay book "In Lithuania". At the end of the year, M. K. Čiurlionis left for Saint Petersburg again.

Constant work without breaks, material deprivations tired out M. K. Čiurlionis - Sofija found him acting strange on Christmas Eve and brought him to a neuropathologist and psychiatrist V. Bechterev, who diagnosed him with burnout. In 1910 both came back to Druskininkai, later M. K. Čiurlionis was hospitalized in a health resort "Czerwony Dwór" (Red Manor) in Marki, Poland, northeast of Warsaw. While he was getting better, his only daughter - Danutė - was born. In 1911, he went for a walk and got pneumonia and died on 10 April 1911 at 35 years of age. He was buried at the Rasos Cemetery in Vilnius. He never saw his daughter Danutė (1910–1995).

Čiurlionis felt that he was a synesthete;[citation needed] that is, he perceived colours and music simultaneously. Many of his paintings bear the names of musical pieces: sonatas, fugues, and preludes.

M. K. Čiurlionis as a composer[edit]

M. K. Čiurlionis is the originator of Lithuanian professional music. The precise number of Čiurlionis musical compositions is not known – a substantial part of his manuscripts did not survive, including those that perished in the fire during the war. The ones available for us today include sketches, rough drafts, and fragments of his musical ideas. The nature of the archive determined the fact that Čiurlionis' works were finally published only a hundred years after the composer's death. Today, the archive amounts to almost 400 compositions, the major part of which are works for piano (around 200), but also significant opuses for symphony orchestra (symphonic poems "In the Forest" and "The Sea", symphonic overture "Kęstutis", cantata for choir and orchestra "De Profundis"), string quartet, fugue "Kyrie", works like "Sanctus", "Agnus Dei", "Let's not be sad" ("Neliūskime"), works for various choirs (original compositions and Lithuanian folk song arrangements (around 40)), as well as works for organ.

In 1909 in Warsaw his collection book of harmonized Lithuanian folk songs "Vieversėlis" was published. M. K. Čiurlionis' harmonized folk songs like "Dawning dawn" ("Beauštanti aušrelė"), "Oh It Goes, It Goes" ("Oi lekia, lekia"), "Dad Will Dance" ("Šoks tėvelis suktinį"), and "Promised So Far" ("Taip toli žadėta") were played/sung in Lithuanian song festivals in Chicago (USA) and Toronto (Canada).

Together with Kazimieras Būga, Augustinas Voldemaras, Česlovas Sasnauskas, J. Tallat-Kelpša, M. K.Čiurlionis has prepared the Lithuanian music terminology dictionary "Our music terminology" ("Mūsų muzikos terminologija") in 1909.

Some of his most-performed musical works include:


  • Miške (In the Forest), symphonic poem for orchestra (1901; published posthumously)
  • Kęstutis, Symphonic Overture (1902; piano score survives, orchestrated by Robertas Šervenikas)
  • Jūra (The Sea), symphonic poem for orchestra (1907; published posthumously)
  • Pasaulio sutvėrimas (The Creation of the World), Symphonic Poem (c. 1907; reconstructed by Arvydas Malcys)
  • Dies Irae, Symphonic Poem (c. 1910, reconstructed by Giedrius Kuprevičius)


Chamber music[edit]



  • Seven fugues for organ (Fugue in G minor)

M. K. Čiurlionis as a painter[edit]

M. K. Čiurlionis started to form late as a painter. Even though it is known that he would paint his surroundings while studying in Plungė in 1893, he started his professional painter path only when he was 27 years old, after he joined Warsaw's Drawing School. Later M. K. Čiurlionis said "They did not teach me anything there that I wanted to learn". Already in the first paintings you could see M. K. Čiurlionis' inclination towards symbolism and abstraction, the veil of mysticism and secrecy in creating. As the most comfortable art technique for himself, the artist chose the antique painting method with tempera. Another characteristic, showing M. K. Čiurlionis attraction to antique art - compositions of cycles, diptychs, triptychs, most common to art of Middle Ages.[16] In the first M. K. Čiurlionis paintings (from 1903) there is an abundance of fantasy creatures, mystic rulers of the past, traces of Lithuanian pagan culture, elements of cosmogony - Gods, planets, stars, the Sun. These elements were accompanied the painter during all of his creative life, receiving more concrete and suggestive forms. From the very beginning, M. K. Čiurlionis felt that the best form to express himself is the cyclical exploration of an idea. And thus such cycles were created like 7-painting cycle "Funeral symphony" (1903), 4-painting cycle "Day" (1904, one painting missing), 5-painting cycle "The Deluge" (1904, one painting missing), triptych "Rex" (1904, not to confuse with the culminative painting "Rex" of 1909), 13-painting cycle "Creation of the World" (1905/6), 3-painting cycle "Sparks" (1906), 12-painting cycle "Zodiac" (1906).

The time between 1907 and 1909 is the most mature and productive for M. K. Čiurlionis as a painter. Paintings have clearer, more stylized forms. His 8-painting cycle "Winter" (1907) and triptych "My Road" (1907) are especially mature, verging on the border of abstraction. There are more traces of musical structure in his painting: the 4-painting cycles, repeating the musical sonata structures with parts allegro, andante, scherzo, finale. M. K. Čiurlionis painted 7 sonatas which received their associative names after his death: "Sonata I (Sonata of the Sun)" (1907), "Sonata II (Sonata of the Spring)" (1907), "Sonata no. 3 (Sonata of the Serpent)" (1908), "Sonata no. 4 (Sonata of the Summer)" (1908), "Sonata no. 5 (Sonata of the Sea)" (1908), "Sonata no. 6 (Sonata of the Stars)" (1908), "Sonata no. 7 (Sonata of the Pyramids)" (1909). There are other musical paintings such as diptych "Prelude and Fugue" (1908), "Prelude. Fugue" (1908), as well as triptych's "Fantasy" (1908) middle part of Fugue.

M. K. Čiurlionis pays a lot of attention to Lithuania's past culture, nature of his homeland. Like creating music, when painting he looks for inspiration in folk art and culture. We can see that not only in the landscape triptych "Raigardas" (1907), but also in fairytale motive full paintings "The Prince's Jouurney" (1907), triptych "Fairytale" (1907), we can find ethnographic motives in the painting "Fairytale (Fairytale of the Fortress)" (1909).

One of the most famous M. K. Čiurlionis painting is "Rex", created in 1909. Here the artist's experience connects with the research of C. Flammarion, Holy Scripture, Indo-European myths.

Some of the most popular[17] Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis paintings include:

  • Friendship (1906)
  • 8 painting cycle Winter (1906–1907)
  • 12 painting cycle The Zodiac (1907)
  • 13 painting cycle Creation of the World (1906-1907)
  • Spring – four paintings (1907–08)
  • 3 painting cycle Summer (1907–08)
  • Sonata I (Sonata of the Sun) (1907)
  • Sonata II (Sonata of the Spring) (1907)
  • Sonata no. 3 (Sonata of the Serpent) (1908)
  • Sonata no. 4 (Sonata of the Summer')' (1908)
  • Sonata no. 5 (Sonata of the Sea) (1908)
  • Sonata no. 6 (Sonata of the Stars) (1908)
  • Sonata no. 7 (Sonata of the Pyramids) (1908)
  • Diptych Prelude and Fugue (1908)
  • Triptych Fantasy (1908)
  • 3 painting cycle Fairy-Tale (1909)
  • Rex (1909)
  • Fairytale of the Kings (1908-1909)

Posthumous recognition[edit]

National M. K. Čiurlionis School of Art in Vilnius, Lithuania.
M. K. Čiurlionis National Art Museum in Kaunas, Lithuania.

After Čiurlionis's death in 1911, the Russian critic Valerian Adolfovich Chudovsky [ru] (transliterated as Tschoudowsky in English) wrote:

Now that he is dead, the authors of the spiritual revival of Lithuania present Ciurlionis (sic) as a national artist. It is not for us to judge; however his extraordinary independence of all contemporary art leads one to believe that he was really created by the hidden forces of his people; and it is well for us to be able to believe that this singular genius does not merely represent a chance caprice of fate, but is the precursor of a future sublime Lithuanian art. When I think of him, an idea imposes itself on my mind: the Lithuanian people had no Middle Ages, perhaps it has preserved intact until the 20th century, even better than we Russians, the immense energy of mystic life inherited from the Arians which our Western brothers have so prodigally squandered in their Middle Ages.[18]

In 1911, the first posthumous exhibition of Čiurlionis's art was held in Vilnius and Kaunas. During the same year, an exhibition of his art was held in Moscow, and in 1912 his works were exhibited in St. Petersburg.

On 13 January 1913, Čiurlionis division was formed next to Lithuanian Art Society and one of its goals was to accumulate the late painter's works of art. The necessity to save M. K. Čiurlionis heritage rushed art lovers to take more action in creating the "Folk Palace" - the art museum to house these paintings.

In 1913 with the initiative of Stasys Šilingas and Antanas Žmuidzinavičius, a fund to buy M. K. Čiurlionis' paintings was created. The finances came from donations and the members of Lithuanian Art Society fees.

On 14 December 1921 the law to create M. K. Čiurlionis gallery was passed by Constituent Assembly of Lithuania. The temporary M. K. Čiurlionis gallery was opened in Kaunas on 13 December 1925 thanks to Paulius Galaunė. On 1 November 1936, the gallery was moved to the newly built Vytautas Magnus Culture Museum palace. In 1944, this art museum was renamed M. K. Čiurlionis State Museum of Arts.

In 1957, the Lithuanian community in Chicago opened the Čiurlionis Art Gallery, hosting collections of his works.

In 1963, the Čiurlionis Memorial Museum was opened in Druskininkai, in the house where Čiurlionis and his family lived. This museum holds biographical documents as well as photographs and reproductions of the artist's works. In 1965, the second Čiurlionis' family home opened up.

In 1964, Lithuanian alpinists climbed several peaks of the Pamir Mountains in Tajikistan and named the first one (5794 m) Čiurlionis Peak (Lithuanian: Čiurlionio viršūnė) under the suggestion of a team member, pianist Aleksandras Jurgelionis.[19]

In 1965, a sculptor, medal creator Juozas Kalinauskas created the M. K. Čiurlionis memorial medal.

The National M. K. Čiurlionis School of Art in Vilnius was named after M. K. Čiurlionis in 1965.[20] It received the National status in 2001.

In 1968 the M. K. Čiurlionis quartet[lt] was formed.

In 1969 M. K. Čiurlionis gallery was moved to the annex building (architect Feliksas Vitas) of the museum.

50 litų coin depicting Čiurlionis

Čiurlionis inspired the Lithuanian composer Osvaldas Balakauskas' work Sonata of the Mountains (1975), and every four years junior musical performers from Lithuania and neighboring countries take part in the Čiurlionis Competition.

In 1975 the Crimean astrophysicist Nikolai Chernykh discovered a new asteroid (diameter of 8 km) and named him Čiurlionis asteroid.

In Senoji Varėna, in the place of the house where M. K. Čiurlionis was born there is a memorial rock. From Old Varėna to Druskininkai there is "Čiurlionis route" an alley of 22 oak waycrosses, created by folk craftsmen in 1975-1976.

In 1995 Druskininkai music school was named after M. K. Čiurlionis. Here the international M. K. Čiurlionis pianist and organ player competitions are held.

In 1995 M. K. Čiurlionis home in Vilnius[13] was opened.

1997 the M. K. Čiurlionis State Museum of Arts was given the status of a National museum and was renamed to M. K. Čiurlionis National Art Museum and still hosts the majority of Čiurlionis paintings.[21] Some of his paintings are also in Lithuanian National Museum of Art, Warsaw's National Museum, State Russian museum in Saint Petersburg.

Čiurlionis's works have been displayed at international exhibitions in Japan, Germany, Spain, and elsewhere. His paintings were featured at "Visual Music" fest, an homage to synesthesia that included the works of Wassily Kandinsky, James McNeill Whistler, and Paul Klee, at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles in 2005.[22]

In 2009, Genovaitė Kazokas (Genovaitė Kazokienė  [lt]) published Musical Paintings, a book where she argued that Theosophy, esotericism and Spiritualism were important influences on Čiurlionis' art.[17]

In 2009 LRT (Lithuanian national television) had 12 documentary episodes, dedicated to M. K. Čiurlionis, called "Code of Čiurlionis", in series "Signs of Time" (Laiko ženklai). Authors were L. Pociūnienė, P. Savickis.[23]

A commemorative plaque has been placed on the building of the former hospital in Marki, Poland where Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis died in 1911.

In 2011, commemorate the artist's 100 years of death, UNESCO declared the year of M. K. Čiurlionis. The remembrance of M. K. Čiurlionis was celebrated with various events. There was a specific musical note manuscript published in Japan.

Čiurlionis's life was depicted in the 2012 film Letters to Sofija, directed by Robert Mullan.

In 2019 the first national sertified cultural route "M. K. Čiurlionis route" started its acitivities. Each year it unites 7 regions of Lithuania (connected to M. K. Čiurlionis) in two main events, celebrating M. K. Čiurlionis (topographic week "Lithuania of M. K.Čiurlionis" in May, and M. K. Čiurlionis birthday celebration in September).

M. K. Čiurlionis' researchers[edit]

The personality and creations of M. K. Čiurlionis interest not only Lithuanian, but also foreign art researchers. The most famous researchers in Lithuania are his sisters Jadvyga Čiurlionytė and Valerija Čiurlionytė-Karužienė, other famous researchers include Vytautas Landsbergis, Antanas Andrijauskas, Rasutė Andriušytė-Žukienė. There are many books and articles continuously published.

Books about M. K. Čiurlionis:

  • P. Galaunė „M. K. Čiurlionis“ (1938)
  • N. Worobiow „M.K. Čiurlionis, der litauische Mahler und Musiker“ (1938)
  • V. Čiurlionytė-Karužienė „M. K. Čiurlionis. Apie muziką ir dailę“ (1960)
  • J. Čiurlionytė „Atsiminimai apie M. K. Čiurlionį“ (1963)
  • A. Savickas, J. Gaudrimas „ M. K. Čiurlionis“ (1965)
  • V. Landsbergis compiled „M. K. Čiurlionio laiškai Sofijai“ (1973)
  • G. Vaitkūnas „Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis“ (1975)
  • V. Landsbergis „Čiurlionio dailė“ (1976)
  • J. Bruveris compiled „Čiurlioniui 100“ (1977)
  • V. Landsbergis „Vainikas Čiurlioniui“ (1980)
  • R. Aleksis „Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis Lithuanian Visionary Painter“ (1984)
  • S. Yla „M.K.Čiurlionis kūrėjas ir žmogus“ (1984)
  • V. Landsbergis „Čiurlionio muzika" (1986)
  • V. Landsbergis „M.K.Čiurlionis. Time and Content“ (1992)
  • S. Goštautas compiled „Čiurlionis:painter and Composer. Collected essays and Notes, 1906-1989“ (1994)
  • S. Fauchereau „Ciurlionis par exemple“ (1996)
  • J. Siedlecka „Mikołaj Konstanty Čiurlionis Preludium Warszawskie“ (1996)
  • V. Koreškovas „Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis. Paveikslai, eskizai, mintys“ (1997)
  • V. Landsbergis compiled „Žodžio kūryba“ (1997 m.)
  • A. Nedzelskis, G. Domin „M.K.Čiurlionis in Leipzig“ (1999)
  • V. Strolia „M.K.Čiurlionio diskografija“ (2001)
  • D. Kučinskas „M.K.Čiurlionio fortepijoninės muzikos tekstas (genezės aspektas)“ (2004)
  • R. Andriušytė-Žukienė „M.K.Čiurlionis: tarp simbolizmo ir modernizmo“ (2004)
  • V. B. Pšibilskis compiled „Atsiminimai apie M.K.Čiurlionį“ (2006)
  • Collection of articles „Čiurlionio amžius“ (2006)
  • E. Giszter „Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis litewski malarz i kompozytor“ (2006)
  • D. Kučinskas „Chronologinis Mikalojaus Konstantino Čiurlionio muzikos katalogas“ (2007)
  • V. Landsbergis „Visas Čiurlionis“ (2008)
  • R. Okulicz-Kozaryn „Lietuvis tarp karaliaus-dvasios įpėdinių“ (2009)
  • G. Kazokas „Musical paintintings. Life and work of M. K. Čiurlionis (1875-1911)“ (2009)
  • Collection of articles „Meno idėjų migracija XX a. pradžioje: M. K. Čiurlionio amžininkų kūryba“ (2010)
  • R. Janeliauskas „Neatpažinti Mikalojaus Konstantino Čiurlionio muzikos ciklai“ (2010)
  • S. Urbonas complied „Čiurlionis Vilniuje“ (2010)
  • „M. K. Čiurlionis ir pasaulis“ (2011)
  • V. Landsbergis „Mažoji čiurlioniana“ (2011)
  • V. Landsbergis „Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis. Laiškai Sofijai“ (2011)
  • G. Daunoravičienė, R. Povilionienė „Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis (1875-1911): jo laikas ir mūsų laikas“ (2013)
  • D. Kamarauskienė „Išėjau su Čiurlioniu. Tuoj grįšiu“ (2014)
  • L. Laučkaitė „M. K. Čiurlionis et l‘art lithuanian au debut su XX‘ siecle“ (2016)
  • N. Gaidauskienė „Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis Vilniuje“ (2016)
  • M. Pleitaitė, K. Momkus „Šiandien karaliai mums pasakas seka“ (2017)
  • N. Gaidauskienė, R. Zubovas „Čiurlionio namai Vilniuje: istorija ir veikla“ (2017)
  • R. Okulicz-Kozaryn, N. Adomavičienė, P. Kimbris compiled „Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis: korespondencija 1892-1906“ (2019)
  • J. Šeniavskij „M. K. Čiurlionis ir Sankt Peterburgas“ (2019)
  • S. Žvirgždas „M. K. Čiurlionis ir Vilnius“ (2019)
  • S. Jastrumskytė compiled „Čiurlionis ir pasaulis. Estetikos ir meno filosofijos tyrinėjimai VI“ (2019)
  • M. Mildažytė-Kulikauskienė compiled „Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis: Piešiniai, kompozicijų eskizai, grafika“ (2020)
  • V. Palčinskaitė „Trolis Molis ir Čiurlionis“ (2021)
  • A. Andrijauskas „Teosofinės meno filosofijos idėjų atspindžiai Stabrausko ir Čiurlionio tapyboje“ (2021)
  • S. Fauchereau „Baltijos šalių menas XIX-XX a.“ (2021)
  • Ž. Svigaris, L. Ivanova „Sonatiniai M. K. Čiurlionio garsovaizdžiai“ (2022)
  • A. Andrijauskas „Čiurlionio orientalizmo metamorfozės“ (2022)
  • V. Landsbergis „Debesies laivu: užrašai apie Mikalojų Konstantiną Čiurlionį“ (2022)

To further research on M. K. Čiurlionis each year the conference "Sonatic soundscapes of M. K. Čiurlionis" is held in Druskininkai. A lot of institutions, researching M. K. Čiurlionis are united by the first national sertificated cultural route "M. K. Čiurlionis route".[24]



Mikalojus had four brothers: Povilas Čiurlionis (1884-1945), Stasys Čiurlionis [lt] (1887-1944), Petras Čiurlionis (1890-1924), Jonas Čiurlionis [lt] (1891-1955) and four sisters: Marija Čiurlionytė (1879-1969), Juzė Čiurlionytė-Stulgaitienė (1882-1966), Valerija Čiurlionytė-Karužienė (1896-1982), Jadvyga Čiurlionytė [lt] (1898-1992).

See also[edit]



  1. ^ "Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis". Lithuanian National Čiurlionis Museum.
  2. ^ Łukawska, Alicja (2018). Duchy Kresów Wschodnich (in Polish). Wydawnictwo von Borowiecky. p. 341. ISBN 978-83-65806-18-5.
  3. ^ M.K. Ciurlionis 1875–1911: pionnier de l'art abstrait: discours prononcé au 2ème Congrès International des Critiques d'Art, Maison de l'UNESCO, Paris, 1949. A. Rannit. 1950.
  4. ^ Timothy Snyder (2004). The reconstruction of nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569–1999. Yale University Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-300-10586-5.
  5. ^ Čiurlionytė, Jadvyga (1994). Atsiminimai apie Čiurlionį (3rd ed.). Aušros. ISBN 9986611008.
  6. ^ "Čiurlionio kelias » Buvusi Mykolo Oginskio dvaro muzikantinė (M. Oginskio dvaro parko teritorijoje)" (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  7. ^ "Istorija". www.oginskiomenomokykla.lt. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  8. ^ a b Elżbieta Dziębowska, ed. (1984). Encyklopedia muzyczna PWM: część biograficzna, Volume 2: cd. Kraków: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne. pp. 207–209. ISBN 83-224-0223-6.
  9. ^ a b c d MIKALOJUS KONSTANTINAS ČIURLIONIS. CORRESPONDENCE 1892-1906 VOLUME I. Nacionalinis M. K. Čiurlionio dailes muziejus. 2019. ISBN 9789955471721.
  10. ^ Karolina Maria Hess and Małgorzata Alicja Dulska, Kazimierz Stabrowski's Esoteric Dimensions: Theosophy, Art, and the Vision of Femininity, La Rosa di Paracelso 1 (2017):41–65.
  12. ^ "ePaveldas". www.epaveldas.lt (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  13. ^ a b "Apie mus | MKČ namai" (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  14. ^ Laiškai Sofijai. Baltos lankos. 2011. ISBN 9789955234326.
  15. ^ Šeniavskij, Jurij (2019). M. K. Čiurlionis ir Sankt Peterburgas. V. Koreškov PI "̨Fodijas". ISBN 9789986330431.
  16. ^ Laukaitienė, Vaiva; Karaciejus, Mindaugas; Everatt, Joseph (2021). MIKALOJUS KONSTANTINAS ČIURLIONIS. TAPYBA. PAINTING. Nacionalinis M.K. Čiurlionio dailės muziejus. ISBN 9785420018439.
  17. ^ a b See Kazokas, Genovaitė (2009), Musical Paintings: Life and Work of M. K. Čiurlionis (1875–1911), Vilnius: Logotipas.
  18. ^ Giuseppe, Salvatori (1926). Rustic and popular art in Lithuania. Milan. pp. 16–17.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  19. ^ "Čiurlionio viršūnė - Alpinizmo vikis". alpinizmo.vikis.lt. Retrieved 10 July 2023.
  20. ^ Istorija.html. M. K. Čiurlionis School Of Art
  21. ^ Gostautas, Stasys, “M.K. Čiurlionis, The Famous Unknown”, Lituanus, vol. 49, no. 4, 2003.
  22. ^ Visual Music, 13 February through 22 May 2005, MOCA Grand Avenue Archived 10 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ "Laiko ženklai. Čiurlionio kodas, I d." lrt.lt (in Lithuanian). 10 January 2009. Retrieved 10 July 2023.
  24. ^ "Čiurlionio kelias » Apie projektą" (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 10 July 2023.

Further reading[edit]

  • Andriušytė-Žukienė Rasute. 2002. The Art of Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis: At the Junction of Two Epochs. Vilnius: Organisation Committee Frankfurt.
  • Andriušytė-Žukienė, Rasute. 2004. M.K. Čiurlionis: Tarp Simbolizmo ir Modernizmo.Vilnius: Versus Aureus.
  • Čiurlionytė, Jadwyga. 1973. Atsiminimai apie M. K. Čiurlionį. Vilnius: Vaga.
  • Goštautas, Stasys with Birutė Vaičjurgis-Šležas, editors. 1994. Čiurlionis: Painter and Composer. Collected Essays and Notes, 1906–1989. Vilnius: Vaga.
  • Kazokas, Genovaitė. 2009. Musical Paintings: Life and Work of M. K. Čiurlionis (1875–1911). Vilnius: Logotipas.
  • Rannit, Aleksis. 1984. M.K. Čiurlionis: Lithuanian Visionary Painter. Chicago: Lithuanian Library Press.
  • Užukauskaitė, Lina. 2019. Ein ikonisches Paar: Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis’ Briefe an Sofija. In: Liebesgeschichte(n): Identität und Diversität vom 18. bis zum 21. Jahrhundert. Hg. v. Frank Becker und Elke Reinhardt- Becker. Frankfurt am Main, New York: Campus, 131-149. ISBN 9783593510293
  • Vorobjov, Nikolai. 1938. M.K. Čiurlionis, der litauisches Maler und Musiker. Kaunas and Leipzig: Verlag Pribačis.

External links[edit]