Conley competed collegiately at the University of Arkansas where he won 16 NCAA long jump and triple jump titles. Conley still owns the U.S. indoor record in the triple jump at 17.76 meters (58 feet, 3.25 inches).
Conley was President and remains on the Board of Directors of World Sport Chicago, the "living legacy" of Chicago's 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Bid, that focuses on promoting and developing sport programs and events for the youth of Chicago. Chicago had been selected as the U.S. entry into the bid process. Previously, he was the executive director of the High Performance program of USA Track and Field.
Conley has registered with the NBA as an agent and represented his son and his son's Ohio State teammates Greg Oden and Daequan Cook when they entered the league. Oden officially declared for the NBA draft by signing with Mike, Sr., as his agent and was subsequently chosen as the number one player in the 2007 NBA Draft. Conley, Jr., was selected fourth overall. Cook was drafted 21st.
Conley had a particularly long and prolific career and he was considered among the world's best for over a decade. Track and Field News ranked him among the top ten triple jumpers in the world 14 consecutive years (six times as world's best) and seven times in the long jump.