|United States Senator|
|Assumed office |
January 3, 2011
Serving with Mitt Romney
|Preceded by||Bob Bennett|
|Chair of the Joint Economic Committee|
January 3, 2019 – February 3, 2021
|Preceded by||Erik Paulsen|
|Succeeded by||Don Beyer|
Michael Shumway Lee
June 4, 1971
Mesa, Arizona, U.S.
|Relations||Thomas Rex Lee (brother)|
|Parent||Rex E. Lee|
|Education||Brigham Young University (BA, JD)|
Michael Shumway Lee (born June 4, 1971) is an American lawyer and politician serving as the senior United States senator from Utah, a seat he has held since 2011. He is a member of the Republican Party.
Lee began his career as a clerk for the U.S. District Court for the District of Utah before clerking for Samuel Alito, who was then a judge on the Third Circuit Court of Appeals. From 2002 to 2005, Lee was an assistant United States attorney for the District of Utah. He joined the administration of Utah Governor Jon Huntsman, serving as the general counsel in the governor's office from 2005 to 2006. Lee again clerked for Alito after he was appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court.
In 2010, during the Tea Party movement, Lee entered the party caucus process to challenge incumbent three-term Republican senator Bob Bennett. He defeated Bennett and business owner Tim Bridgewater during the nominating process at the Utah Republican Party convention. Lee won the Republican primary, and defeated Democratic nominee Sam Granato in the general election. He was reelected in 2016 and became the dean of Utah's congressional delegation when Representative Rob Bishop retired in January 2021. He was reelected again in 2022. Lee chaired the Joint Economic Committee from 2019 to 2021. He coordinated with and supported the Trump administration in its efforts to overturn the 2020 presidential election, but ultimately voted to certify the election.
Early life and education
Lee was born in Mesa, Arizona on June 4, 1971, the son of Janet (née Griffin) and Rex E. Lee, who was solicitor general under President Ronald Reagan. Lee's older brother Thomas Rex Lee is a justice of the Utah Supreme Court.
Lee's family moved to Provo, Utah, one year later, when his father became the founding dean of Brigham Young University's J. Reuben Clark Law School. While Lee spent about half of his childhood years in Utah, he spent the other half in McLean, Virginia, a suburb of Washington, D.C. His father served first as the assistant U.S. attorney general for the civil division of the U.S. Department of Justice from 1975 to 1976, and then as the solicitor general of the United States from 1981 to 1985. Lee is of English, Swiss, and Danish descent.
After graduating from Timpview High School in 1989, Lee attended Brigham Young University. He served as the president of BYUSA,[a] serving together with his father, who was then president of BYU. He graduated in 1994 with a bachelor of arts in political science. Lee then attended BYU's J. Reuben Clark Law School, where he was a member of the BYU Law Review and graduated with a juris doctor in 1997.
After law school, Lee clerked for Judge Dee Benson of the U.S. District Court for the District of Utah from 1997 to 1998, then for Judge (later Supreme Court Justice) Samuel Alito of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit from 1998 to 1999. Lee then entered private practice at the Washington, D.C., office of the law firm Sidley Austin, specializing in appellate and Supreme Court litigation. In 2002, Lee left Sidley and returned to Utah to serve as an assistant U.S. attorney in Salt Lake City, preparing briefs and arguing cases before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit. He served as general counsel to Utah Governor Jon M. Huntsman, Jr. from 2005 to 2006. From 2006 to 2007, Lee again clerked for Alito, who had recently been appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court. Afterward, Lee returned to private practice in Utah, joining the Salt Lake City office of the law firm Howrey LLP.
As an attorney, Lee also represented Class A low-level radioactive waste facility provider EnergySolutions Inc. in a highly publicized dispute between the company and the Utah public and public officials that caused controversy during his first Senate election. Utah's government had allowed the company to store radioactive waste in Utah as long as it was low-grade "Class A" material. When the company arranged to store waste from Italy, many objected that the waste was foreign and could be more radioactive than permitted. Lee argued that the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution allowed the company to accept foreign waste and that the waste could be reduced in grade by mixing it with lower-grade materials, while the state government sought to ban the importation of foreign waste using an interstate radioactive waste compact. EnergySolutions eventually abandoned its plans to store Italian radioactive waste in Utah, ending the dispute, with the 10th U.S. Circuit court later ruling that the compact had the power to block foreign radioactive waste from being stored in Utah.
Lee ran for the U.S. Senate in 2010. When campaigning, he focused on the size of the federal government. He said the U.S. Constitution needed to be amended to create a flat-tax system and impose term limits on members of Congress. Senators would be allowed up to two terms and representatives up to six terms under the proposal.
At the Republican State Convention, he received 982 votes (28.75%) on the first ballot, to Tim Bridgewater's 26.84% and incumbent U.S. Senator Bob Bennett's 25.91%. Bridgewater won the second and third ballots to win the party endorsement. Both Bridgewater and Lee received enough support to have their names placed on the primary ballot.
In the June 22 primary election, Lee won the Republican nomination with 51% of the vote to Bridgewater's 49%.
Lee won the November 2 general election with 62% of the vote to Democratic nominee Sam Granato's 33% and Constitution Party nominee Scott Bradley's 6%.
Lee was reelected in 2016. He was endorsed by the Club for Growth, the Senate Conservatives Fund, and the National Republican Senatorial Committee.
Lee defeated Becky Edwards and Ally Isom in the Republican primary election. Isom criticized Lee for seeking a third term after he had supported legislation to limit senators to two terms.
In the general election, independent Evan McMullin challenged Lee. The Utah Democratic Party backed McMullin instead of nominating its own candidate. Polling in September showed Lee with 36% support and McMullin with 34%, with the rest undecided or choosing another candidate. According to Jason Perry, the director of the Hinckley Institute of Politics at the University of Utah, Utah had "not seen a Senate race this competitive in decades". Lee won the election with 53% of the vote.
Scorecards and rankings
In 2011, Club for Growth gave Lee a 100% score. He also received a 100% Conservative voting record for 2011 from the American Conservative Union. The Heritage Foundation gave him a 99% score, tied for first with Jim DeMint. He received a Liberal Action score of 38%.
2016 presidential election
In March 2016, Lee endorsed Ted Cruz over Donald Trump in the 2016 Republican primary. He was the first senator to do so. At the time, he said, "I expect I'll be the first of many Republican senators who will endorse Ted Cruz. I'm confident more are on the way, and I welcome others to join." By June, after Trump had become the presumptive nominee, Lee had still not endorsed him, saying he needed "assurances" that Trump would not act as an "authoritarian" or "autocrat" and expressing frustration that Trump had "accused my best friend's father of conspiring to kill JFK".
2017 Alabama special election
On October 16, 2017, Lee endorsed Roy Moore in the 2017 Alabama special election runoff to fill the seat of U.S. Attorney General and former senator Jeff Sessions. Moore had been removed as the Alabama Supreme Court's chief justice in 2003 for defying a federal order to remove an illegal Ten Commandments monument from the Alabama Judicial Building. He was reelected chief justice in 2012. In May 2016, Moore was once again removed from the bench by the Alabama Judicial Inquiry Commission (JIC), permanently via suspension for the rest of his term, making him ineligible for reelection, for ordering state probate judges to ignore a U.S. Supreme Court decision. In a 50-page opinion, the Court of the Judiciary denied Moore's appeal of the JIC's decision, and said his removal was necessary "to preserve the integrity, independence, impartiality of Alabama's judiciary". Nevertheless, Lee praised Moore for his "reputation of integrity" and said he was essential to getting conservative legislation through the Senate. "That is why I am proudly endorsing Judge Roy Moore. Alabamians have the chance to send a proven, conservative fighter to the United States Senate". On November 9, 2017, Moore was accused of molesting a 14-year-old and other girls under age 18 when he was 32.
On November 10, Lee asked the Moore campaign to stop using Lee's endorsement of Moore in its ads. Lee's spokesperson said of the sexual misconduct allegations, "If these allegations are true, Judge Moore should resign." Later that day, Lee rescinded his endorsement of Moore.
2020 presidential election
On October 28, 2020, Lee compared President Trump to Captain Moroni, a heroic figure in the Book of Mormon, telling rallygoers in Arizona: "To my Mormon friends, my Latter-day Saint friends, think of him as Captain Moroni." He said that Trump "seeks not the praise of the world" and wants only "the well-being and peace of the American people". His comparison was met with backlash. The overwhelming majority of responses on Lee's Facebook account characterized his efforts as "shameful" or "blasphemous". In a follow-up Facebook post, Lee wrote that he had praised Trump for his willingness to "threaten the established political order", but that the comparison was "perhaps awkward" and that his "impromptu comments may not have been the best forum for drawing a novel analogy from scripture".
Text messages gathered by the January 6 Committee reveal Lee's close coordination with Trump Chief of Staff Mark Meadows in the aftermath of Trump's defeat in the 2020 election. In the weeks after the election, Lee pursued a series of strategies to overturn the election results, claiming to have been working "14 hours a day" on this effort. The strategies included attempts to persuade state legislatures in states Biden won to put forward alternative slates of electors and promoting the efforts of attorneys Sidney Powell and John Eastman. Ultimately, Lee became concerned by what he considered Powell's missteps, the lack of evidence given by her and others of election fraud, state legislatures' failure to convene alternate slates of electors, and what Lee considered the unconstitutional efforts of Senators Ted Cruz and Josh Hawley to challenge the election certification in Congress on January 6.
Lee ultimately voted to certify the election, saying that the effort to block the certification "could all backfire badly".
After Biden won the 2020 presidential election, Trump refused to concede, and a pro-Trump mob stormed the U.S. Capitol, Lee said Trump should be given a "mulligan" for his inflammatory January 6 speech immediately before the storming of the Capitol. Lee later defended his remarks, saying, "my reference to taking a 'mulligan' was not referring to Trump, but to Democratic politicians whose inflammatory comments had just been played for me on the air [on Fox News]. I used the term...to avoid needlessly inflaming partisan passions." On May 28, 2021, Lee voted against creating an independent commission to investigate the riot. By April 2022, the January 6th Committee had discovered and released over 100 emails between Lee, Congressman Chip Roy, and Meadows discussing their plans to overturn the election results.
- Subcommittee on Administrative Oversight and the Courts
- Subcommittee on Antitrust, Competition Policy and Consumer Rights (Chair)
- Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Human Rights
Committee on Energy and Natural Resources
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation
- Subcommittee on Oceans, Atmosphere, Fisheries, and Coast Guard
- Subcommittee on Aviation Operations, Safety, and Security
- Subcommittee on Communications Technology, Innovation, and the Internet
- Subcommittee on Consumer Protection, Product Safety, Insurance and Data Security
- Subcommittee on Space, Science, and Competitiveness
Special Committee on Aging (2021–present)
Previous committee assignments
- Committee on Foreign Relations (2011–2013)
- Committee on Armed Services (2013–2017)
Lee is a conservative Republican. The New York Times used the NOMINATE system to rank Senate members by ideology; Lee ranked as the Senate's most conservative member. GovTrack's 2017 analysis placed Lee on the right end of the spectrum, to the right of most Republicans, but to the left of a handful of Republican senators. FiveThirtyEight, which tracks Congressional votes, found that Lee voted with Trump's positions on legislation 81.3% of the time as of July 2018. A study by Brigham Young University political science professor Michael Barber found Lee to be the "most ideologically extreme senator in the 113th Congress".
9/11 Responders Compensation Fund
On July 17, 2019, Jon Stewart and disabled construction worker John Feal criticized Lee and Rand Paul on Fox News for blocking a bill that provided Victims Compensation Fund support for disabled 9/11 responders. The fund was near exhaustion. On the Senate floor, Paul objected to Senator Kirsten Gillibrand's request for the bill to be approved by unanimous consent; per Senate rules, such a request is rejected if any senator objects. Lee had placed such a hold on the measure, despite its 73 Senate co-sponsors.
Stewart and Feal, as well as leaders of the Fraternal Order of Police and the International Association of Firefighters, tried to get both senators to withdraw their objections. "The people from the state of Kentucky and the people from the state of Utah deserve better", Feal said. Stewart said, "We have to stand up for the people who have always stood up for us, and maybe cannot stand up for themselves due to their illnesses and their injuries. ... There [are] some things that they have no trouble putting on the credit card, but somehow when it comes to the 9/11 first responder community, the cops, the firefighters, the construction workers, the volunteers, the survivors, all of a sudden ... we gotta go through this." On July 23, 2019, Lee was one of two senators to vote against the 9/11 Victim Compensation Fund.
Criminal justice reform
In 2013, Lee, Dick Durbin, and Patrick Leahy proposed a bill aiming "to focus limited federal resources on the most serious offenders". The bill would reduce some minimum sentences for drug-related offenses by half.
In November 2018, Lee criticized Senator Tom Cotton for his stance on the proposed First Step Act, a criminal justice reform bill Lee supported. Cotton had said that the legislation "gives early release to 'low level, nonviolent' criminals like those convicted of assaulting police, even with deadly weapons". Lee responded that "the First Step Act does not 'give early release' to anyone. Anyone claiming it does does not understand how the bill works." The bipartisan bill, drafted by Chuck Grassley, Lee, and Durbin, passed the House of Representatives overwhelmingly, 360–59. The bill intends to improve rehabilitation programs for former prisoners, and to give judges more "wiggle room" when sentencing nonviolent crime offenders. The bill eventually passed the Senate and became law.
Democracy and election reform
In September 2020, during a Senate hearing, Lee took out and waved a pocket-size Constitution published by an anti-government Mormon group founded by conspiracy theorist W. Cleon Skousen.
In October 2020, Lee sent a series of tweets declaring that the United States is "not a democracy" and that "democracy isn't the objective; liberty, peace, and prospefity [sic] are. We want the human condition to flourish. Rank democracy can thwart that." A Maryland economics professor argued Lee fundamentally misunderstood the terms "democracy" and "republic".
In March 2021, Lee said on Fox News that the For the People Act was "rotten to the core" and was "as if written in Hell by the devil himself". The act attempts to expand voting rights, change campaign finance laws to reduce the influence of money in politics, limit partisan gerrymandering, and create new ethics rules for federal officeholders. It has been criticized by conservatives, including Lee, who believe its provisions improperly take power over elections away from state governments and give it to the federal government.
Lee has worked with Senator Amy Klobuchar to use antitrust laws against large technology companies like Facebook, Apple, and Amazon. Klobuchar said of collaborating with Lee:
We do find common ground on questions of policy, working out deals and contingencies we want to have. We get along quite well.
In 2017, Lee was one of 22 Republican senators to sign a letter to President Trump urging him to withdraw the U.S. from the Paris Agreement. According to OpenSecrets, Lee has received campaign contributions from oil and gas interests amounting to $231,520 and from coal interests in the amount of $21,895, for a total of $253,415 since 2012. At a May 2016 event, Lee rejected the overwhelming scientific consensus on climate change, calling it "little more than a cheap public-relations ploy" by the Democratic Party. Lee opposes a carbon tax to deal with climate change.
In 2018, Lee defended Jim Bridenstine's nomination to head NASA. Bridenstine's nomination was contentious, given that he rejected the scientific consensus on climate change and had no background in science. In defending Bridenstine, Lee falsely claimed that NASA disputed that there was a scientific consensus on climate change. Since his confirmation, Bridenstine has said that he agrees with the scientific consensus on human contributions to climate change.
On March 26, 2019, the Senate opened debate on the Green New Deal. When Lee took the floor, he called the plan absurd, comparing it to an image of Ronald Reagan riding a velociraptor, and argued that having more babies was the real solution. He also said that "the authors of the Green New Deal proposal are trying to suggest people should not have babies and I think that's atrocious". According to Deseret News, "The text of the resolution does not address population growth or suggest limiting the number of children people can have."
As part of the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations in 2018, Lee, Bernie Sanders, and Chris Murphy co-sponsored a resolution "that would end U.S. military support for the Saudi-led campaign in Yemen's civil war". Interviewed by The Hill, he said: "regardless of what may have happened with Mr. Khashoggi, we are fighting a war in Yemen that we haven't declared, that has never been declared or authorized by Congress. That's not constitutional." The Senate voted 60–39 to "formally begin debate on the resolution", which would require the President to "withdraw troops in or 'affecting' Yemen within 30 days unless they are fighting al Qaeda".
In April 2018, Lee was one of eight Republican senators to sign a letter to United States Secretary of the Treasury Steve Mnuchin and acting Secretary of State John Sullivan expressing "deep concern" over a United Nations report exposing "North Korean sanctions evasion involving Russia and China" and asserting that the findings "demonstrate an elaborate and alarming military-venture between rogue, tyrannical states to avoid United States and international sanctions and inflict terror and death upon thousands of innocent people" while calling it "imperative that the United States provides a swift and appropriate response to the continued use of chemical weapons used by President Assad and his forces, and works to address the shortcomings in sanctions enforcement". He criticized Trump for ordering the 2018 missile strikes against Syria in response to the Douma chemical attack, stating that he lacked the constitutional authority to do so without Congress's permission because the U.S. was not in imminent danger. Lee supported Trump's decision to withdraw American troops from Syria in December 2018, saying that American forces should not have been in the country anyway without Congressional authorization. He said that the Obama administration had not made clear American objectives in Syria surrounding Assad's future, and that he believed Trump's claim that the Islamic State had been defeated.
Lee has long been in favor of ending American involvement in Afghanistan. He signed a letter in 2011 urging Obama to withdraw troops from the country. In May 2017, he called into question a proposal from military leaders to send additional troops there, calling to mind previous times when more soldiers were sent to the country but which, according to Lee, failed to make a significant difference. Lee maintained that American involvement in the war has wasted thousands of lives and trillions of dollars. In April 2021, President Joe Biden announced plans to withdraw all remaining US troops from Afghanistan by September 11 of that year. At a virtual meeting later that month, Lee stated his support of Biden's plan.
In April 2019, after the House passed the resolution withdrawing American support for the Saudi-led coalition in Yemen, Lee was one of nine lawmakers to sign a letter to Trump requesting a meeting with him and urging him to sign "Senate Joint Resolution 7, which invokes the War Powers Act of 1973 to end unauthorized US military participation in the Saudi-led coalition's armed conflict against Yemen's Houthi forces, initiated in 2015 by the Obama administration." The group of Senators included Bernie Sanders, Rand Paul, and others. Trump was expected to veto the measure.
In June 2019, Lee was one of seven Republicans who voted to block Trump's Saudi arms deal providing weapons to Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Jordan.
Lee has been considered a strong supporter of Israel.
Lee has been a vocal critic of Japan's handling of the conviction and imprisonment of Lieutenant Ridge Alkonis, who is serving a three-year sentence in Japan for a May 2021 car crash that killed two Japanese citizens. In February 2023, Lee issued a 24-hour deadline on Twitter to Japanese Prime Minister Fumio Kishida to hand Alkonis over and threatened to cut off military aid to Japan over the incident. After the deadline passed, Lee took to the Senate floor to question the Status of Forces Agreement between the U.S. and Japan, which governs how military personnel stationed in Japan are treated under Japanese law. In March 2023, the Japanese Foreign Ministry lodged an official complaint against Lee through the U.S. government.
Lee was part of the group of 13 senators drafting the Senate version of the AHCA behind closed doors. He eventually came out against the bill, along with Senator Jerry Moran, bringing the "no" vote total among Republicans to four. This effectively stopped any chance of the bill's passage.
In February 2019, Lee was one of 16 senators to vote against[why?] legislation preventing a partial government shutdown and containing $1.375 billion in funding for barriers along the U.S.-Mexico border that included 55 miles of fencing. In that same month, he and Senator Kamala Harris removed the per-country cap on employment-based green cards and raised the cap on family-based green cards from 7% to 15%.
In March 2019, Lee was one of 12 Republican senators to vote to block Trump's national emergency declaration that would have granted him access to $3.6 billion in military construction funding to build border barriers.
In 2015, Lee condemned the Supreme Court's decision in Obergefell v. Hodges, which held that same-sex marriage bans violated the constitution.
In 2018, Lee condemned the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, which is part of the Organization of American States (OAS), for recommending that Costa Rica legalize same-sex marriage. The court's decision was spurred by a petition by Costa Rican President Luis Guillermo Solis, who was working on ways to improve LGBT rights in Costa Rica. Lee suggested that the U.S., a primary funder of the OAS, should use its money more wisely and do more to safeguard religious liberties worldwide.
In May 2019, Lee called the Equality Act "counterproductive" and argued it "unnecessarily pits communities against each other".
On November 29, 2022, Lee voted against the Respect for Marriage Act, which requires the U.S. federal government to recognize the validity of same-sex and interracial marriages in the United States. A member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Lee cast this vote despite his church's support for the legislation.
In February 2011, Lee was one of two Republicans to vote against extending the three provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act that deal with roving wiretaps, "lone wolf" terrorism suspects, and the government's ability to seize "any tangible items" in the course of surveillance. He voted in the same manner in May 2011.
In 2017, Lee voted in favor of a joint resolution providing for congressional disapproval (per chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code) of the rule submitted by the Federal Communications Commission relating to "Protecting the Privacy of Customers of Broadband and Other Telecommunications Services."
In April 2011, Lee and Senators Lindsey Graham and Rand Paul proposed a plan to reform the U.S. Social Security retirement payment system. Workers born after 1969 would have to wait until their 70th birthday to receive full Social Security benefits, rather than age 67 under current law. Furthermore, higher-income earners would receive smaller monthly checks under the plan.
In December 2020, Lee was the sole vote in the Senate against the ALS Disability Insurance Access Act of 2019, which eliminated the five-month waiting period for those with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis to receive Social Security benefits.
In September 2018, Lee was among six senators, including Jeff Flake, Pat Toomey, Rand Paul, David Perdue, Ben Sasse, and Bernie Sanders, to vote against a $854 billion spending bill that would avert another government shutdown. The bill included funding for the departments of Defense, Health and Human Services, Labor and Education.
In March 2019, Lee was one of 12 senators to cosponsor a resolution that would impose a constitutional amendment limiting the Supreme Court to nine justices. The resolution was introduced after multiple Democratic presidential candidates expressed openness to the idea of increasing the seats on the Supreme Court.
In September 2020, less than two months before that year's presidential election, Lee supported an immediate Senate vote to confirm Amy Coney Barrett to the Supreme Court, Trump's nominee to fill the Supreme Court vacancy caused by Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's death. In March 2016, eight months before the 2016 election, Lee took the opposite position, declining to consider Obama's Supreme Court nominee during a presidential election year, citing "the contentious presidential election already well underway".
In January 2018, Lee was one of 36 Republican senators to sign a letter to Trump requesting that he preserve the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) by modernizing it for the economy of the 21st century.
In November 2018, Lee was one of 12 Republican senators to sign a letter to Trump requesting the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (the replacement to NAFTA) be submitted to Congress by the end of that month to allow a vote on it before the end of the year as they were concerned "passage of the USMCA as negotiated will become significantly more difficult" if it had to be approved by the incoming 116th United States Congress.
Lee married Sharon Burr in 1993. They live in Alpine, Utah, and have three children. Lee is a second cousin to former Democratic U.S. Senators Mark Udall of Colorado and Tom Udall of New Mexico, as well as former Republican senator Gordon H. Smith of Oregon.
As a young adult, Lee served a two-year mission for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in the Texas Rio Grande Valley.
On October 2, 2020, Lee announced he had tested positive for COVID-19. A few days earlier, he had attended an event for Amy Coney Barrett at the White House where he interacted closely with a number of other people who tested positive for COVID-19. Lee did not wear a mask and video footage showed him hugging others at the event.
Lee has served on the BYU alumni board, the BYU Law School alumni board, and as a longtime member of the J. Reuben Clark Law Society and the Federalist Society for Law and Public Policy Studies. He earned the Eagle Scout award from Boy Scouts of America in 1989 and was selected to receive the National Eagle Scout Association Outstanding Eagle Scout Award (NOESA) in 2011.
|State Republican I Convention results, 2010|
|Candidate||First ballot||Pct.||Second ballot||Pct.||Third ballot||Pct.|
|Independent American||Stoney Fonua||27,340||2.45%||N/A|
|Republican||Mike Lee (incumbent)||571,974||53.15%||–15.00|
|Independent American||Tommy Williams||12,103||1.12%||–1.33|
Since his election to the Senate in 2010, Lee has published four books:
- The Freedom Agenda: Why a Balanced Budget Amendment is Necessary to Restore Constitutional Government (July 2011, Regnery Publishing)
- Why John Roberts Was Wrong About Healthcare: A Conservative Critique of The Supreme Court's Obamacare Ruling (June 2013, Threshold Editions e-book)
- Our Lost Constitution: The Willful Subversion of America's Founding Document (April 2015, Sentinel)
- Written Out of History: The Forgotten Founders Who Fought Big Government (May 2017, Sentinel)
- Lee-Hamblin family
- List of law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States (Seat 8)
- List of politicians affiliated with the Tea Party movement
- Utah Transfer of Public Lands Act
- ^ comparable to student body president in most colleges
- ^ "Annual Reports - United States Joint Economic Committee". www.jec.senate.gov. Retrieved 2021-03-26.
- ^ Rucker, Philip (February 5, 2011). "Sen. Mike Lee: A political insider refashions himself as tea party revolutionary". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 2, 2020.
- ^ Litvan, Laura (February 28, 2012). "Obama's Nominee Battle a One-Man Fight By Freshman Senator Lee". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
- ^ Callister, Laura Andersen (February 20, 1993). "Student Body Election Gives BYU Another President Lee". Deseret News. Retrieved October 2, 2020.
- ^ a b c d e "About Mike". lee.senate.gov. Office of Senator Mike Lee. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- ^ "New Members 2010 - Utah". The Hill. October 27, 2010.
- ^ Fahys, Judy (January 14, 2010). "Utah argues case to ban foreign nuke waste". The Salt Lake Tribune. Archived from the original on October 22, 2016. Retrieved December 17, 2014.
- ^ Vergakis, Brock (November 9, 2010). "Court: Compact can keep foreign nuke waste out". KSL. Retrieved December 17, 2014.
- ^ "Flat tax, term limits on agenda for Bennett challenger, Herald Extra".
- ^ a b Catanese, David (May 8, 2010). "Sen. Bennett loses GOP nomination". Politico. Capitol News Company. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
- ^ Gehrke, Robert (June 3, 2010). "Lee clinches GOP Senate nomination – Salt Lake Tribune". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved June 23, 2010.
- ^ "Utah Election results". Electionresults.utah.gov. Archived from the original on March 2, 2012. Retrieved March 7, 2014.
- ^ Raju, Manu (December 22, 2014). "Tea partier braces for primary challenge from the establishment". Politico. Retrieved February 3, 2015.
- ^ "GOP challenger says Sen. Mike Lee is 'no longer a credible voice' on term limits". Deseret News. 2022-02-10. Retrieved 2023-03-02.
- ^ Romboy, Dennis (September 22, 2022). "How tight is the Mike Lee-Evan McMullin race for Senate? New Utah poll has answers". Deseret News. Retrieved November 19, 2022.
- ^ Romboy, Dennis (July 21, 2022). "How close is the Senate race between Mike Lee and Evan McMullin in Utah? Here's the latest poll". Deseret News. Retrieved November 19, 2022.
- ^ "Utah U.S. Senate Election Results". The New York Times. 8 November 2022. Retrieved November 18, 2022.
- ^ "Club for Growth Scorecard". clubforgrowth.org. Club for Growth. Archived from the original on March 28, 2014. Retrieved March 7, 2014.
- ^ "2011 U.S. Senate Votes". conservative.org. American Conservative Union. Retrieved March 7, 2014.
- ^ "Scorecard". heritageaction.com. Heritage Action for America. March 26, 2019. Archived from the original on May 31, 2012.
- ^ "Senator Mike Lee of Utah: Profile, Legislative Scorecard, Contact Information, News and Campaign Contribution Data for the 112th Congress". That's My Congress!. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2014.
- ^ "Cruz lands first Senate endorsement: Mike Lee". Politico.
- ^ At several points during the 2016 primary, Trump publicly implied that Ted Cruz's father had consorted with Lee Harvey Oswald.
- ^ Wright, David (June 30, 2016). "Lee on lack of Trump endorsement: 'He accused my best friend's father of conspiring to kill JFK' | CNN Politics". CNN.
- ^ a b Shelbourne, Mallory (October 16, 2017). "Mike Lee endorses Roy Moore for Senate". The Hill. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
- ^ Chappell, Bill (September 30, 2016). "Roy Moore Is Suspended For Rest Of Term As Alabama's Chief Justice Over Same-Sex Marriage Stance". NPR. Retrieved January 3, 2018.
- ^ Lyman, Brian (April 26, 2017). "Roy Moore will seek U.S. Senate seat". Montgomery Advertiser. Retrieved January 3, 2018.
- ^ Biskupic, Joan (November 28, 2017). "Roy Moore's Alabama court ouster rooted in credibility questions". CNN. Retrieved January 3, 2018.
- ^ McCrummen, Stephanie; Crites, Alice; Reinhard, Beth (November 9, 2017). "Woman says Roy Moore initiated sexual encounter when she was 14, he was 32". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 3, 2018.
- ^ Sommer, Will (2017-11-10). "GOP senator asks to be taken off Moore fundraising appeals". The Hill. Retrieved 2017-11-10.
- ^ Burr, Thomas. "Hatch, Lee call on Alabama's Roy Moore to drop his Senate bid if underage sexual allegations are true". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved 2017-11-10.
- ^ Watson, Kathryn (November 9, 2017). "Senators begin rescinding support of Alabama candidate Roy Moore". CBS News. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
- ^ Riess, Jana. "Sen. Mike Lee is just one example. Latter-day Saint men still like Donald Trump". Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- ^ a b Romboy, Dennis (30 October 2020). "Sen. Mike Lee explains comparing Donald Trump to Capt. Moroni from Book of Mormon". Deseret News. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
- ^ Stauffer, McKenzie (30 October 2020). "Mike Lee issues statement after Captain Moroni-Donald Trump comparison". KUTV.com. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
- ^ a b c d e Broadwater, Luke (2022-04-15). "'Call Everyone Off': Texts to Meadows Trace Republicans' Alarm Before Jan. 6". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-04-16.
- ^ a b c Ryan Nobles; Annie Grayer; Zachary Cohen; Jamie Gangel (15 April 2022). "CNN Exclusive: 'We need ammo. We need fraud examples. We need it this weekend.' What the Meadows texts reveal about how two Trump congressional allies lobbied the White House to overturn the election". CNN. Retrieved 2022-04-16.
- ^ a b c "Lee worked hard to overturn election, keep Trump in power, texts show". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2022-04-16.
- ^ Solender, Andrew (2022-04-15). "Texts show how GOP lawmakers shifted on Trump's election conspiracies". Axios. Retrieved 2022-04-16.
- ^ Thrush, Glenn (2021-02-09). "Senator Mike Lee of Utah suggests Trump should get a 'mulligan' for Jan. 6 speech". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-02-09.
- ^ "Sen. Mike Lee says media twisted his words, and he didn't suggest a 'mulligan' for Trump". The Salt Lake Tribune.
- ^ Stevenson, Peter W.; Blanco, Adrian; Santamariña, Daniela (May 21, 2021). "Which senators supported a Jan. 6 Capitol riot commission". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 29, 2021.
- ^ Downie, James (17 April 2022). "Opinion: Will the media let Sen. Mike Lee go unquestioned?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
- ^ Parlapiano, Alicia; Andrews, Wilson; Lee, Jasmine C.; Shorey, Rachel (July 28, 2017). "How Each Senator Voted on Obamacare Repeal Proposals". The New York Times. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- ^ "Sen. Mike Lee". GovTrack. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- ^ Bycoffe, Aaron (January 30, 2017). "Tracking Congress In The Age Of Trump". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- ^ Miller, Chris (2015-02-20). "Poll: Sen. Mike Lee is "most ideologically extreme"". KUTV. Retrieved 2022-10-27.
- ^ "What do Mike Lee and Elizabeth Warren have in common? | Utah Data Points". Retrieved 2022-10-27.
- ^ a b Chiu, Allyson (July 18, 2019). "Jon Stewart accuses Rand Paul of 'fiscal responsibility virtue signaling' in stalling 9/11 victims funding". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
- ^ Goodkin, Nicole (July 18, 2019). "Two Republicans Blocked 9/11 Victims Funding Because They Say It Would Cost Too Much". Newsweek. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
- ^ Dagan, David (November 14, 2013). "Why Mike Lee is more serious about prison reform than Rand Paul". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
- ^ Daugherty, Owen (19 November 2018). "GOP senator accuses fellow Republican of spreading 'fake news' about criminal justice reform bill". The Hill. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
- ^ Mark, Michelle (November 16, 2018). "Trump's support of a major sentencing reform bill sparks rare moment of bipartisan hope — but advocates warn the bill has a long way to go". Business Insider. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
- ^ Burke, Caroline (November 15, 2018). "Everything You Need To Know About The Criminal Justice Reform Bill Trump's Backing". Bustle. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
- ^ Lartey, Jamiles (December 21, 2018), "Trump signs bipartisan criminal justice overhaul First Step Act into law", The Guardian, retrieved October 3, 2020.
- ^ D'Angelo, Chris; Mathias, Christopher (2020-10-15). "We Need To Talk About Sen. Mike Lee's Far-Right Pocket Constitution". HuffPost. Retrieved 2022-06-23.
- ^ Burns, David (30 October 2020). "Why is Mike Lee afraid of democracy?". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved 2022-06-23.
- ^ Beauchamp, Zack (8 October 2020). "Sen. Mike Lee's tweets against "democracy," explained". Vox. Vox news. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
- ^ Haltiwanger, John. "GOP senator said 'rank democracy' is bad for America at a time when Trump is behaving like an authoritarian". Business Insider. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
- ^ a b "Mike Lee says 'For the People' voting bill is 'as if written in hell by the devil himself'". The Hill. March 10, 2021.
- ^ "Sen. Mike Lee says 'devil himself' wrote Democrats' election reform plan". Deseret News. 2021-03-10. Retrieved 2021-03-12.
- ^ Overby, Peter (January 5, 2019). "House Democrats Introduce Anti-Corruption Bill As Symbolic 1st Act". National Public Radio. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
- ^ "With Control of Congress, Democrats Aim To Address Voting Rights". Weekend Edition Sunday. NPR. January 24, 2017.
- ^ "'For the People Act' proclaims democracy, but usurps democratic choices". March 9, 2021.
- ^ "Unlikely Senate alliance of Amy Klobuchar, Mike Lee paints a bull's-eye on Big Tech". Seattle Times. May 16, 2021. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- ^ "Senators Send Letter to President Trump Calling for Withdrawal Withdrawal from Paris Climate Agreement". epw.senate.gov. United States Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works. May 25, 2017. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
- ^ "Sen. Mike Lee: President Trump put people before Paris agreement". PBS NewsHour. June 1, 2017. Retrieved April 7, 2019.
- ^ McCarthy, Tom; Gambino, Lauren (June 1, 2017). "The Republicans who urged Trump to pull out of Paris deal are big oil darlings". The Guardian. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- ^ "Updates From Senator Lee's Office". Sentinel News. May 31, 2016. Retrieved October 2, 2016.
- ^ Rampell, Catherine (November 26, 2018). "Republicans say they want free-market innovation. Then they should want a carbon tax". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
- ^ Atkin, Emily (November 1, 2017). "Republican senator: NASA disputes climate consensus. NASA: No we don't". The New Republic. Retrieved April 7, 2019.
- ^ Koren, Marina (May 17, 2018). "Trump's NASA Chief: 'I Fully Believe and Know the Climate Is Changing'". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on May 18, 2018. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
- ^ Burr, Thomas (March 26, 2019). "Sen. Mike Lee criticizes the Green New Deal with poster of Ronald Reagan riding a dinosaur and firing a machine gun". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- ^ Nguyen, Tina (March 27, 2019). "'Don't Kill It Too Badly': Republicans Weigh the Optics of Icing A.O.C." Vanity Fair. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
- ^ "Remarks on the Green New Deal", Senator Mike Lee, 2019-03-26, archived from the original on 2021-12-20, retrieved 2019-04-01
- ^ Hoeven, Emily (March 27, 2019). "Twitter reacts to Sen. Mike Lee's Green New Deal speech". Deseret News. Retrieved April 7, 2019.
- ^ Kheel, Rebecca; Carney, Jordain (November 28, 2018). "Senate advances Yemen resolution in rebuke to Trump". The Hill. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
- ^ Carney, Jordain (December 12, 2018). "Senate moves toward vote on ending support for Saudi-led war". The Hill. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
- ^ Mitchell, Ellen (April 13, 2018). "Key senators warn Trump of North Korea effort on Syria". The Hill. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
- ^ Romboy, Dennis (April 16, 2018). "Sen. Mike Lee questions president's authority to attack Syria". Deseret News. Retrieved May 17, 2020.
- ^ Hains, Tim (December 20, 2018). "Sen. Mike Lee on Syria Withdrawal: By Definition, This Is The Opposite Of An Obama-Like Decision". RealClearPolitics. Retrieved July 17, 2019.
- ^ Greenwood, Max (May 13, 2017). "GOP senator presses Trump on Afghanistan policy". The Hill. Retrieved February 13, 2020.
- ^ Romboy, Dennis (February 12, 2020). "Sen. Mike Lee on prolonged Afghanistan War: 'Let's end it'". Deseret News. Retrieved February 13, 2020.
- ^ "Biden to withdraw U.S. forces from Afghanistan by Sept. 11, 2021". Washington Post.
- ^ "Sen. Mike Lee, Rep. Chris Stewart hold virtual town hall". KSTU. April 22, 2021.
- ^ Haitiwanger, John (April 6, 2019). "Bernie Sanders, Rand Paul, Ro Khanna, and a bipartisan group of lawmakers sent a letter to Trump imploring him to end US support for Saudi Arabia in Yemen". Business Insider. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
- ^ Carney, Jordain (June 20, 2019). "Senate votes to block Trump's Saudi arms sale". The Hill. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
- ^ Keinon, Herb (December 17, 2010). "Netanyahu meets with Tea Party 'darling' Mike Lee". TJerusalem Post.
- ^ "Senator issues ultimatum to Japan's prime minister for return of imprisoned Navy officer". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 2023-03-12.
- ^ Hagstrom, Anders (2023-03-01). "Sen. Mike Lee demands release of US Navy vet imprisoned in Japan, threatens consequences". Fox News. Retrieved 2023-03-12.
- ^ Swift, Jim (2023-02-06). "Mike Lee's Reckless, Feckless Deadline for Japan". The Bulwark. Retrieved 2023-03-12.
- ^ "Japan complains to US over Utah senator's remarks on imprisoned Navy officer". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 2023-03-12.
- ^ Bash, Dana; Fox, Lauren; Barrett, Ted (May 9, 2017). "GOP defends having no women in health care group". CNN. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- ^ "Sen. Mike Lee to Vote No on Senate Health Bill". lee.senate.gov. Office of Senator Mike Lee. July 17, 2017. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
- ^ Lee, MJ; Mattingly, Phil; Barrett, Ted (July 18, 2017). "Latest health care bill collapses". CNN. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
- ^ Carney, Jordain (February 14, 2019). "Senate approves border bill that prevents shutdown". The Hill. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
- ^ Boehm, Eric (February 8, 2019). "Mike Lee Teams Up With Kamala Harris to Scrap Green Card Caps". Reason. Retrieved March 21, 2019.
- ^ Bolton, Alexander (March 14, 2019). "12 Republican senators defy Trump on emergency declaration". The Hill. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
- ^ "The Voter's Self Defense System". Vote Smart. Retrieved 2022-04-12.
- ^ Romboy, Dennis (January 17, 2018). "Sen. Mike Lee questions international court opinion favoring gay marriage in Costa Rica". Deseret News. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
- ^ O'Connor, Lydia (May 17, 2019). "GOP Senator Calls Equality Act For LGBTQ Rights 'Counterproductive'". HuffPost. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
- ^ "Senate passes Respect for Marriage Act; Utah Sens. Lee, Romney divided in vote". MSN. Retrieved 2022-11-30.
- ^ "Same-sex marriage act passed by Senate, Mike Lee and Mitt Romney split their vote". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved 2022-12-01.
- ^ Sonmez, Felicia (February 5, 2011). "Senate passes short-term extension of Patriot Act provisions". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 17, 2010.
- ^ "Senate Vote 84 – To Extend Provisions of the Patriot Act". The New York Times. May 26, 2011. Archived from the original on December 17, 2014. Retrieved December 17, 2014.
- ^ "S.J.Res.34 - A joint resolution providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of the rule submitted by the Federal Communications Commission relating to "Protecting the Privacy of Customers of Broadband and Other Telecommunications Services"". Congress.gov. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
- ^ Canham, Matt (April 13, 2011). "Lee unveils Social Security reform plan". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- ^ "Lee, others: raise social security age to 70". The Spectrum. April 13, 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011.[dead link]
- ^ Viviane Vo-Duc (April 14, 2011). "Sens. Lee, Paul and Graham: We can fix Social Security without raising taxes". Deseret News. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- ^ "U.S. Senate: U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 116th Congress - 2nd Session". www.senate.gov. Retrieved 2021-12-08.
- ^ Carney, Jordain; Elis, Niv (September 18, 2018). "Senate approves $854B spending bill". The Hill. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
- ^ Carney, Jordain (March 25, 2019). "Senate GOP proposes constitutional amendment to keep SCOTUS at 9 seats". The Hill. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
- ^ Desjardins, Lisa (September 22, 2020). "What every Republican senator has said about filling a Supreme Court vacancy in an election year". PBS NewsHour. Retrieved September 27, 2020.
- ^ Needham, Vicki (January 30, 2018). "Senate Republicans call on Trump to preserve NAFTA". The Hill. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
- ^ Everett, Burgess (November 21, 2018). "GOP senators seek quick passage of Mexico-Canada trade deal". Politico. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
- ^ Lee Davidson (October 24, 2010). "Senate race: Mike Lee ready to ride Senate roller coaster". The Salt Lake Tribune. Archived from the original on September 15, 2013. Retrieved January 25, 2011.
- ^ Schroeder, Robert (October 2, 2020). "Utah Sen. Mike Lee tests positive for coronavirus". MarketWatch. Retrieved October 4, 2020.
- ^ Fandos, Nicholas; Edmondson, Catie (October 2, 2020). "Senators Thom Tillis and Mike Lee test positive for the virus". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
- ^ "Eagles Nest NOESA". NESA Outstanding Eagle Scout Award. Boy Scouts of America, Utah National Parks Council. Archived from the original on 4 September 2011. Retrieved 6 September 2011.
- ^ "Senate Race: 1st Round Results". blog.utgop.org. Archived from the original on May 11, 2010. Retrieved April 16, 2018. Accessed May 10, 2010
- ^ "Senate Race: 2nd Round Results". blog.utgop.org. Archived from the original on May 10, 2010. Retrieved April 16, 2018. Accessed May 10, 2010
- ^ "Senate Race: 3rd Round Results". blog.utgop.org. Archived from the original on May 12, 2010. Retrieved April 16, 2018. Accessed May 10, 2010
- ^ "Utah Election Results". Archived from the original on June 17, 2010.[dead link]
- ^ "Election results". elections.utah.gov. Archived from the original on 2010-11-23. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
- ^ "Utah Election Official Results" (PDF). Utah Secretary of State. Retrieved December 28, 2016.
- ^ "Utah Election Preliminary Results". electionresults.utah.gov. Retrieved November 29, 2022.
- Senator Mike Lee official government website
- Mike Lee for Senate official campaign website
- Mike Lee at Curlie
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Legislation sponsored at the Library of Congress
- Profile at Vote Smart
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Mike Lee on Inflation, the Supreme Court, and the Housing Crisis
- 1971 births
- Living people
- 20th-century Mormon missionaries
- 20th-century American lawyers
- 21st-century American lawyers
- 21st-century American politicians
- American Mormon missionaries in the United States
- Assistant United States Attorneys
- Federalist Society members
- J. Reuben Clark Law School alumni
- Latter Day Saints from Arizona
- Latter Day Saints from Virginia
- Latter Day Saints from Utah
- Law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States
- Lawyers from Washington, D.C.
- People from Alpine, Utah
- People from McLean, Virginia
- Politicians from Mesa, Arizona
- Politicians from Provo, Utah
- Republican Party United States senators from Utah
- Tea Party movement activists
- Udall family
- Utah lawyers
- Utah Republicans