first United States Vice Consul in Damascus in 1859
|Born||March 20, 1800
Rashmayyā, Ottoman Syria
|Died||July 19, 1888
Damascus, Ottoman Syria
|Known for||diplomat, physician, historian, musical theorist, businessman, first vice-consul of USA in Damascus in 1859-1870|
Mikhail Mishaqa or Michael Mishaka (1800–1888; Arabic: ميخائيل مشاقة), also known as Doctor Mishaqa, was born in Rashmayyā, Lebanon, and is reputed to be "the first historian of modern Ottoman Syria" as well as the "virtual founder of the twenty-four equal quarter tone scale". Mishaqa's memoir of the 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war is valuable to historians, as it is the only account written by a survivor of the massacre of Syrian Christians in Damascus, Syria.
Mikhail's great-grandfather, Jirjis Mishaqa I, converted to Greek Catholicism. Jirjis' father, Youssef Petraki, an ethnic Greek and Christian Orthodox, moved from Corfu, Greece to Tripoli, Lebanon to pursue the silk trade. As such, Petraki, named himself after an Arabic term describing the process of filtering silk fibers, mishaqa (مشقة). Mikhail's father, Jirjis Mishaqa II, moved to Deir al-Qamar, then controlled by the Shihabs, to escape the religious repression of al-Jazzar, the governor of Sidon. He began a career as a goldsmith but became a scribe and then chief treasurer for the Amir of Mount Lebanon, Bashir II's household. According to Leila Fawaz, Mikhail was well-educated; At the first opportunity he showed of his knowledge and the ignorance of the offender. In such ways, Mishaqa continued to educate himself. He taught himself medicine and became a doctor; in 1859 he was appointed vice-consul of the United States in Damascus.
In 1848, Dr. Mishaqa converted from Greek Catholicism to Protestantism, after coming in contact with American Protestant missionaries.
According to Touma, Mishaqa was the first theorist to propose[when?] a division of the octave into roughly twenty-four equal intervals (24-tone equal temperament, quarter tone scale, Play (help·info)), this being the current basis of the Arab tone system. However, Mishaqa's work Essay on the Art of Music for the Emir Shihāb (الرسالة الشهابية في الصناعة الموسيقية, al-Risāla al-shihābiyya fī 'l-ṣinā‘a al-mūsīqiyya) (c. 1840) is devoted to the topic but also makes clear his teacher Sheikh Muhammad al-‘Attār (1764–1828) was one of many already familiar with the concept, although al-‘Attār did not publish his writings on the subject.
Mishaqa's most important works as a historian include the much quoted A Response to a Proposition by Beloved Ones (الجواب على إقتراح الأحباب, al-Jawāb `alā Iqtirāḥ al-Aḥbāb) (1873) and, possibly, Miha’il Dimashqi's highly similar History of events which took place in Syria on its coast and the Mount in 1782-1841 (ـاريـخ حـوادث جـرت بـالـشـام و سـواحـل بـر الـشـام و الـجـبـل، 1782-1841 م Ta’rih Hawadit Jarat bil-Sham wa-Sawahil Barr al-Sham wa-l-Jabal, 1782-1841 m) (1843).
- Also transliterated as Mīkhāʾīl Mishāqā, Mikhāʾīl Mishāqah, Mīḫā’īl Mišāqa, Mīḫāyīl Mišāqa, Mikha'il Mishaqah, Miha’İl Mishaqa, Mikhail Meshaka, Mikhail Meshaqa, Mīkhā’īl Mushāqa, Mikhāʾīl Mushāka, Mīkhāʾil Mashāqah, Mīkhāʾīl Mashāka.
- Zachs (2001).
- Maalouf (2003).
- Keenan, Brigid (2001). Damascus Hidden Treasures of the Old City (First ed.). 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York, 10110: Thames & Hudson. p. 162. ISBN 0-500-28299-4.
- Zachs (2005).
- Fawaz, Leila Tarazi (1994). An Occasion for War: Civil Conflict in Lebanon and Damascus in 1860. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press. p. 39. ISBN 0-520-20086-1. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- Touma (1996), p. 19.
- Habib Hassan Touma (1996). The Music of the Arabs, trans. Laurie Schwartz. Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press. ISBN 0-931340-88-8.
- Maalouf, Shireen (2003). "Mikhā'il Mishāqa: Virtual Founder of the Twenty-Four Equal Quartertone Scale", Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 123, No. 4. (October–December 2003), pp. 835–40.
- Zachs, Fruma (2001). "Mikhail Mishaqa - The First Historian of Modern Syria", British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 28, No. 1 (May 2001), pp. 67–87.
- (2005). "Miha'il Mishaqa", Historians of the Ottoman Empire (ottomanhistorians.com).