Mile End

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Mile End
Mile end green bridge 1.jpg
The Green Bridge carries Mile End Park over the A11 Mile End Road
Mile End is located in Greater London
Mile End
Mile End
Location within Greater London
OS grid referenceTQ365825
• Charing Cross3.6 mi (5.8 km) WSW
London borough
Ceremonial countyGreater London
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townLONDON
Postcode districtE1, E3
Dialling code020
PoliceMetropolitan
FireLondon
AmbulanceLondon
EU ParliamentLondon
UK Parliament
London Assembly
List of places
UK
England
London
51°31′29″N 0°01′53″W / 51.5248°N 0.0314°W / 51.5248; -0.0314Coordinates: 51°31′29″N 0°01′53″W / 51.5248°N 0.0314°W / 51.5248; -0.0314

Mile End is a district in the East End of London, England, 3.6 miles (5.8 km) east-northeast of Charing Cross. On the London to Colchester road, it was one of the earliest suburbs of the City of London and became part of the metropolitan area of London in 1855. It was also known as Mile End Old Town, the name provided a geographical distinction to the unconnected former hamlet called Mile End New Town. In 2011, Mile End had a population of 28,544.[1]

History[edit]

Toponymy[edit]

Mile End is recorded in 1288 as La Mile ende.[2] It is formed from the Middle English 'mile' and 'ende' and means 'the hamlet a mile away'. The mile distance was in relation to Aldgate in the City of London, reached by the London to Colchester road.[2] In around 1691 Mile End became known as Mile End Old Town because a new unconnected settlement to the west and adjacent to Spitalfields had taken the name Mile End New Town.[2] This data combines the ethnicity data for Mile End's two wards (Mile End And Globe Town and Mile End East). [3][4]

Mile End Compared 2011 White British Asian Black
Mile End Population 28,544 29.3% 44.8% 8.5%
London Borough of Tower Hamlets 31.2% 41.2% 7.3%

Beginnings[edit]

Whilst there are many references to settlements in the area, excavations have suggested there were very few buildings before 1300.

Mile End Road is an ancient route from London to the East. It was moved to its present-day alignment after the foundation of Bow Bridge in 1110. In the medieval period, it was known as ‘Aldgatestrete’, as it led to the eastern entrance to the City of London at Aldgate. The area running alongside Mile End Road was known as Mile End Green, and became known as a place of assembly for Londoners, as reflected in the name of Assembly Passage.

For most of the medieval period, this road was surrounded by open fields on either side. Speculative developments existed by the end of the 16th century and continued throughout the 18th century. It developed as an area of working and lower-class housing, often occupied by immigrants and migrants new to the city.

The Stepney Green Conservation Area was designated in January 1973, covering the area previously known as Mile End Old Town. It is a large Conservation Area with an irregular shape that encloses buildings around Mile End Road, Assembly Passage, Louisa Street and Stepney Green itself. It is an area of exceptional architectural and historic interest, with a character and appearance worthy of protection and enhancement. It is situated just north of the medieval village of Stepney, which was clustered around St. Dunstan’s Church.[5]

Peasants' Revolt[edit]

In 1381, an uprising against the tax collectors of Brentwood quickly spread first to the surrounding villages, then throughout the South-East of England, but it was the rebels of Essex, led by a priest named Jack Straw, and the men of Kent, led by Wat Tyler, who marched on London. On 12 June, the Essex rebels, comprising 100,000 men, camped at Mile End and on the following day the men of Kent arrived at Blackheath. On 14 June, the young king Richard II rode to Mile End where he met the rebels and signed their charter. The king subsequently had the leaders and many rebels executed.[6]

Expansion[edit]

The New Globe pub opened next to the new Globe Bridge in 1820, with it licence possibly transferring from a nearby pub called the Cherry Tree which closed at around this time.[7]

What is now Mile End Hospital was established as the infirmary for the local workhouse in 1859.[8] A training school for nurses was added in 1892.[8] The facility was rebuilt as the Mile End Old Town Infirmary in 1883 and then served as a military hospital during First World War.[8] It was renamed Mile End Hospital in 1930, and it joined the National Health Service in 1948.[8]

Mile End tube station opened in 1902 by the Whitechapel & Bow Railway (W&BR). Electrified services started in 1905. The first services were provided by the District Railway (now the District line); the Metropolitan line followed in 1936 (In 1988 this section of the Metropolitan was renamed the Hammersmith & City line). In 1946 the station was expanded and rebuilt by the Chief Architect of London Underground, Stanley Heaps and his assistant Thomas Bilbow, as part of the Central line eastern extension, with services starting on 4 December 1946. Following nationalisation of the joint venture owners of the W&BR, full ownership of the station passed to London Underground in 1950.[9]

Designed by Frederick Arthur Walters, the The Guardian Angels Church was opened in 1903 and paid for by Henry Fitzalan-Howard, 15th Duke of Norfolk as a memorial to his youngest sister, Lady Margaret Howard, who had performed charitable work in the East End.[10]

Second World War[edit]

V-1 plaque on Grove Road railway bridge (January 2006)

Besides suffering heavily in earlier blitzes, Mile End was hit by the first V-1 flying bomb to strike London. On 13 June 1944, this 'doodlebug' impacted next to the railway bridge on Grove Road, an event now commemorated by a plaque. Eight civilians were killed, 30 injured and 200 made homeless by the blast.[11]

Reconstruction[edit]

A part of Mile End remained mostly derelict for many years after the Second World War, until it was all cleared to extend Mile End Park.[12]

Contemporary[edit]

The Green Bridge adjacent to Mile End tube station in 2004

Mile End Hospital became the Royal London Hospital (Mile End) in 1990 but reverted to being called Mile End Hospital in 1994 and was taken under the management of Barts Health NHS Trust in 2012.[13] In the same year, Ragged School Museum opened in the premises of the former site of the Copperfield Road Ragged School.[14] In the same year, the Bancroft Unit for the Care of the Elderly opened at Mile End Hospital in June 1990, having moved from Bethnal Green.[15]

During 17 June 1995, the Mile End Stadium hosted a gig by Britpop band Blur, where 27,000 fans saw the band supported by The Boo Radleys, Sparks, John Shuttleworth, Dodgy and The Cardiacs.[16]

A grand breaking project funded by the Millennium Commission called the Green Bridge, a pedestrian and cyclist separation structure which was built over the A11 Mile End Road, opened in 2000, connecting two halves of Mile End Park to form a linear park and included new retail frontages.[17]

The St Clement's Hospital site (shared with Bow) was closed in 2005, with services transferred to a new Adult Mental Health Facility at Mile End Hospital in October 2005.[18]

In May 2007 during building work, a live World War II bomb weighing 200 kg was found north of Mile End station near Grove and Roman Roads. Approximately 100 local residents were evacuated and stayed with friends and family or the Mile End Leisure Centre until the bomb could be deactivated and removed.[19]

The Night Tube began service at Mile End tube station on the Central line on 19 August 2016.[20]

The Palm Tree, which was Grade II listed in 2015 by Historic England.[21] It was a popular pub within Mile End Park but was closed in 2018 and was put up for sale.[22] It has since reopened.[23]

Governance[edit]

A map showing the civil parish boundaries in 1870.
A map showing the Mile End Old Town wards of Stepney Metropolitan Borough as they appeared in 1916.

Mile End formed a hamlet within the large ancient parish of Stepney, in the Tower division of the Ossulstone hundred of Middlesex. It was grouped into the Stepney poor law union in 1836, becoming a single parish for poor law purposes in 1857. It formed part of the Metropolitan Police District from 1830. Upon the creation of the Metropolitan Board of Works in 1855 the vestry of Mile End Old Town became an electing authority. The vestry hall was located on Bancroft Road. The parish became part of the County of London in 1889 and in 1900 it became part of the Metropolitan Borough of Stepney. In 1965 Stepney was incorporated into the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. There was a Mile End Parliament constituency from 1885 to 1950 which was notable for being one of two constituencies in the UK to elect a Communist Party MP Phil Piratin to the House of Commons between 1945 and 1950. At that time, it had a large Jewish population. The area now is covered by the Bethnal Green and Bow and Poplar and Limehouse constituencies.

Mile End as a parliamentary constituency had a reputation as a Labour Party stronghold, but also sent Communist Member of Parliament (MP) Phil Piratin to the House of Commons between 1945 and 1950. At that time, it had a large Jewish population. The area now is covered by the Bethnal Green and Bow and Poplar and Limehouse constituencies

Politics[edit]

Mile End (3) 2018 Election Result[24]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Asma Islam 2,646
Labour David Edgar 2,515
Labour Puru Miah 2,052
PATH Shah Alam 1,142
Aspire Helal Miah 941
Aspire Joynul Bashar 870
Aspire Mustak Syed 757
PATH Mohammad Obeaidur 539
Green Ciaran Cusack 482
Conservative Gracie Browning 408
Green Aaron Parr 381
Liberal Democrat Jonathan Fryer 359
Conservative Carlos de Freitas 338
Liberal Democrat Tabitha Potts 323
Liberal Democrat Richard MacMillan 315
Conservative Nick Millward 282
PATH Mohammad Rahman 178
Rejected ballots 57
Turnout 40.79
Registered electors 13,036
Labour hold Swing
Labour hold Swing
Labour hold Swing

Geography[edit]

Mile End is in a part of London known as the East End and boasts an unusual landmark, the "Green Bridge" (known affectionately as the banana bridge, due to its yellow underside). This structure (designed by CZWG Architects, and opened in 2000) allows Mile End Park to cross over the Mile End Road and makes an interesting contrast with the more usual approach of building bridges for cars. It contains garden and water features and some shops and restaurant space built in below.

Ackroyd Drive Greenlink, Tower Hamlets Cemetery Park and Mile End Park form a large green corridor.[25][26] The Greenlink is a linear site bisected by roads into five rectangular plots. From the south these are Cowslip Meadow, allotments, Blackberry Meadow, Peartree Meadow and Primrose Meadow.[27]


Sport and leisure[edit]

Mile End has a Non-League football club Sporting Bengal United F.C. who play at Mile End Stadium.

Media[edit]

The neighbourhood was immortalised (humorously but unfavourably) in the pop band Pulp's song, "Mile End," which was featured on the Trainspotting soundtrack. The song describes a group of squatters taking up residence in an abandoned 15th-floor apartment in a run-down apartment tower.

In 2009, the music video for "Confusion Girl" by electropop musician Frankmusik was filmed in Mile End Park and Clinton Road, Mile End.[28]

In 2011, the music video for "Heart Skips a Beat" by Olly Murs and Rizzle Kicks was filmed in Mile End's skate park.

The artistic director of the 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony, Danny Boyle, lives in Mile End. Boyle is also the director of Trainspotting.

Transport[edit]

Rail[edit]

Mile End tube station is on the London Underground Central, District and Hammersmith & City lines, all of which connect Mile End directly to the East End, City of London and Central London. The Central line also links the area directly to Stratford and Essex in the east and London's West End.

Bow Road tube station on the District and Hammersmith & City lines is also nearby.

Both stations are in London fare zone 2.[29][30]

Buses[edit]

There are bus stops on Mile End Road, Burdett Road and Grove Road.

London Bus routes 25, 205, 277, 309, 323, 339, 425, D6, D7, N25, N205 and N277 stop in the area.

Buses link Mile End directly to destinations across London, including Canary Wharf, the City of London, King's Cross, Paddington and Stratford.[31][32]

Road[edit]

The A11 (Mile End Road) passes east-west through Mile End, linking the locale to Aldgate in the west and Stratford in the east. At Stratford, the road meets the A12 where eastbound traffic can continue towards Ilford, the M11 (for Stansted Airport) and destinations in Essex.

The A1205 (Grove Road/Burdett Road) carries traffic northbound towards Victoria Park and Hackney. The road terminates to the south at the A13 near Limehouse and Canary Wharf.

Air Pollution[edit]

The London Borough of Tower Hamlets monitors roadside air quality in Mile End. In 2017, average Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) levels in the locale failed to meet the UK National Air Quality Objective of 40μg/m3 (micrograms per cubic metre).[33]

An automatic monitoring site in Mile End recorded a 2017 annual average of 48μg/m3. Alternative monitoring sites on Mile End Road also failed to meet air quality objectives. A site at the junction with Globe Road in nearby Stepney recorded 52μg/m3 as a 2017 average, whilst a site at the junction with Harford Street recorded 41μg/m3.[33]

Exposure to higher concentrations of NO2 has been linked to lung disease and respiratory problems.[34]

Cycling[edit]

Mile End is on London-wide and National and international cycle networks. Public cycling infrastructure in the locale is provided by both Transport for London (TfL) and the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Routes include:

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mile End – Hidden London". hidden-london.com.
  2. ^ a b c Mills, D. (2000). Oxford Dictionary of London Place Names. Oxford.
  3. ^ Good Stuff IT Services. "Mile End and Globe Town". UK Census Data.
  4. ^ Good Stuff IT Services. "Mile End East". UK Census Data.
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ R. B. Dobson, editor, (2002), The Peasants' Revolt of 1381 (History in Depth) ISBN 0-333-25505-4; a collection of source materials
    • Alastair Dunn (2002), The Great Rising of 1381: The Peasant's Revolt and England's Failed Revolution, ISBN 0-7524-2323-1
  7. ^ "New Globe, 359 Mile End Road, Mile End E3". pubshistory.com. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  8. ^ a b c d "Mile End Hospital". Lost hospitals of London. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  9. ^ "Transport Act, 1947" (PDF). The London Gazette. 27 January 1950. p. 480. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 July 2013.
  10. ^ Mile End: The Guardian Angels, Taking Stock: Catholic Churches in England and Wales, accessed 11 February 2017
  11. ^ Second World War memories (BBC) accessed 27 March 2007
  12. ^ Best and worst of art bites the dust Archived 6 June 2014 at the Wayback Machine Roberts, Alison The Times, London, 12 January 1994 accessed 5 October
  13. ^ Meriel Clunas. "Mile End Hospital - Our history". Bartshealth.nhs.uk. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  14. ^ http://www.timeout.com/london/museums/ragged-school-museum
  15. ^ https://www.bartshealth.nhs.uk/mile-end-our-history
  16. ^ "Blur live at Mile End Stadium, 1995". Veikko's Blur Page. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  17. ^ http://www.czwg.com/works/green-bridge
  18. ^ "Hospitals". Derelict London.
  19. ^ https://art.tfl.gov.uk/labyrinth/artwork/mile-end/
  20. ^ "Over 50,000 journeys completed on London's first Night Tube services". Transport for London. 20 August 2016. Retrieved 28 December 2016.
  21. ^ Historic England. "The Palm Tree public house, Mile End (1427142)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  22. ^ http://www.barryoneoff.co.uk/mlend.html
  23. ^ https://www.tripadvisor.co.uk/Attraction_Review-g186338-d8569444-Reviews-The_Palm_Tree_Pub-London_England.html
  24. ^ "Election results for Mile End, 3 May 2018". Tower Hamlets Council. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  25. ^ "Ackroyd Drive Greenlink". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. 13 July 2013. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  26. ^ "Map of Ackroyd Drive Greenlink". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  27. ^ Noticeboard on the site
  28. ^ "Frankmusik – Confusion Girl". capitalfm.com.
  29. ^ "London's Rail & Tube services" (PDF). Transport for London (TfL). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2019.
  30. ^ "Night Tube and London Overground map" (PDF). Transport for London (TfL). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2019.
  31. ^ "Buses from Mile End" (PDF). Transport for London (TfL). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2019.
  32. ^ "Buses from Mile End Stadium and Burdett Road" (PDF). Transport for London (TfL). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2019.
  33. ^ a b "London Borough of Tower Hamlets Air Quality Annual Status Report for 2017" (PDF). London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2019.
  34. ^ "Nitrogen Dioxide" (PDF). World Health Organisation (WHO). p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 April 2018.
  35. ^ "Route 1". Sustrans. Archived from the original on 14 April 2019.
  36. ^ "CS2 Stratford to Aldgate" (PDF). Transport for London (TfL). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 April 2019.
  37. ^ "Cycle Superhighway 2 upgrade". Transport for London. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
  38. ^ "Cycling and walking improvements between Hackney and the Isle of Dogs". Transport for London (TfL). Archived from the original on 15 May 2019.
  39. ^ "EuroVelo 2". EuroVelo.
  40. ^ "EuroVelo 2: United Kingdom". EuroVelo.
  41. ^ "Cycling". Canal & River Trust. Archived from the original on 7 April 2019.
  42. ^ "Regent's Canal". Canal & River Trust. Archived from the original on 6 April 2019.
  43. ^ Dalby, Richard (1991), The Golden Age of Children's Book Illustration, Gallery Books, pp. 132–3, ISBN 0-8317-3910-X
  44. ^ "Almost 4,000 people may have been denied vote by election ID pilots". The Guardian. 3 May 2018. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  45. ^ "About". Rokhsana Fiaz. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  46. ^ "Cherries: We're stronger than ever says Tindall". Bournemouth Echo. 16 October 2012.

Bibliography[edit]

  • William J. Fishman, East End 1888: Life in a London Borough Among the Laboring Poor (1989)
  • William J. Fishman, Streets of East London (1992) (with photographs by Nicholas Breach)
  • William J. Fishman, East End Jewish Radicals 1875–1914 (2004)
  • Nigel Glendinning, Joan Griffiths, Jim Hardiman, Christopher Lloyd and Victoria Poland Changing Places: a short history of the Mile End Old Town RA area (Mile End Old Town Residents’ Association, 2001)
  • Derek Morris Mile End Old Town 1740–1780: A social history of an early modern London Suburb (East London History Society, 2007) ISBN 978-0-9506258-6-7
  • Alan Palmer The East End (John Murray, London 1989)
  • Watson, Isobel (1995). "From West Heath to Stepney Green: Building development in Mile End Old Town, 1660–1820". London Topographical Record. XXVII. London Topographical Society. pp. 231–256.