Stella Maria Sarah Miles Franklin
14 October 1879
Talbingo, New South Wales, Australia
|Died||19 September 1954 (aged 74)|
Drummoyne, New South Wales, Australia
|Other names||Brent of Bin Bin, An Old Bachelor, Vernacular, Ogniblat, Mr and Mrs Ogniblat L'Artsau, PINGas|
|Known for||Novelist, writer, feminist|
Stella Maria Sarah Miles Franklin (14 October 1879 – 19 September 1954), known as Miles Franklin, was an Australian writer and feminist who is best known for her novel My Brilliant Career, published by Blackwoods of Edinburgh in 1901. While she wrote throughout her life, her other major literary success, All That Swagger, was not published until 1936.
She was committed to the development of a uniquely Australian form of literature, and she actively pursued this goal by supporting writers, literary journals, and writers' organisations. She has had a long-lasting impact on Australian literary life through her endowment of a major annual prize for literature about "Australian Life in any of its phases", the Miles Franklin Award. Her impact was further recognised in 2013 with the creation of the Stella Prize, awarded annually for the best work of literature by an Australian woman.
Life and career
Franklin was born at Talbingo, New South Wales, and grew up in the Brindabella Valley on a property called Brindabella Station. She was the eldest child of Australian-born parents, John Maurice Franklin and Susannah Margaret Eleanor Franklin, née Lampe, who was the great-granddaughter of Edward Miles (or Moyle) who had arrived with the First Fleet in the Scarborough with a seven-year sentence for theft. Her family was a member of the squattocracy. She was educated at home until 1889 when she attended Thornford Public. During this period she was encouraged in her writing by her teacher, Mary Gillespie (1856–1938) and Tom Hebblewhite (1857–1923) editor of the local Goulburn newspaper.
Her best known novel, My Brilliant Career, tells the story of an irrepressible teenage girl, Sybylla Melvyn, growing to womanhood in rural New South Wales. It was published in 1901 with the support of Australian writer, Henry Lawson. After its publication, Franklin tried a career in nursing, and then as a housemaid in Sydney and Melbourne. Whilst doing this she contributed pieces to The Daily Telegraph and The Sydney Morning Herald under the pseudonyms "An Old Bachelor" and "Vernacular." During this period she wrote My Career Goes Bung in which Sybylla encounters the Sydney literary set, but it was not released to the public until 1946. An overtly anti-war play, The Dead Must Not Return, was not published or performed but received a public reading in September 2009.
In the United States and England
In 1906, Franklin moved to the US and undertook secretarial work for Alice Henry, another Australian, at the National Women's Trade Union League in Chicago, and co-edited the league's magazine, Life and Labor. Her years in the US are reflected in On Dearborn Street (not published until 1981), a love story that uses American slang in a manner not dissimilar to the early work of Dashiell Hammett. Also while in America she wrote Some Everyday Folk and Dawn (1909), the story of a small-town Australian family, which uses purple prose for deliberate comic effect. She suffered regular bouts of ill health and entered a sanatorium for a period in 1912 In 1915, she travelled to England and worked as a cook and earned some money from journalism. In March 1917 Franklin volunteered for war work in the Ostrovo Unit of the Scottish Women's Hospitals during the Serbian campaigns of 1917–18. She served as a cook and later matron's orderly in a 200-bed tent hospital attached to the Serbian army near Lake Ostrovo in Macedonian Greece from July 1917 to February 1918.
Was made staff cook against my will. ... Then Miss Brown made a row with everyone & insisted on being head. I just let 'em muddle along and take no notice as I've had a year's training in London of English ways. Will think my own thoughts and write a book if the plot comes into my head.— Miles Franklin (personal diary), describing her wartime service
From 1919 to 1926 Franklin worked as Secretary with the National Housing and Town Planning Association in London. She organised a women's international housing convention in 1924. Her life in England in the 1920s gave rise to Bring the Monkey (1933), a satire on the English country house mystery novel. The book reveals Franklin's views on nationality and class. Unfortunately the book was a literary and commercial failure.
Return to Australia
Franklin resettled in Australia in 1932 after the death of her father in 1931. During that decade she wrote several historical novels of the Australian bush, although most of these were published under the pseudonym "Brent of Bin Bin". New South Wales State Librarian, Dagmar Schmidmaier, said "Miles increasingly feared that nothing she wrote matched the success of My Brilliant Career and resorted to writing under different names, including the bizarre pseudonym Brent of Bin Bin, to protect herself from poor reviews." However, All That Swagger was published under her own name in 1936, winning the S. H. Prior Memorial Prize. Franklin also won the S. H. Prior Memorial Prize in 1939 together with Kate Baker for their collaborative work 'Who Was Joseph Furphy?'.
Throughout her life, Franklin actively supported Australian literature. She joined the Fellowship of Australian Writers in 1933 and the Sydney PEN Club in 1935. She encouraged young writers such as Jean Devanny, Sumner Locke Elliott and Ric Throssell and she supported the new literary journals, Meanjin and Southerly. Miles entertained literary figures at her home in Carlton, NSW. An autograph book known as Miles Franklin's Waratah Book held by the State Library of NSW was used for autographs and inscriptions. Guests were encouraged to drink tea from the Waratah Cup and to write in the Waratah Book.
It has been alleged that Franklin was a member of the pro-isolationist, anti-war and anti-semitic Australia First Movement as she attended three public meetings of the AFM in December 1941, and had a close association with its leaders. In fact Franklin was vehemently opposed to the political views of each of the leaders of the AF movement, Adela Pankhurst Walsh and P.R. Stephenson, as evidenced by her diary entries and correspondence at the time - "Reds or pinks or 'rightists' all showed their ignorance" she wrote after one attendance, and of Stephenson "I could not have anything to do with his politics". Her long-time association with 'Inky' Stephenson was a literary one, and her attendance at these large public meetings should be seen in the context of the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor (7 December 1941) and the high political temperature of the time. Franklin was staunchly anti-war and, traumatised by her WWI experiences, very much feared a war on Australian soil at this time. In this period of her life Franklin was a constant attendee and speaker at various cultural and literary events. Her message centred on free speech and the championing of Australian literature.
While Miles Franklin had many suitors, she never married. She died on 19 September 1954, aged 74 and her ashes were scattered in Jounama Creek, Talbingo close to where she was born.
Miles Franklin engaged in a number of literary collaborations throughout her life. In addition to co-editing the journal Life and Labor with Alice Henry in the US, she also wrote Pioneers on Parade in collaboration with Dymphna Cusack and a biography of Joseph Furphy (1944) "in painful collaboration with Kate Baker". Previously, in 1939, she and Baker had won the Prior Memorial prize for an essay on Furphy.
Dever writes that the letters between Dymphna Cusack and Miles Franklin that are published in Yarn Spinners "provide a see-sawing commentary on the delicate art of literary collaboration".
The Canberra suburb of Franklin and the nearby primary school Miles Franklin Primary School are named in her honour. The school holds an annual writing competition in her memory. Additionally the Franklin Public School in Tumut, NSW is also named in her honour.
During her lifetime Miles Franklin donated several items to the Mitchell Library. Manuscript material was presented over the period 1937–1942. The various drafts of "Pioneers on Parade" were presented in 1940. She bequeathed her printed book collection, correspondence and notes as well as the poems of Mary Fullerton. 47 of Miles Franklin's diaries are in the State Library of New South Wales, including one copy discovered in 2018.
- 1936: S. H. Prior Memorial Prize awarded by The Bulletin for All that Swagger
- 1939: S. H. Prior Memorial Prize for Joseph Furphy: The Legend of a Man and His Book
- My Brilliant Career (1901)
- Some Everyday Folk and Dawn (1909)
- Old Blastus of Bandicoot (1931)
- Bring the Monkey (1933)
- All That Swagger (1936)
- Pioneers on Parade (1939) – with Dymphna Cusack
- My Career Goes Bung (1946)
- On Dearborn Street (1981)
Under the pseudonym of "Brent of Bin Bin"
- Up the Country (1928)
- Ten Creeks Run (1930)
- Back to Bool Bool (1931)
- Prelude to Waking (1950)
- Cockatoos (1954)
- Gentleman at Gyang Gyang (1956)
- Joseph Furphy: The Legend of a Man and His Book (1944)
- Laughter, Not for a Cage (1956)
- Childhood at Brindabella (1963)
- "History of the Award". www.milesfranklin.com.au. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- "About the Stella Prize". Archived from the original on 19 April 2015.
- Franklin, Stella Maria Sarah Miles. Australian Dictionary of Biography. Archived from the original on 9 April 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
- State Library of New South Wales
- Franklin, Stella Maria Sarah Miles. Australian Dictionary of Biography. Archived from the original on 9 April 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- "Miles Franklin a brilliant career" (PDF). Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 14 February 2013.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- "Miles Franklin | Australian writer". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 24 August 2017. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
- Roe (1981)
- A.), McPhee, John (John; NSW., Museums and Galleries (2008). Great Collections : treasures from Art Gallery of NSW, Australian Museum, Botanic Gardens Trust, Historic Houses Trust of NSW, Museum of Contemporary Art, Powerhouse Museum, State Library of NSW, State Records NSW. Museums & Galleries NSW. p. 89. ISBN 9780646496030. OCLC 302147838.
- Franks, Rachel (Winter 2016). "A Far-Flung War Mania" (PDF). SL Magazine. 9. No. 2: 22. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 June 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
- Roe, Jill. Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Archived from the original on 9 April 2013.
- "Miles Franklin personal diary, 5 June 1917 – 16 February 1918". Retrieved 21 March 2018.
- "Miles Franklin: A Brilliant Career?" (PDF). Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 14 February 2013.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- "Home At Last" (PDF). SL Magazine. 11 (2): 12–13. Winter 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 March 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
- Miles Franklin: Her Brilliant Yet Troubled Life Revealed
- "Miles Franklin's waratah cup and saucer (catalogue entry)". State Library of NSW. Archived from the original on 24 June 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- "Miles Franklin – The Book of the Waratah Cup, 1902–1908, 1944–1954 (catalogue entry)". State Library of NSW. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014.
- Roe (2004)
- ROE, JILL (2008). Stella Miles Franklin: A Biography. Australia: Fourth Estate. pp. 404–411. ISBN 9780732282318.
- Spender (1988) p.219
- Dever (2001?)
- "History". Miles Franklin Public School. January 2003. Archived from the original on 15 March 2018. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
- "Newsletter - Term 3" (PDF). Miles Franklin Public School. 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
- "Franklin Public School Annual Report" (PDF). Miles Franklin Public School. 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 March 2017. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
- Guide to the papers and books of Miles Franklin in the Mitchell Library of NSW. Sydney: Library Council of NSW. 1980. pp. ii.
- "Stella Maria Sarah Miles Franklin's 135th Birthday". www.google.com. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
- Australian Women Biographical Entry Franklin, Stella Maria ( Marian) Sarah Miles (1879–1954) Accessed: 2007-09-01
- Dever, Maryanne (2001?) The Complexities of Female Friendship: Review of "Yarn Spinners' and "Passionate Friends" Accessed: 2007-09-01
- Miles Franklin: Her Brilliant Yet Troubled Life Revealed (Media Release for State Library of New South Wales exhibition, Miles Franklin: A brilliant career?), 26 February 2004 Accessed: 2007-09-01
- Roe, J. I. (1981) "Franklin, Stella Maria Sarah Miles (1879–1954)" in Australian Dictionary of Biography online Accessed: 2007-09-01
- Roe, Jill (2004) "The diaries of Miles Franklin" in theage.com.au, 13 March 2004 Accessed: 2007-09-01
- Spender, Dale (1988) Writing a New World: Two Centuries of Australian Women Writers, London: Pandora
- State Library of New South Wales Australian Feminist Manuscripts: Miles Franklin (1879–1954) Accessed: 2007-09-01
- Roe, Jill (2008) Stella Miles Franklin: a biography, Harper Collins, Australia
- Barnard, Marjorie (1967) Miles Franklin: The Story of a Famous Australian
- Brunton, Paul (ed) (2004) The diaries of Miles Franklin, Allen and Unwin
- Coleman, Verna (1981) "Her Unknown (Brilliant) Career: Miles Franklin in America" Angus and Robertson
- Martin, Sylvia (2001) Passionate Friends: Mary Fullerton, Mabel Singleton, Miles Franklin, Only Women Press
- North, Marilla (ed) (2001) Yarn Spinners: A Story in Letters – Dymphna Cusack, Florence James, Miles Franklin, University of Queensland Press
- Roe, Jill (ed) (1993) Congenials: Miles Franklin and Friends in Letters, Vol. 1 & 2, Angus and Robertson
- Works by Miles Franklin in eBook form at Standard Ebooks
- Works by Miles Franklin at Project Gutenberg
- Works by Miles Franklin at Project Gutenberg Australia
- Works by or about Miles Franklin at Internet Archive
- Works by Miles Franklin at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- Great Rural Speeches: Miles Franklin
- Miles Franklin: A Brilliant Career? : State Library of New South Wales exhibition guide
-  Interview with biographer Jill Roe, author of Stella Miles Franklin: A Biography, with Ramona Koval, The Book Show, ABC Radio National, 20/11/08.
- MP3 audiobook of My Brilliant Career from LibriVox
- Stella Miles Franklin in the Encyclopedia of Women and Leadership in Twentieth Century Australia
- Miles Franklin diary, 5 January 1917 – 16 February 1918: images and transcript at State Library of New South Wales
- Miles Franklin diary, 17 February-29 December 1918: images and transcript at State Library of New South Wales