Military Aid to the Civil Authorities
Military Aid to the Civil Authorities (MACA) is the collective term used by the Ministry of Defence of the Government of the United Kingdom to refer to the operational deployment of the armed forces of the United Kingdom in support of the civilian authorities, other government departments and the community as a whole.
There are 3 criteria for the provision of MACA:
- Military aid should always be the last resort. The use of mutual aid, other agencies, and the private sector must be otherwise considered as insufficient or be unsuitable.
- The Civil Authority lacks the required level of capability to fulfil the task and it is unreasonable or prohibitively expensive to expect it to develop one.
- The Civil Authority has a capability, but the need to act is urgent and it lacks readily available resources.
All operations must be conducted within both civil and military law. Failure to comply with this principle may result in criminal and/or civil law proceedings being brought against individuals or the MOD. Unlike the Police and some other civil agencies, members of the Armed Forces (during peacetime) have no powers over and above those of the ordinary citizen. They have the same personal duty as anyone else to abide by the law at all times.
Types of assistance
MACA encompasses four types of assistance:
- Military Aid to other Government Departments
- Military Aid to the Civil Power
- Military Aid to the Civil Community
- Training and Logistic Assistance to the Civil Power
Military Aid to other Government Departments
Military Aid to other Government Departments covers assistance provided by the Armed Forces on urgent work of national importance or in maintaining supplies and services essential to the life, health and safety of the community, such as Operation Fresco during the UK firefighter dispute 2002–2003. MAGD is controlled under orders made under section 2 of the Emergency Powers Act 1964.
Military Aid to the Civil Power
Military Aid to the Civil Power encompasses the provision of military assistance (armed if necessary) in its maintenance of law, order and public safety using specialist capabilities or equipment in situations beyond the capability of the Civil Power. This includes capabilities such as Explosive Ordnance Disposal and mountain rescue (where it is provided by the Royal Air Force Mountain Rescue Service)
Military Aid to the Civil Community
Military Aid to the Civil Community encompasses the provision of unarmed military assistance to prevent or deal with the aftermath of a natural disaster or a major incident or, to assist civil sponsors either by carrying out special projects of significant social value to the community or by attaching individual volunteers to specific projects.
- 2001 United Kingdom foot-and-mouth outbreak, units of the British Army assisted in dealing with the aftermath or the outbreak
- Operation Temperer, activated to support the police after the 2017 Manchester Arena bombing
- "Operations in the UK: the defence contribution to resilience" (PDF). Joint Doctrine Publication 02. Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom). Retrieved 25 July 2010.