Military awards and decorations of the United Kingdom

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Awards and decorations of the British Armed Forces are military orders, decorations and medals which recognise service and personal accomplishments while a member of the Royal Navy, British Army or Royal Air Force. Together with rank and qualification badges, such awards are a means to outwardly display the highlights of a serviceman's career.

Order of wear[edit]

All services use a common order of wear, the following general rules apply:[1]

  1. The Victoria Cross and the George Cross
  2. United Kingdom Orders
  3. United Kingdom Decorations
  4. Order of St John (all classes)
  5. United Kingdom Medals for Gallantry and for Distinguished Service
  6. United Kingdom Operational Service Medals (including authorised United Nations Medals and Medals of other recognised International Organisations). Worn in order of date of award
  7. United Kingdom Polar Medals
  8. United Kingdom Police Medals for Valuable Service
  9. United Kingdom Jubilee, Coronation and Durbar Medals
  10. Long Service and Efficiency Awards
  11. Commonwealth Orders, Decorations and Medals instituted by the Sovereign. Worn in order of date of award.
  12. Commonwealth Orders, Decorations and Medals instituted since 1949 otherwise than by the Sovereign (including those of the States of Malaysia and the State of Brunei). Worn in order of date of award.
  13. Foreign Orders. If approved for wear, worn in order of date of award.
  14. Foreign Decorations. If approved for wear, worn in order of date of award.
  15. Foreign Medals. If approved for wear, worn in order of date of award.

British military medals and ribbons[edit]

Military orders and decorations[edit]

Emblem Description Postnom Established Eligibility Period [1] Remarks
Level 1 Decorations
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Victoria Cross VC 5 February 1856[2] Jan 1856 – present For valour in combat.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text George Cross GC 24 September 1940[3] 1940 – present For valour other than in combat.
Orders – First Class
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
(Military Division)
GCB(Mil) 27 May 1725[4][5] 27 May 1725 – present[4][5] Prior to 2 January 1815, this grade was known as a Knight Companion of the Order of the Bath.[4][5]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Order of Merit
(Military Division)
OM(Mil) 23 June 1902[6] 23 June 1902 – present[6]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire
(Military Division)
GBE(Mil) 24 August 1917[7][8] 4 June 1917 – present[7][8]
Orders – Second Class
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Knight/Dame Commander of the Order of the Bath
(Military Division)
KCB(Mil)
DCB(Mil)
2 January 1815[4][5] 2 January 1815 – present[4][5]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Knight/Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire
(Military Division)
KBE(Mil)
DBE(Mil)
24 August 1917[7][8] 4 June 1917 – present[7][8]
Orders – Third Class
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Companion of the Order of the Bath
(Military Division)
CB(Mil) 2 January 1815[4][5] 1815 – present[4][5]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Commander of the Order of the British Empire
(Military Division)
CBE(Mil) 24 August 1917[7][8] 4 June 1917 – present[7][8]
Level 2A Decoration (Order)
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Distinguished Service Order DSO 9 November 1886[9] 1885 – present[10] From Oct 1993 awarded for leadership only. Replaced for gallantry in Oct 1993 by the Conspicuous Gallantry Cross.[9]
Orders – Fourth Class
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Officer of the Order of the British Empire
(Military Division)
OBE(Mil) 24 August 1917[7][8] 4 June 1917 – present[7][8]
Orders – Fifth Class
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Member of the Order of the British Empire
(Military Division)
MBE(Mil) 24 August 1917[7][8] 4 June 1917 – present[7][8]
Level 2A Indian Order (Decoration)
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Indian Order of Merit (1st Class)
(Military Division)
IOM(Mil) 1837–1911 Replaced by the VC in 1911.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Indian Order of Merit (2nd Class)
(Military Division)
IOM(Mil) 1837–1947
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Indian Order of Merit (3rd Class)
(Military Division)
IOM(Mil) 1837–1947
Level 2A Decorations
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Conspicuous Gallantry Cross CGC October 1993 1993 – present
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Royal Red Cross (Class I) RRC 27 April 1883 1883 – present
Level 3A Decorations
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Distinguished Service Cross DSC June 1901 1901 – present Awarded only to officers until 1993.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Military Cross MC Dec 1914[11] 1914 – present
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Distinguished Flying Cross DFC June 1918 1918 – present
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Air Force Cross AFC 3 June 1918[12] 1918 – present
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Royal Red Cross (Class II) ARRC 27 April 1883 1917 – present
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Order of British India (First Class) OBI 1837–1947
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Order of British India (Second Class) OBI 1837–1947
Level 2B Medals
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Distinguished Conduct Medal DCM 1854 1854–1993 Replaced in Oct 1993 by the Conspicuous Gallantry Cross.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Conspicuous Gallantry Medal CGM 1874–1993
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Conspicuous Gallantry Medal (Flying) CGM 1874 1874–1993
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text George Medal GM September 1940 1940 – present
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Royal West African Frontier Force Distinguished Conduct Medal 1907 1907–1942
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text King's African Rifles Distinguished Conduct Medal 1907 1907–1942
Level 3B Medals
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Indian Distinguished Service Medal IDSM June 1907 1907–1947
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Distinguished Service Medal DSM October 1914 1914–1993 Equivalent awards for ORs to similarly named crosses for officers.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Military Medal MM 25 March 1916 1916–1993
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Distinguished Flying Medal DFM June 1918 1918–1993
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Air Force Medal AFM 3 June 1918 1918–1993
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Sea Gallantry Medal SGM 10 August 1854 1854 – present
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Burma Gallantry Medal BGM 10 May 1940[13] 1940–1948
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Queen's Gallantry Medal QGM 20 June 1974 1974 – present
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text British Empire Medal
(Military Division)
BEM(Mil) 24 August 1917[7][8] 4 June 1917[7] – 1993[8]
2012–present
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Queen's Volunteer Reserves Medal QVRM 1999 1999 – present
Level 4 Commendations
UK MID 1994.svg Mentioned in Despatches Nil 1920 1914 – present Insignia attached to appropriate campaign medal; if no campaign medal awarded, insignia attached to left of dress uniform
Mentioned in Dispatches emblem.png King's/Queen's Commendation for Brave Conduct Nil 1939–1994
UK Queen's Commendation for Valuable Service device.svg King's/Queen's Commendation for Valuable Service in the Air Nil 1939–1994
UK Queen's Commendation for Valuable Service device.svg Queen's Commendation for Bravery Nil 1994 – present
Queen's Commendation for Bravery in the Air Nil 1994 – present
UK Queen's Commendation for Valuable Service device.svg Queen's Commendation for Valuable Service Nil 1993 – present

Note [1] Eligibility period start dates reflect respective establishment dates, except where available evidence indicates otherwise.

Military campaign medals[edit]

Emblem Description Established Eligibility Period Remarks
18th Century Campaign Medals
Yellow Cord Morighyr Mutiny Medal 1766 1766[14] HEIC Issue.[C 1]
Yellow Cord Decan Medal 1784 1778–1784 HEIC Issue. Awarded in gold to Subadars, silver gilt to Jemadars and other native officers, and silver to 'native' non-commissioned officers and soldiers.[14]
Yellow Cord Mysore Medal 1 April 1793 1790–1792 HEIC Issue. Awarded in gold to Subadars, silver gilt to Jemadars and Serrangs, and silver to 'native' non-commissioned officers and soldiers.[14]
19th Century Campaign Medals
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Siege of Seringapatam Medal 1801 March 1799 – 8 May 1799 HEIC Issue. Awarded in gold, silver gilt, silver, bronze and tin dependent upon rank and position to both British subjects and 'native' soldiers. Authorised for British Army wear on 29 August 1815. Several other ribbons were worn unofficially.[14]
Yellow Cord Medal for Egypt 1801 31 July 1802 8 March 1801 – 31 August 1801 HEIC Issue. Awarded in gold to senior officers, and silver to all others eligible.[14]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Army Gold Medal 1806 1808–1814 Issued with battle/action claps where appropriate.[15]
Yellow Cord Capture of Ceylon Medal 15 May 1807 1795–1796 HEIC Issue. Awarded in gold to 'native' officers, and silver to 'native' non-commissioned officers and soldiers.[14]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Army Gold Cross 1810 1808–1814 Issued with battle/action clasps where appropriate.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Waterloo Medal 1816 16 June 1815 – 18 June 1815
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Ghuznee Medal 1839 21 July 1839 – 23 July 1839 HEIC Issue.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Candahar, Ghuznee, Cabul Medal 1842 1839–1842 HEIC Issue.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Jellalabad Medals 1842 HEIC Issue.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Medal for the Defence of Kelat-I-Ghilzie 1842 HEIC Issue.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text China War Medal (1842) 1843 5 July 1840 – 29 August 1842 Issued with clasps for Second China War where appropriate.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Scinde Medal 22 September 1843 1842–1843 HEIC Issue. Issued in one of three types: "Meeanee 1843", "Hyderabad 1843" and "Meeanee/Hyderabad 1843".
See Below Gwalior Star 1843 HEIC Issue, issued for the Battle of Gwalior, which was fought at Maharajpur and Panihaar. Medals indicated in central disc of star the battleground for which it was issued[16]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Maharajpoor Star 1843 29 December 1843 HEIC Issue.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Punniar Star 1843 29 December 1843 HEIC Issue.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Sutlej Medal 17 April 1846 7 September 1845 – 14 March 1849 HEIC Issue. Issued with battle/action clasps where appropriate.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Naval General Service Medal 1847 1793–1840 Always issued with battle/action clasps.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Military General Service Medal 1 June 1847 1793–1814 Always issued with battle/action clasps.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Punjab Medal 2 April 1849 7 September 1848 – 14 March 1849 HEIC Issue. Issued with battle/action clasps where appropriate.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Army of India Medal 21 March 1851 1803–1826 HEIC Issue. Always issued with battle/action clasps.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text India General Service Medal (1854) 11 March 1854 1852–1895 Issued in silver. From 1885, issued in bronze to non-enlisted support personnel. Always issued with battle/action clasps.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text South Africa Medal (1854) 1854 1834–1835
1846–1847
1850–1853
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Crimean War Medal 15 December 1854 1854–1856 Issued with battle/action clasps where appropriate.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Baltic Medal 23 April 1856 1854–1855
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Indian Mutiny Medal 1858 1857–1858 HEIC Issue. Issued with battle/action clasps where appropriate.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Second China War Medal 6 March 1861 1856–1860 Issued with battle/action clasps where appropriate.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text New Zealand Medal 1869 1845–1848
1860–1866
Issued in bronze and silver.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Abyssinian War Medal 1869
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Canada General Service Medal 1866–1870
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Ashantee Medal 1873–1874
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text South Africa Medal (1880) Aug 1880 1877–1879 Issued with campaign clasp where appropriate.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Afghanistan Medal 1881 1878–1880
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Kabul to Kandahar Star 1880
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Egypt Medal 1882–1889
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text East and West Africa Medal 1892 13 November 1887 – 8 May 1900 Issued in silver to officers and enlisted personnel and in bronze to non-enlisted support personnel. Issued with campaign and battle/action clasps where appropriate.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text India General Service Medal (1895) 1 April 1896 3 March 1895 – 10 March 1902 Always issued with appropriate campaign clasps.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Ashanti Star 1896
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Queen's Sudan Medal 1899
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text East and Central Africa Medal 1899 20 July 1897 – 2 May 1899 Always issued with appropriate campaign clasps.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Queen's South Africa Medal Apr 1901 11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902 Issued in silver to officers and enlisted personnel and in bronze to non-enlisted support personnel. Issued with appropriate battle or state clasps where appropriate.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Queen's Mediterranean Medal 1902 1899–1902
20th Century Campaign Medals
Pre–World War
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Third China War Medal 1901 1900 Issued in silver to officers and enlisted personnel and in bronze to non-enlisted support personnel. Issued with battle/action clasps where appropriate.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Ashanti Medal 1901
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text King's South Africa Medal 1902 1 January 1902 – 1 June 1902 Issued with clasps South Africa 1901 and South Africa 1902 where appropriate.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Africa General Service Medal 1902  ? – 1962
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Transport Medal 1903 For South Africa or China.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Tibet Medal 1 February 1905 13 December 1903 – 23 September 1904 Issued in silver to officers and enlisted personnel and in bronze to non-enlisted support personnel.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text India General Service Medal (1909) 1 January 1909 1908–1935 Issued in silver to officers and enlisted personnel and, during 1908–1912, in bronze to non-enlisted support personnel. Always issued with appropriate campaign clasps.
World War I
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text 1914 Star Apr 1917 5 August 1914 – 22 November 1914 Issued with clasp 5 Aug – 22 November 1914 where appropriate.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text 1914-15 Star Dec 1918 5 August 1914 – 31 December 1915
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text British War Medal 26 July 1919 5 August 1914 – 11 November 1918 Issued in silver to officers and enlisted soldiers and in bronze to non-enlisted support personnel.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Victory Medal 1 September 1919 5 August 1914 – 11 November 1918
1919–1920
11 Nov 1918 – 30 November 1919
World War 1. Issued with MID oak leaf cluster where appropriate.
British Naval Mission to Russia
North Sea mine clearance
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Territorial Force War Medal Apr 1920 4 August 1914 – 11 November 1918
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Mercantile Marine War Medal 1 September 1919 4 August 1914 – 11 November 1918
Inter-World War
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Naval General Service Medal (1915) 6 August 1915 1909 – 23 December 1962 Always issued with appropriate campaign clasps.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text General Service Medal (1918) 19 January 1923 12 November 1918 – 23 December 1962 Always issued with appropriate campaign clasps.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text India General Service Medal (1936) 3 August 1938 1936–1939 Always issued with appropriate campaign clasps. Issued with MID oak leaf where appropriate.
World War II
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text 1939–45 Star 1945 3 September 1939 – 2 September 1945 Issued with clasps Battle of Britain or Bomber Command where appropriate.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Atlantic Star 3 September 1939 – 8 May 1945 Issued with clasps Air Crew Europe or France and Germany where appropriate.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Arctic Star 3 September 1939 – 8 May 1945
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Air Crew Europe Star 3 September 1939 – 5 June 1944 Issued with clasps Atlantic or France and Germany where appropriate.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Africa Star 10 June 1940 – 12 May 1943 Issued with clasps 8th Army or 1st Army or North Africa 1942 – 43 where appropriate.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Pacific Star 8 December 1941 – 2 September 1945 Issued with clasp Burma where appropriate.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Burma Star 11 December 1941 – 2 September 1945 Issued with clasp Pacific where appropriate.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Italy Star 11 June 1943 – 8 May 1945
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text France and Germany Star 6 June 1944 – 8 May 1945 Issued with clasp Atlantic where appropriate.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Defence Medal 16 August 1945 3 September 1939 – 2 September 1945 Issued with KCBC silver oak leaf where appropriate.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text War Medal 1939–1945 16 August 1945 3 September 1939 – 2 September 1945 Issued with MID bronze oak leaf or KCBC silver oak leaf where appropriate.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text India Service Medal 6 June 1946 3 September 1939 – 2 September 1945
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Canadian Volunteer Service Medal 22 October 1943 3 September 1939 – 1 March 1947 Issued with Maple Leaf, Dieppe, or Hong Kong clasps where appropriate.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Africa Service Medal 23 December 1943 6 September 1939 – 2 September 1945 Issued with KCSA (1939–45) bronze protea where appropriate.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Australia Service Medal Nov 1949 3 September 1939 – 2 September 1945
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text New Zealand War Service Medal 30 September 1948[17] 3 September 1939 – 2 September 1945
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Southern Rhodesia Medal for War Service
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Newfoundland Volunteer War Service Medal 17 December 1993 3 September 1939 – 2 September 1945
Post–World War
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Korea Medal Jul 1951 1 July 1950 – 27 July 1953
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text General Service Medal (1962) 6 October 1964 24 December 1962 – 31 July 2007[18] Always issued with appropriate campaign clasps. Replaced 1918 GSM.
Ribbon bar image refer toadjacent text South Atlantic Medal 1982 2 April 1982 – 12 July 1982[19] Issued with Rosette for service between 35° and 60° South.[19]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text 2 April 1982 – 21 October 1982[20] Issued without Rosette for service between 7° and 60° South
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Gulf Medal 1992 2 August 1990 – 7 March 1991[19] Issued with clasp August 1990 or 6 Jan to 28 February 1991 where appropriate.[19]
21st Century Campaign Medals
See below Operational Service Medal 1 January 2000[21] See below Replaced GSM 1962. Issued with a separate ribbon for each campaign.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text OSM Sierra Leone 2002 5 May 2000 – 31 July 2002[21] Issued with Rosette for Op BARRAS or Op MAIDENLY where appropriate.[21]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text OSM Afghanistan 2003 11 September 2001 – present[21] Issued with clasp Afghanistan where appropriate.[21]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text OSM Democratic Republic of Congo 2005 14 June 2003 – 10 September 2003[21] Always issued with Clasp DROC.[21]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Iraq Medal 23 February 2004 20 January 2003 – present[19] Issued with clasp 19 Mar to 28 April 2003 where appropriate.[19]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Iraq Reconstruction Service Medal 26 June 2004 19 March 2003 – present
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Civilian Service Medal (Afghanistan) 6 April 2011 9 November 2001 – present
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Ebola Medal for Service in West Africa 11 June 2015 23 March 2014 – present[22] First UK campaign medal issued for response to humanitarian crisis.[23]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text General Service Medal (2008) 2015 January 2008 –[24] New GSM Medal for recipients who have served on medal worthy operations facing dangerous and demanding circumstances that do not qualify for other medals, especially the OSM medals.[25]

Notes:

Coronation and Jubilee medals[edit]

Emblem Description Established Eligibility Period Remarks
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Queen Victoria Golden Jubilee Medal 1887 Issued in Gold, Silver or Bronze
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Queen Victoria Diamond Jubilee Medal 1897 Issued in Gold, Silver or Bronze
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text King Edward VII Coronation Medal 1902 26 June 1902
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text King George V Coronation Medal 1911 23 June 1911 Civil/Military award
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Police award
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text King George V Silver Jubilee Medal 1935 6 May 1935
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text King George VI Coronation Medal 1937 12 May 1937
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal 1953 2 June 1953
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal 1977 6 February 1977
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal 2002 6 February 2002
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal 2012 6 February 2012

Efficiency and long service decorations and medals[edit]

Emblem Description Post
nom
Estab. Eligibility Period Remarks
Meritorious Service
See below Meritorious Service Medal
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text   Meritorious Service Medal 1845 – present Army
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text   Meritorious Service Medal (Royal Navy) 1919 1928 – present
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text   Meritorious Service Medal (Royal Marines) 1849 1947 – present
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text   Meritorious Service Medal (Royal Air Force) 1918 1928 – present
Accumulated Campaign Service
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Accumulated Campaign Service Medal 1994 1969–2011 Replaced with ACSM 11
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text 2011 2008 – Qualifying period reduced from 36 to 24 months
Long Service and Good Conduct
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Army Long Service and Good Conduct Medal 1830–1930 Army
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Medal for Long Service and Good Conduct (Military) 1930 – present Army
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Naval Long Service and Good Conduct Medal (1830) 1830–1847 Navy
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Naval Long Service and Good Conduct Medal (1848) 1848 – present Navy
Meritorious Service (resumed)
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Medal for Meritorious Service (Royal Navy) MSM 1918–1928
Long Service and Good Conduct (resumed)
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Indian Long Service and Good Conduct Medal For Europeans of the Indian Army.
Meritorious Service (resumed)
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Indian Meritorious Service Medal For Europeans of the Indian Army.
Royal Marines Meritorious Service Medal 1849–1947
Royal Air Force Meritorious Service Medal 1918–1928
Long Service and Good Conduct (resumed)
Ribbon - Royal Air Force Long Service and Good Conduct Medal.png Royal Air Force Long Service and Good Conduct Medal 1919 – present Air Force
Long service and good conduct ulster defense.png Medal for Long Service and Good Conduct (Ulster Defence Regiment)
Ribbon - Permanent Forces of the Empire Beyond the Seas Medal.png Permanent Forces of the Empire Beyond the Seas Medal 1909 1919–1932
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Indian Long Service and Good Conduct Medal (for the Indian Army)
RWAFF and KAR Long Service and Good Conduct Medal.png Royal West African Frontier Force Long Service and Good Conduct Medal
Royal Sierra Leone Military Forces Long Service and Good Conduct Medal
RWAFF and KAR Long Service and Good Conduct Medal.png King's African Rifles Long Service and Good Conduct Medal
Meritorious Service (resumed)
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Indian Meritorious Service Medal (for the Indian Army)
Hong Kong Disciplined Services Medal.png Hong Kong Disciplined Services Medal
Part Time Forces Long Service
Army Emergency Reserve Decoration.png Army Emergency Reserve Decoration ERD
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Volunteer Officers' Decoration VD 1892–1930
Ribbon - Volunteer Long Service Medal.png Volunteer Long Service Medal 1894–1930 Ribbon - Volunteer Long Service Medal HAC.png HAC ribbon
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Volunteer Officers' Decoration for India and the Colonies VD 1894–1899
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Volunteer Long Service Medal for India and the Colonies 1896–1930
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Colonial Auxiliary Forces Officers' Decoration VD Ribbon - Volunteer Officers' Decoration.png 1921–1927
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Colonial Auxiliary Forces Long Service Medal
Gunnery
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Naval Good Shooting Medal 1903 1903–14
Part Time Forces Long Service (resumed)[26]
Militia Long Service Medal.png Militia Long Service Medal 1904 1904–1930
Imperial Yeomanry Long Service Medal.png Imperial Yeomanry Long Service Medal 1904 1904–1908
See below Territorial Decoration TD
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text   Territorial Decoration TD 1908 1908–1999
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text   Territorial Decoration (HAC) TD 1908 1908–1999
Ceylon Armed Services Long Service Medal.png Ceylon Armed Services Long Service Medal 1968 1968–1972
See below Efficiency Decoration TD
ED
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text   Efficiency Decoration TD/ED 1930–
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text   Efficiency Decoration (HAC) TD 1930–1999
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text   Efficiency Decoration (T&AVR) TD 1967–1999
See below Efficiency Medal
Ribbon - Efficiency Decoration (South Africa).png   Territorial Force Efficiency Medal 1908 1908–1921
Ribbon - Efficiency Medal (South Africa).png   Territorial Efficiency Medal 1921 1921–1930
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text   Efficiency Medal 1930–1999
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text   Army Emergency Reserve Efficiency Medal 1956 1953–1976
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text   Efficiency Medal (Territorial & Volunteer Reserve) 1930–1999
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text   Efficiency Medal (HAC) 1930–1999
The Special Reserve Long Service and Good Conduct Medal.PNG Special Reserve Long Service and Good Conduct Medal 1908 1908–1930
Royal Naval Reserve Decoration.PNG Decoration for Officers of the Royal Naval Reserve RD 1908–1999
Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve Decoration.PNG Decoration for Officers of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve VRD
Royal Naval Reserve Long Service and Good Conduct Medal.PNG Royal Naval Reserve Long Service and Good Conduct Medal
Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve Long Service and Good Conduct Medal.PNG Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve Long Service and Good Conduct Medal
Royal Naval Auxiliary Sick Berth Reserve Long Service and Good Conduct Medal.PNG Royal Naval Auxiliary Sick Berth Reserve Long Service and Good Conduct Medal
Royal Fleet Reserve Long Service and Good Conduct Medal.PNG Royal Fleet Reserve Long Service and Good Conduct Medal
Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve Long Service and Good Conduct Medal.PNG Royal Naval Wireless Auxiliary Reserve Long Service and Good Conduct Medal
The Royal Naval Auxiliary Service Long Service Medal.PNG Royal Naval Auxiliary Service Long Service Medal
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Air Efficiency Award AE 1942–1999 Only award to officers entitles use of postnominal.
See below Volunteer Reserves Service Medal
Volunteer Reserves Service Medal.png   Volunteer Reserves Service Medal 1999 – present
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text   Volunteer Reserves Service Medal (HAC) 1999 – present
Ulster Defence Regiment Medal.png Ulster Defence Regiment Medal UD Only award to officers entitles use of postnominal.
Northern Ireland Home Service Medal.png Northern Ireland Home Service Medal
Marksmanship
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Queen's Medal for Champion Shots of the Royal Navy and Royal Marines 1966 1966–
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Queen's Medal for Champion Shots of the New Zealand Naval Forces 1958 1955–
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Queen's Medal for Champion Shots in the Military Forces 1869 1870–82
1923–
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Queen's Medal for Champion Shots of the Air Forces 1953 1953–
Part Time Forces Long Service (resumed)
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Cadet Forces Medal February 1950 1950 – present
Coast Guard Auxiliary Long Service.jpg Coastguard Auxiliary Service Long Service Medal
Special Constabulary Long Service Medal.png Special Constabulary Long Service Medal
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Canadian Forces Decoration CD 1949 – present
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Royal Observer Corps Medal 1950 1941–1995
Civil Defence Long Service Medal.png Civil Defence Long Service Medal
Ambulance Service (Emergency Duties) Long Service and Good Conduct Medal.png Ambulance Service (Emergency Duties) Long Service and Good Conduct Medal
Royal Fleet Auxiliary Service Ribbon.png Royal Fleet Auxiliary Service Medal
Voluntary Service Medals
Women's Royal Voluntary Service Medal.png Women's Royal Voluntary Service Medal 1961 1961–
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text South African Medal for War Services 1945 1939–1946

National independence medals[edit]

Emblem Description Estab. Eligibility Period Remarks
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Rhodesia Medal 1980 1 December 1979 – 20 March 1980[27]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Union of South Africa Commemoration Medal 1910
Indian Independence medal 1947.svg Indian Independence Medal 1947
PakistanIndependenceMedalRibbon.jpg Pakistan Medal
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Ceylon Armed Services Inauguration Medal 1955 1949–51
Sierra leone independence medal.png Sierra Leone Independence Medal 1961
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Jamaica Independence Medal
Nigeria Independence Medal ribbon.svg Nigerian Independence Medal 1960
Uganda independence medal.png Uganda Independence Medal 1962
Malawi independence medal.png Malawi Independence Medal 1964
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Fiji Independence Medal 1970
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Papua New Guinea Independence Medal
Solomon islands indendence medal.png Solomon Islands Independence Medal 1978

Foreign and international[edit]

International campaign medals[edit]

Worn with other United Kingdom campaign medals in order of date of issue (except where noted otherwise).

Emblem Description Eligibility Period Remarks
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text United Nations Service Medal for Korea 27 June 1950 – 27 July 1955 Established 12 December 1950
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text United Nations Service Medal for ONUC 10 July 1960 – 30 June 1964[28]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text United Nations Service Medal for UNFICYP 27 March 1964 – present[28]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text United Nations Service Medal for UNTAG 1 April 1989 – 31 March 1990[28]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text United Nations Special Service Medal 1989–1990[29]
3 Jul 1992 – 12 January 1996[29]
Apr 1991 – present[29]
For: Peshawar UNOCHA[29]
Sarajevo Airlift[29]
Iraq UNSCOM[29]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text United Nations Service Medal for UNIKOM 1 April 1991 – 6 October 2003[28]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text United Nations Service Medal for MINURSO 1 April 1991 – present[28]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text European Community Monitor Mission Medal 25 July 1991 – 30 June 1992[30] For service in the Former Yugoslavia.[30]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text United Nations Service Medal for UNAMIC 1 October 1991 – 31 March 1992[28]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text United Nations Service Medal for UNPROFOR 1 March 1992 – 31 December 1995[28]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text United Nations Service Medal for UNTAC 1 April 1992 – 30 September 1993[28]
NATO Medal Yugoslavia ribbon bar.svg NATO Former Republic of Yugoslavia Medal 1 July 1992 – 31 December 2002[31] Issued with clasp Former Yugoslavia.[31]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Western European Union Mission Service Medal 1 July 1992 – 31 December 1996[30] For Service in the Former Yugoslavia.[30]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text United Nations Service Medal for UNOMIG 23 August 1993 – present[28]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text United Nations Service Medal for UNAMIR 1 October 1993 – 31 March 1996[28]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text United Nations Service Medal for UNAVEM III 1 February 1995 – 1 June 1997[28]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text United Nations Service Medal for UNTAES Jan 1996 – Jan 1998[28]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text United Nations Service Medal for UNOMSIL 1 June 1998 – 30 September 1999[28]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text NATO Kosovo Medal 13 October 1998 – 31 December 2002[31] Issued with clasp Kosovo.[31]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text United Nations Service Medal for UNAMET 7 June 1999 – 24 October 1999[28]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text United Nations Service Medal for UNMIK 10 June 1999 – present[28]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text United Nations Service Medal for UNAMSIL 1 October 1999 – present[28]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text United Nations Service Medal for UNTAET 25 October 1999 – present[28]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text United Nations Service Medal for MONUC 30 November 1999 – present[28]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text United Nations Service Medal for UNMEE 15 September 2000 – present[28]
NATO Medal Macedonia ribbon bar.svg NATO Macedonia Medal 1 June 2001 – 31 December 2002[31]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text NATO Non-Article 5 Medal for the Balkans 1 January 2003 – 20 December 2004[31]
1 Jan 2003 – present[31]
1 Jan 2003 – 31 March 2003[31]
Issued with clasp Non Article 5 for: Balkans[31]
Kosovo[31]
Macedonia[31]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text European Security and Defence Policy Service Medal – Op Althea 2 Dec 2004 – present[30] Issued with clasp Althea.[30]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text NATO Non-Article 5 Medal for Operation Unified Protector 23 Mar 2011 – 31 Oct 2011[31] Issued with clasp OUP-LIBYA/LIBYE.[31]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Common Security and Defence Policy Service Medal – EUFOR RCA 30 June 2014 – 30 May 2015[30] Issued with clasp EUFOR RCA.[30]

Commonwealth orders[edit]

Worn after all United Kingdom awards (including international awards treated as United Kingdom awards). Honorary awards are worn before substantive awards.

Commonwealth decorations[edit]

Worn after all Commonwealth orders.

Commonwealth campaign and commemorative medals[edit]

Worn after all Commonwealth decorations.

Emblem Description Established Eligibility Period Remarks
Brunei General Service Medal.png Brunei General Service Medal 12 August 1966 – present[32] Sultanate of Brunei. Seconded forces only.[32]
MYS Federation Active Service Medal.png Malaya Active Service Medal 31 August 1957 – 15 September 1963[32] Malaysia. Seconded forces only.[32]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Pingat Jasa Malaysia Malaysia 2004 31 August 1957 – 31 December 1966 Permission to wear as at 6 Nov 11.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Kenya Campaign Medal 12 December 1963 – 30 November 1967[32] Kenya. Seconded forces only.[32]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Campaign Medal 1959[33][34] 23 May 1965 – 30 September 1976[32] Oman. Seconded forces only. Referred to in JSP761 as Muscat/Oman Dhofar Campaign Medal.[32]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Malaysia General Service Medal 11 August 1966 – 31 December 1989[32] Malaysia. Seconded forces only.[32]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Unitas Medal 1 June 1994 – 26 April 2003[32] Republic of South Africa. BMATT personnel only.[32]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text International Force East Timor Medal 25 March 2000[35] 16 September 1999 – 10 April 2000[32] Australia[32]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Malta George Cross Fiftieth Anniversary Medal 1992[36] 10 June 1940 – 8 September 1943[36] Malta. Not able to be worn whilst in Crown Service[37]

Foreign orders[edit]

Worn after all Commonwealth awards.

Emblem Description Established Eligibility Period Remarks
alt Imperial Order of the Crescent 1799 1799–1801 Ottoman Empire. Knight First Class and Knight Second Class. Awarded to senior British officers during the Napoleonic wars.[14]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Chevalier Légion d'Honneur 19 May 1802 1914–1918 France. Surviving United Kingdom citizens who participated on French soil in the Great War (1914–1918) or the World War (1939-1945).[38]

Foreign decorations[edit]

Worn after all foreign orders.

Foreign campaign and commemorative medals[edit]

Worn after all foreign decorations.

Emblem Description Established Eligibility Period Remarks
Turkish Crimea Medal Ribbon.PNG Turkish Crimea Medal 21 February 1856[39] 1854–1856[40] Ottoman Empire
Khedives Star.png Khedive's Star 1882–1891 Khedivate of Egypt. Bronze star. Issued to all who were awarded the Egypt Medal.
Khedives Sudan Medal 1897.png Khedive's Sudan Medal (1897) 1896–1899 Khedivate of Egypt.
Khedives Sudan Medal 1910.png Khedive's Sudan Medal (1910) 1910 Khedivate of Egypt.
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text General Service Medal 1963[33][34] 23 May 1965 – 30 June 1976[32] Sultanate of Oman. Issued with clasp Dhofar where applicable. Seconded forces only.[32]
Accession Medal (Oman).png The Accession Medal 1970[33][34] 23 July 1970[32] Sultanate of Oman. Seconded forces only.[32]
Peace Medal (Oman).png The Peace Medal 1979[34] 1 July 1976 – 17 November 1985[32] Sultanate of Oman. Seconded forces only.[32]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Endurance Medal (Al-Sumood) 1976[33][34] 23 May 1965 – 2 December 1975[32] Seconded forces only. Referred to in JSP761 as the 'Muscat Victory Medal (As Sumood)'.[32]
40 years of victory rib.png Medal for the 40th Anniversary of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1985[41] 1941–1945 USSR. For Arctic convoy service. Also known as the Russian Convoy Medal 1941–1945 40th Anniversary Medal.[42]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text 30th Renaissance Medal 2000[34] 18 November 2000[32] Sultanate of Oman. Seconded forces only.[32]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text 35th Renaissance Medal 2005[34] 18 November 2005[27] Sultanate of Oman. Seconded forces only.[27]

Decorations and medals authorised for acceptance but not for official wear[edit]

Official permission has been granted for this medal to be accepted, but it is not authorised for wear.[31]

Emblem Description Eligibility Period Remarks
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text NATO Meritorious Service Medal 2003 – present[31] Issued with clasp Meritorious.[31]

Campaign medals authorised for acceptance but not for official wear[edit]

Official permission has been granted for these medals to be accepted, but they are not authorised for wear.[30][31]

Emblem Description Eligibility Period Remarks
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Kuwait Liberation Medal 17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991 Saudi Arabia Established 1991
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Kuwait Liberation Medal 2 August 1990 – 31 August 1993 Kuwait Established 1994
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text NATO Article 5 Medal for Service on Op ACTIVE ENDEAVOUR 26 October 2001 – present[31] Issued with clasp Article 5.[31]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text NATO Article 5 Medal for Service on Op EAGLE ASSIST 16 May 2002 – present[31] Issued with clasp Article 5.[31]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text European Security and Defence Policy Service Medal – Op Artemis 14 June 2003 – 10 December 2003[30] Issued with clasp Artemis for service in the Congo.[30]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text Common Security and Defence Policy Service Medal – Op Atalanta 8 December 2008 – present[30] Issued with clasp EUNAVFOR ATALANTA for service in counter-piracy operations.[30]

Campaign medals not authorised for acceptance or official wear[edit]

Official permission has been refused for these medals to be accepted and they are not authorised for wear.[31]

Emblem Description Eligibility Period Remarks
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text NATO Non-Article 5 Medal for Pakistan Earthquake Service 8 October 2005 – 1 February 2006[31] Issued with clasp Pakistan.[31]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text NATO Non-Article 5 Medal for Service with ISAF 1 June 2003 – present[31][43] Issued with clasp ISAF.[31]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text NATO Non-Article 5 Medal for NATO Training Mission (Iraq) 18 August 2004 – present[31] Issued with clasp NTM-Iraq.[31]
Ribbon bar image refer to adjacent text NATO Non-Article 5 Medal for AMIS 13 July 2005 – present[31] Issued with clasp AMIS.[31]

Devices[edit]

Emblem Description Remarks
Image of silver rosette used on ribbon bars
Rosette Represents the award of a bar to a decoration, or service in a specified zone of the area of operations when used on a campaign medal. They are worn when the ribbon only is worn. For selected campaign medals, they are also worn on the riband of the campaign medal (when worn with full or miniature medals) to indicate service in a specified zone.
Image of silver oak leaves used on ribbon bars
Crossed silver oakleaves From 14 January 1958, any individual made a member of the Order of the British Empire for gallantry (in the grades of Commander, Officer, Member), or awarded the British Empire Medal for gallantry, could wear an emblem of two crossed silver oak leaves on the same riband, ribbon or bow as the badge.[44]
Medal bar A bar is worn on the riband of a decoration (when worn with full or miniature medals) to denote each additional award of the decoration. Bars are positioned with even spacing between the top and the bottom of the ribbon.
Medal clasp Worn on the riband of campaign medals (when worn with full or miniature medals) to denote the particular campaign, battle, or region the recipient operated in to receive the award. Clasps are positioned at the bottom of the ribbon with successive clasps placed adjacent to each other (with a small gap). The earliest earned clasp is positioned at the bottom whilst the most recent is placed at the top.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Ministry of Defence, JSP761, Chapter 12, Annex A, 'London Gazette Guidance on the Order of Wear'
  2. ^ London Gazette, "Dates for the Introduction of Medals", p. 5.
  3. ^ London Gazette, "Dates for the Introduction of Medals", p. 3.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "No. 20737". The London Gazette (Supplement). 25 May 1847. pp. 1947–1957. , Subjoined Statutes of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Duckers, Peter, British Orders and Decorations, pp. 21–24.
  6. ^ a b Martin, Stanley, The Order of Merit, p. 31.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "No. 30250". The London Gazette (2nd supplement). 24 August 1917. pp. 7791–7999. , Statutes of the Order of the British Empire.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Duckers, Peter, British Orders and Decorations, pp. 30–32.
  9. ^ a b London Gazette, "Dates for the Introduction of Medals", p. 2.
  10. ^ "No. 25650". The London Gazette (Supplement). 26 November 1886. pp. 5975–5976. , DSO Awards for the Battle of Ginnis and Third Anglo-Burmese War
  11. ^ London Gazette, "Dates for the Introduction of Medals", p. 4.
  12. ^ London Gazette, "Dates for the Introduction of Medals", p. 1.
  13. ^ Royal Warrant for the Burma Gallantry Medal, London Gazette, 4 September 1945, date accessed 6 April 2011.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Steward, W. Augustus (1915). War Medals and Their History (Google Book). London: Stanley Paul and Company. pp. 9–17. ISBN 978-1-4086-9712-2. OCLC 459070961. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  15. ^ Steward, W. Augustus (1915). War Medals and Their History (Google Book). London: Stanley Paul and Company. pp. 25–26. ISBN 978-1-4086-9712-2. OCLC 459070961. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  16. ^ Gwailor Campaign Star (Maharajpoor), The Fitzwilliam Museum, accessed 3 January 2011.
  17. ^ Royal Warrant – New Zealand War Service Medal (accessed 6 June 2010)
  18. ^ Ministry of Defence, JSP761, Chapter 8, Annex A, para 3, 'General Service Medal 1962'
  19. ^ a b c d e f Ministry of Defence, JSP761, Chapter 8, Annex A, para 1, 'Medals for Individual Campaigns or Operations'
  20. ^ Medals: campaigns, descriptions and eligibility, UK Government
  21. ^ a b c d e f g Ministry of Defence, JSP761, Chapter 8, Annex A, para 2, 'Operational Service Medal'
  22. ^ "The Ebola Medal for Service in West Africa" (PDF). gov.uk. HMSO. June 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015. 
  23. ^ "Ebola medal for over 3000 heroes". gov.uk. HM Government. 11 June 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015. 
  24. ^ "Defence Secretary awards new medal to 46 troops". Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom). Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom). 12 June 2016. Retrieved 12 June 2016. 
  25. ^ Channon, Max (11 June 2016). "Armed Forces personnel from Plymouth among first to receive new medals". Plymouth Herald. Plymouth Herald. Retrieved 12 June 2016. 
  26. ^ http://www.remuseum.org.uk/articles/medal_Aug07.pdf
  27. ^ a b c Ministry of Defence, JSP761, Chapter 12, Annex B, 'Wearing of Orders, Decorations and Medals by Service Personnel'
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Ministry of Defence, JSP761, Chapter 8, Annex A, para 4, 'United Nations'
  29. ^ a b c d e f Ministry of Defence, JSP761, Chapter 8, Annex A, para 5, 'United Nations Special Service Medal'
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Ministry of Defence, JSP761, Chapter 8, Annex A, para 9, 'European and Other International'
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Ministry of Defence, JSP761, Chapter 8, Annex A, para 6, 'NATO'
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Ministry of Defence, JSP761, Chapter 8, Annex A, para 8, 'Foreign and Commonwealth'
  33. ^ a b c d "Arab Medals – Oman". gmic.co.uk. Gentlemen's Military Interest Club. 6 February 2007. Retrieved 13 June 2010. 
  34. ^ a b c d e f g Barrio, Antonio Prieto. "Ribbon Collection – Oman" (gif). Military Collection (in English and Arabic). Retrieved 13 June 2010.  External link in |work= (help)
  35. ^ Commonwealth of Australia Gazette S159 International Forces East Timor Medal Letters Patent and Regulations (PDF). Canberra: AusInfo. 30 March 2000. ISBN 978-0-642-43441-8. Retrieved 15 June 2010. 
  36. ^ a b Rooker, R.J. "152 Hyderabad F Squadron Battle Honours and Medals". [1]. Retrieved 15 June 2010.  External link in |work= (help)
  37. ^ "No. 52894". The London Gazette. 15 April 1992. p. 6728. 
  38. ^ "No. 55282". The London Gazette. 15 October 1998. p. 0. 
  39. ^ Hayward, John. "Numismatic Notes Part 7: After the War was Over – Turkish Crimea Medal 1856–1862". [2]. London: Spink. Retrieved 15 June 2010.  External link in |work= (help) Date based on offer to British forces by the Sultan of Turkey.
  40. ^ Duckers, Peter, British Campaign Medals 1815–1914, p. 17.
  41. ^ "No. 53538". The London Gazette. 4 January 1994. pp. 1–2. 
  42. ^ "The Russian Convoy Medal". http://www.veterans-uk.info. London: Service Personnel and Veterans Agency. Retrieved 15 June 2010.  External link in |work= (help)
  43. ^ NATO Medals (accessed 6 June 2010)
  44. ^ "No. 41285". The London Gazette (Supplement). 14 January 1958. p. 365. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]