Military career of Napoleon Bonaparte

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Napoleon
Jacques-Louis David - The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries - Google Art Project.jpg
Nickname(s)"General Vendémiaire", "The Little Corporal", "Napoleon the Great"
Born(1769-08-15)August 15, 1769
Ajaccio, Corsica
DiedMay 5, 1821(1821-05-05) (aged 51)
Longwood, St. Helena
AllegianceFrance
Service/branchTrained as an artillerist
Years of service1779–1815
RankCommander in Chief (Head of State)
Commands heldArmy of Italy
Army of the Orient
French Army
Grande Armée
Battles/warsFrench Revolutionary Wars

Napoleonic Wars

AwardsGrand Master of the Legion of Honour
Grand Master of the Order of the Reunion
Grand Master of the Order of the Iron Crown
Grand Master of the Order of the Three Golden Fleeces
RelationsHouse of Bonaparte
Other workSovereign of Elba, writer
Battles of Napoleon Bonaparte
  Napoleon not listed first as commander
  Napoleon listed first as commander

The military career of Napoleon Bonaparte spanned over 20 years. As military leader, he led the French armies to glory in the Napoleonic Wars. Despite his winning war record, Napoleon's military career ended in defeat. Napoleon has since been regarded as a military genius and one of the finest commanders in history. His wars and campaigns have been studied at military schools worldwide. He fought more than 80 battles, losing only eleven, mostly at the end when the French army was not as dominant.[1] The French dominion collapsed rapidly after the disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812. Napoleon was defeated in 1814 and exiled to the island of Elba, before returning and was finally defeated in 1815 at Waterloo. He spent his remaining days in British custody on the remote island of St. Helena.[2]

Battle record summary[edit]

No Date Battle Opponent Location Outcome
1. 29 Aug-19 Dec 1793 Siege of Toulon Kingdom of Great BritainKingdom of NaplesSpainKingdom of SardiniaKingdom of Sicily French Republic Victory
2. 24-28 Apr 1794 Saorgio Habsburg MonarchyKingdom of Sardinia Kingdom of Sardinia Victory
3. 21 September 1794 First Dego Habsburg MonarchyKingdom of Sardinia Kingdom of Sardinia Victory
4. 5 Oct 1795 13 Vendémiaire Kingdom of France French Republic Victory
5. 11-12 Apr 1796 Montenotte Habsburg MonarchyKingdom of Sardinia Kingdom of Sardinia Victory
6. 12-13 Apr 1796 Millesimo Habsburg MonarchyKingdom of Sardinia Kingdom of Sardinia Victory
7. 14-15 Apr 1796 Second Battle of Dego Habsburg MonarchyKingdom of Sardinia Kingdom of Sardinia Victory
8. 16 Apr 1796 Ceva Kingdom of Sardinia Kingdom of Sardinia Victory
9. 21 Apr 1796 Mondovi Kingdom of Sardinia Kingdom of Sardinia Victory
10. 7-9 May 1796 Fombio Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Italy Victory
11. 10 May 1796 Lodi Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Italy Victory
12. 30 May 1796 Borghetto Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Italy Victory
13. 4 Jul 1796-2 Feb 1797 Siege of Mantua Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Italy Victory
14. 3-4 Aug 1796 Lonato Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Italy Victory
15. 5 Aug 1796 Castiglione Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Italy Victory
16. 4 Sep 1796 Rovereto Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Italy Victory
17. 8 Sep 1796 Bassano Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Italy Victory
18. 6 Nov 1796 Second Bassano Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Italy Defeat
19. 12 Nov 1796 Caldiero Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Italy Defeat
20. 15-17 Nov 1796 Arcole Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Italy Victory
21. 14-15 Jan 1797 Rivoli Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Italy Victory
22. 16 Jan 1797 La Favorite [fr] Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Italy Victory
23. 16 Mar 1797 Valvasone Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Italy Victory
24. 16 Mar 1797 Tagliamento Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Italy Victory
25. 21-23 Mar 1797 Tarvis Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Italy Victory
26. 10-12 Jun 1798 Malta Sovereign Military Order of Malta Malta Victory
27. 2 Jul 1798 Alexandria [fr] Ottoman Empire Mameluk Egypt Victory
28. 13 Jul 1798 Shubra Khit Ottoman Empire Mameluk Egypt Victory
29. 21 Jul 1798 Pyramids Ottoman Empire Mameluk Egypt Victory
30. 21-22 Oct 1798 Revolt of Cairo Fictitious Ottoman flag 2.svg French Egypt Victory
31. 11-19 Feb 1799 Siege of El Arish Ottoman Empire Mameluk Egypt Victory
32. 3-7 Mar 1799 Siege of Jaffa Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire Victory
33. 20 Mar-21 May 1799 Acre Ottoman EmpireKingdom of Great Britain Ottoman Empire Defeat
34. 16 Apr 1799 Mount Tabor Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire Victory
35. 25 Jul 1799 Abukir Ottoman Empire French Egypt Victory
36. 31 May 1800 Combat of Turbigo Habsburg Monarchy Kingdom of Sardinia Victory
37. 14 May-1 Jun 1800 Siege of Fort Bard Habsburg Monarchy Kingdom of Sardinia Victory
38. 14 Jun 1800 Marengo Habsburg Monarchy Kingdom of Sardinia Victory
39. 15-20 Oct 1805 Ulm Habsburg Monarchy Electorate of Bavaria Victory
40. 2 Dec 1805 Austerlitz Habsburg MonarchyRussian Empire Archduchy of Austria Victory
41. 14 Oct 1806 Jena Kingdom of PrussiaElectorate of Saxony Kingdom of Prussia Victory
42. 9 Nov 1806-15 Jun 1807 Greater Poland Uprising Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Prussia Victory
43. 23 Dec 1806 Czarnowo Kingdom of PrussiaRussian Empire Kingdom of Prussia Victory
44. 7-8 Feb 1807 Eylau Kingdom of PrussiaRussian Empire Kingdom of Prussia Victory
45. 14 Jun 1807 Friedland Russian Empire Kingdom of Prussia Victory
46. 30 Nov 1808 Somosierra Spain Spain Victory
47. 19 Apr 1809 Teugen-Hausen Austrian Empire Kingdom of Bavaria Victory
48. 20 Apr 1809 Abensberg Austrian Empire Kingdom of Bavaria Victory
49. 21 Apr 1809 Landshut Austrian Empire Kingdom of Bavaria Victory
50. 21-22 Apr 1809 Eckmühl Austrian Empire Kingdom of Bavaria Victory
51. 23 Apr 1809 Ratisbon Austrian Empire Principality of Regensburg Victory
52. 21-22 May 1809 Aspern-Essling Austrian Empire Austrian Empire Defeat
53. 5-6 Jul 1809 Wagram Austrian Empire Austrian Empire Victory
54. 26-27 Jul 1812 Vitebsk Russian Empire Russian Empire Victory
55. 16-18 Aug 1812 Smolensk Russian Empire Russian Empire Victory
56. 7 Sep 1812 Borodino Russian Empire Russian Empire Victory
57. 24 Oct 1812 Maloyaroslavets Russian Empire Russian Empire Victory
58. 15-18 Nov 1812 Krasnoi Russian Empire Russian Empire Defeat
59. 26-29 Nov 1812 Berezina Russian Empire Russian Empire Victory
60. 2 May 1813 Lützen Kingdom of PrussiaRussian Empire Kingdom of Saxony Victory
61. 20-21 May 1813 Bautzen Kingdom of PrussiaRussian Empire Kingdom of Saxony Victory
62. 22 May 1813 Reichenbach [fr] Russian Empire Kingdom of Saxony Victory
63. 26-27 Aug 1813 Dresden Austrian EmpireKingdom of PrussiaRussian Empire Kingdom of Saxony Victory
64. 17 Sep 1813 Kulm Austrian EmpireKingdom of PrussiaRussian EmpireSwedenGrand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Kingdom of Saxony Defeat
65. 16-19 Oct 1813 Leipzig Austrian EmpireKingdom of PrussiaRussian EmpireSwedenGrand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Kingdom of Saxony Defeat
66. 30-31 Oct 1813 Hanau Kingdom of Bavaria Duchy of Frankfurt Victory
67. 29 Jan 1814 Brienne Kingdom of PrussiaRussian Empire French Empire Victory
68. 1 Feb 1814 La Rothière Austrian EmpireKingdom of BavariaKingdom of PrussiaRussian Empire French Empire Defeat
69. 10 Feb 1814 Champaubert Russian Empire French Empire Victory
70. 11 Feb 1814 Montmirail Kingdom of PrussiaRussian Empire French Empire Victory
71. 12 Feb 1814 Chateau-Thierry Kingdom of PrussiaRussian Empire French Empire Victory
72. 14 Feb 1814 Vauchamps Kingdom of PrussiaRussian Empire French Empire Victory
73. 17 Feb 1814 Mormant Austrian EmpireKingdom of BavariaRussian Empire French Empire Victory
74. 18 Feb 1814 Montereau Austrian EmpireFlagge Königreich Württemberg.svg French Empire Victory
75. 5 Mar 1814 Berry-au-Bac [fr] (1814)[3] Kingdom of PrussiaRussian Empire French Empire Victory
76. 7 Mar 1814 Craonne Kingdom of PrussiaRussian Empire French Empire Victory
77. 9-10 Mar 1814 Laon Kingdom of PrussiaRussian Empire French Empire Defeat
78. 12-13 Mar 1814 Reims Kingdom of PrussiaRussian Empire French Empire Victory
79. 20-21 Mar 1814 Arcis-sur-Aube Austrian EmpireKingdom of BavariaRussian Empire French Empire Defeat
80. 26 Mar 1814 Sain-Dizier Russian Empire French Empire Victory
81. 16 Jun 1815 Ligny Kingdom of Prussia United Kingdom of the Netherlands Victory
82. 18 Jun 1815 Waterloo Kingdom of PrussiaUnited Kingdom of Great Britain and IrelandKingdom of HanoverUnited Kingdom of the NetherlandsDuchy of Nassau United Kingdom of the Netherlands Defeat

[a]

References[edit]

  1. ^ For comprehensive coverage, see Chandler (1973).[4] For an overall view of the military history of the era see Trevor N. Dupuy and R. Ernest Dupuy, The Encyclopedia of Military History (2nd ed., 1970) pp. 730–770.
  1. ^ Roberts says his losses came at Siege of Acre (1799), Battle of Aspern-Essling (1809), Battle of Leipzig (1813), Battle of La Rothière (1814), Battle of Laon (1814), Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube (1814), and Battle of Waterloo (1815). Andrew Roberts, "Why Napoleon merits the title 'the Great,'" BBC History Magazine (1 November 2014)
  2. ^ Andrew Roberts, Napoleon: A Life (2014)
  3. ^ Jean Tranié et Juan-Carlos Carmigniani, Napoléon : 1814 - La campagne de France, Pygmalion/Gérard Watelet, 1989, 315 p.
  4. ^ David G. Chandler, The Campaigns of Napoleon (1973) excerpt and text search

Further reading[edit]

  • Chandler, David G. The Campaigns of Napoleon (1973) 1172 pp; a detailed guide to all major battles excerpt and text search
  • Crowdy, Terry. Napoleon's Infantry Handbook (2015)
  • Dupuy, Trevor N. and Dupuy, R. Ernest. The Encyclopedia of Military History (2nd ed. 1970) pp 730–770
  • Elting, John R. Swords Around a Throne: Napoleon's Grand Armee (1988)
  • Esdaile, Charles. Napoleon's Wars: An International History 1803-1815 (2008), 621pp
  • Gates, David. The Napoleonic Wars 1803-1815 (NY: Random House, 2011)
  • Hazen, Charles Downer. The French Revolution and Napoleon (1917) online free
  • Nafziger, George F. The End of Empire: Napoleon's 1814 Campaign (2014)
  • Parker, Harold T. "Why Did Napoleon Invade Russia? A Study in Motivation and the Interrelations of Personality and Social Structure," Journal of Military History (1990) 54#2 pp 131–46 in JSTOR.
  • Pope, Stephen (1999). The Cassel Dictionary of the Napoleonic Wars. Cassel. ISBN 0-304-35229-2.
  • Riley, Jonathon P. Napoleon as a General (Hambledon Press, 2007)
  • Rothenberg, Gunther E. (1988). "The Origins, Causes, and Extension of the Wars of the French Revolution and Napoleon". Journal of Interdisciplinary History. 18 (4): 771–793. JSTOR 204824. JSTOR 204824
  • Rothenberg, E. Gunther. The Art of Warfare in the Age of Napoleon (1977)
  • Schneid, Frederick C. (2011). The French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. Mainz: Institute of European History.
  • Shoffner, Thomas A. Napoleon's Cavalry: A Key Element to Decisive Victory (2014)
  • Smith, Digby George. The Greenhill Napoleonic Wars Data Book: Actions and Losses in Personnel, Colours, Standards and Artillery (1998)