Military dictatorship of Chile (1973–90)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Republic of Chile
República de Chile
Himno Nacional de Chile
Capital Santiago
Languages Spanish
Government Military dictatorship
 •  1974–90 Augusto Pinochet
President of the Junta
 •  1974–81 Augusto Pinochet
Legislature Government Junta
Historical era Cold War
 •  Coup d'etát September 11, 1973
 •  Constitution March 11, 1981
 •  Plebiscite October 5, 1988
 •  Transition to democracy March 11, 1990
 •  1973 est. 10,095,485 
 •  1980 est. 11,178,817 
 •  1990 est. 13,187,821 
Currency Chilean escudo (1973–75)
Chilean peso (1975–90)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Presidential Republic (1925–73)
Chilean transition to democracy

The military dictatorship of Chile (Spanish: dictadura militar de Chile) was an authoritarian military government that ruled Chile between 1973 and 1990. The dictatorship was established after the democratically-elected socialist government of Salvador Allende was overthrown by a CIA-backed coup d'état on 11 September 1973. During this time, the country was ruled by a military junta headed by General Augusto Pinochet. The military used the perceived "breakdown" of democracy and the economic crisis that took place during Allende's presidency to justify its seizure of power. The dictatorship presented its mission as a "national reconstruction."

The regime was characterized by the systematic suppression of political parties and the persecution of dissidents to an extent unprecedented in the history of Chile. Overall, the regime left over 3,000 dead or missing, tortured tens of thousands of prisoners,[1] and drove an estimated 200,000 Chileans into exile.[2] The dictatorship's effects on Chilean political and economic life continue to be felt. Two years after its ascension reactionary neoliberal economic reforms were implemented, in sharp contrast to Allende's leftist policies, advised by a team of free-market economists educated in American universities known as the Chicago Boys. Later, in 1980, the regime replaced the Chilean Constitution of 1925 with a new constitution.

Pinochet's plans to remain in power were foregone in 1988 when the regime accepted democratic displacement in a referendum that opened the way for the reestablishment of democracy in 1990. However, the military remained out of civilian control in the years after the end of junta itself had lost power.[3]

Rise to power[edit]

Since 1970, after he narrowly won a three-way election, Chile was ruled by President Salvador Allende, the first democratically elected Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections. The United States government actively attempted to destabilize the Allende government, with U.S. President Richard Nixon ordering extensive use of economic warfare for this purpose.[4] The Nixon administration also used the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to mount a major destabilization campaign.[5] As the CIA revealed in 2000, "In the 1960s and the early 1970s, as part of the US Government policy to try to influence events in Chile, the CIA undertook specific covert action projects in Chile ... to discredit Marxist-leaning political leaders, especially Dr. Salvador Allende, and to strengthen and encourage their civilian and military opponents to prevent them from assuming power."[6] The CIA worked with right-wing Chilean politicians, military personnel, and journalists to undermine socialism in Chile.[7]

On 15 April 1973, workers from the El Teniente mining camp had ceased working, demanding higher wages. The strike lasted 76 days and cost the government severely in lost revenues. One of the strikers, Luis Bravo Morales, was shot dead in Rancagua city. On June 29, the Blindados No. 2 tank regiment under the command of Colonel Roberto Souper, attacked La Moneda, Chile's presidential palace. Instigated by the anti-Marxist militia Patria y Libertad, the armoured cavalry soldiers hoped other units would be inspired to join them. Instead, armed units led by generals Carlos Prats and Augusto Pinochet quickly put down the coup attempt. In late July, 40,000 truckers, squeezed by price controls and rising costs, tied up transportation in a nationwide strike that lasted 37 days, costing the government $6 million USD a day.[8] Two weeks before the coup, public dissatisfaction with rising prices and food shortages led to protests like the one at the Plaza de la Constitución which had been dispersed with tear gas.[9] Allende also clashed with Chile's largest circulation newspaper El Mercurio. Tax-evasion charges were trumped up against the newspaper and its director arrested.[10] The Allende government found it impossible to control inflation, which grew to more than 300 percent by September,[11] further dividing Chileans over the Allende government and its policies.

On August 22, 1973, the Chamber of Deputies passed, by a vote of 81 to 47, a resolution calling for President Allende to respect the constitution. The measure failed to obtain the two-thirds majority in the Senate constitutionally required to convict the president of abuse of power, but the resolution still represented a challenge to Allende's legitimacy. The military seized on the widespread discontent and on the Deputies' resolution to then launch the September 11, 1973 coup d'état; as troops surrounded La Moneda Palace, Allende died later that day of self-inflicted gunshot wounds.[12] The military installed themselves in power as a Military Government Junta, composed of the heads of the Army, Navy, Air Force and Carabineros (police). Once the Junta was in power, General Augusto Pinochet soon consolidated his control over the government. Since he was the commander-in-chief of the oldest branch of the military forces (the Army), he was made the titular head of the junta, and soon after President of Chile. The coup received active support from the CIA, and once the junta had taken over, the United States immediately recognized the new regime and helped it consolidate power.[5]

Dictatorship violence[edit]

Suppression of political activity[edit]

Book burning in Chile following the 1973 coup that installed the Pinochet regime.

Following their takeover of power in 1973, the Government Junta formally banned the socialist, Marxist and other leftist parties that had constituted former President Allende's Popular Unity coalition.[13] On September 13, the junta dissolved the Congress and outlawed or suspended all political activities in addition to suspending the 1925 constitution. All political activity was declared "in recess". Eduardo Frei, Allende's predecessor as president, initially supported the coup along with his Christian Democratic colleagues. Later, they assumed the role of a loyal opposition to the military rulers, but soon lost most of their influence.[citation needed]

Meanwhile, left-wing Christian Democrats like Radomiro Tomic were jailed or forced into exile.[14][15] The Catholic Church, which at first expressed its gratitude to the armed forces for saving the country from the horrors of a "Marxist dictatorship" became, under the leadership of Cardinal Raúl Silva Henríquez, the most outspoken critic of the regime's social and economic policies.

Human rights violations[edit]

The military rule was characterized by systematic suppression of all political dissidence. Scholars later described this as a "politicide" (or "political genocide").[16] Steve J. Stern spoke of a politicide to describe "a systematic project to destroy an entire way of doing and understanding politics and governance."[17]

The worst violence occurred within the first three months of the coup, with the number of suspected leftists killed or "disappeared" (desaparecidos) reaching several thousand.[18] In the days immediately following the coup, the Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs informed Henry Kissinger that the National Stadium was being used to hold 5,000 prisoners, and as late as 1975, the CIA was still reporting that up to 3,811 were still imprisoned there.[19] Between the day of the coup and November 1973, as many as 40,000 political prisoners were held there.[20][21] 1,850 of them were killed, another 1,300 are missing since then.[21] Some of the most famous cases of desaparecidos are Charles Horman, a U.S. citizen who was killed during the coup itself,[22] Chilean songwriter Víctor Jara, and the October 1973 Caravan of Death (Caravana de la Muerte) where at least 70 persons were killed. Among the most infamous methods of murder involved Pinochet's henchmen dropping pregnant women out of aeroplanes. He believed this was a way of avenging soldiers killed by Allende's supporters. He was quoted to have said "If you kill the bitch, you kill off the offspring."[23] Other instances of systematic murder include Operation Colombo and Operation Condor.

Following the 1988 plebiscite, the Rettig Commission, a multipartisan effort by the Aylwin administration to discover the truth about the human-rights violations, listed a number of torture and detention centers (such as Colonia Dignidad, the ship Esmeralda or Víctor Jara Stadium), and found that at least 3,200 people were killed or disappeared by the regime. Later, the 2004 Valech Report confirmed the figure of 3,200 deaths but reduced the estimated number of disappearances. It tells of some 28,000 arrests in which the majority of those detained were incarcerated and in a great many cases tortured.[25] Some 30,000 Chileans were exiled,[26][27][28] particularly to Argentina; however, they were followed in their exile by the DINA secret police, in the frame of Operation Condor which linked South American dictatorships together against political opponents.[29] Some 20,000–40,000 Chilean exiles were holders of passports stamped with the letter "L" (which stood for lista nacional), identifying them as persona non grata and had to seek permission before entering the country.[30] According to a study in Latin American Perspectives,[31] at least 200,000 Chileans (about 2% of Chile's 1973 population) were forced into exile. Additionally, hundreds of thousands left the country in the wake of the economic crises that followed the military coup during the 1970s and 1980s.[31] In 2003, an article published by the International Committee of the Fourth International claimed that "Of a population of barely 11 million, more than 4,000 were executed or 'disappeared,' hundreds of thousands were detained and tortured, and almost a million fled the country."[32]

Rudolph Rummel estimates 10,000 killed during Pinochet's regime, with 30,000 being the highest possible number.[33] Rummel notes an estimate by Sivard that 3,000 miners were killed by the Chilean army in a dispute in 1987.[34] Other sources place the number of all the victims of the dictatorship as high as 15,000 killed and 2,000 disappeared.[35] In 1996, human rights activists announced they had presented another 899 cases of people who had disappeared or been killed during the dictatorship, taking the total of known victims to 3,197, of whom 2,095 were reported killed and 1,102 missing.[36] In 2011, the Chilean government officially recognized 36,948 survivors of torture and political imprisonment, as well as 3,095 people killed or disappeared at the hands of the military government.[37]

Some funeral urns of political activists executed by the Chilean military dictatorship, from 1973 to 1990, in the cemetery of Santiago

Leftist guerrilla groups and their sympathizers were also hit hard during the military regime. The MIR commander, Andrés Pascal Allende, has stated that the Marxist guerrillas lost 1,500–2,000 fighters killed or disappeared.[38] Among the killed and disappeared during the military regime were at least 663 MIR guerrillas.[39] The Manuel Rodríguez Patriotic Front stated that 49 FPMR guerrillas were killed and hundreds tortured.[40]

According to the Latin American Institute on Mental Health and Human Rights, 200,000 people were affected by "extreme trauma"; this figure includes individuals executed, tortured, forcibly exiled, or having their immediate relatives put under detention.[41] 316 women have reported to have subject to rape by soldiers and agents of the dictatorship, however the number is believed to much larger due to the preference of many women to avoid talking about this. Twenty pregnant women have declared to have suffered abortion due to torture.[42] In the words of Alejandra Matus detained women were doubly punished, first for being "leftists" and second for not conforming to their ideal of women usually being called "perra" (lit. "bitch").[43]

Several scholars including Paul Zwier,[44] Peter Winn[45] and human rights organizations[46] have characterized the dictatorship as a police state exhibiting "repression of public liberties, the elimination of political exchange, limiting freedom of speech, abolishing the right to strike, freezing wages."[47]

Fake combats[edit]

Starting in the late 1970s the regime begun to use a tactic of faking combats, usually known by its Spanish name: "falsos enfrentamientos".[48] This meant that dissidents who were murdered outright had their deaths reported in media as if they had occurred in a mutual exchange of gunfire. This was done with support of journalists who "reported" the supposed events, in some cases the fake combats were also staged. The faked combat tactic ameliorated criticism of the regime implicitly putting culpability on the victim. It is thought that the killing of the MIR leader Miguel Enríquez in 1974 could be an early case of a faked combat. The faked combats reinforced the dictatorship narrative on the existence of an "internal war" which it used to justify its existence.[49] A particular fake combat event, lasting from September 8th to 9th 1983, occurred when forces of the CNI lobbed grenades into a house, detonating the structure and killing the two men and a woman who were in the building. The agents would later state, with help from the Chilean press, that the people in the house had fired on them previously from their cars and had escaped to the house. The official story became that the three suspects had caused the explosion themselves by trying to burn and destroy incriminating evidence. Such actions had the effect of justifying the existence of heavily armed forces in Chile. And by extension, justified the dictatorship's conduct against such "violent" offenders. [50]

Politics and power within the dictatorship[edit]

Pinochet–Leigh conflict[edit]

In the 1970s junta members Gustavo Leigh and Augusto Pinochet clashed on several occasions beginning in the day of the 1973 Chilean coup d'état. Leigh criticized Pinochet for having joined the coup very late and then pretending to keep all power for himself. In December 1974 Leigh opposed the proposal to name Pinochet president of Chile. Leigh recalls about that moment that, "Pinochet was furious, he hit the board, broke the glass, injured his hand a little and bled. Then, Merino and Mendoza told me I should sign, because if not the junta would split. I signed.". Leigh's primary concern was Pinochet's consolidating of the legislative and executive branches of government under the new government. In particular, Pinochet's decision to intact a plebiscite without formally alerting the other junta members.[51] Leigh, although a fervent supporter of the regime and hater of marxist ideology, had already taken steps to separate the executive and legislative branches. Pinochet is said to have been angered by Leigh's continued founding of a structure to divide the executive and legislative branches, eventually leading to Pinochet consolidating power and Leigh being dumped from the regime.[52] Leigh tried to fight his dismissal from the military and government junta but on July 24, 1978 his office was blocked by paratroopers. In accordance with legal rights established by the junta government, its members could not be dismissed without evidence of impairment. So the Pinochet and junta members had Leigh declared unfit.[53][54] After a prolonged period of disagreements with Pinochet, Leigh was dismissed from the junta in 1978 and replaced by General Fernando Matthei.[55]

Another dictatorship member critical of Pinochet, Arturo Yovane, was removed from his post as minister of mining in 1974 and appointed ambassador at the new Chilean embassy in Tehran.[56]

Civilian collaborators[edit]

Over time the dictatorship incorporated civilians into the government. Many of the Chicago boys joined the government, and Pinochet was largely sympathetic to them. This sympathy, scholar Peter Winn explains, was indebted to the fact that the Chicago boys were technocrats and thus fitted Pinochet's self-image of being "above politics".[57] Pinochet was impressed by their assertiveness as well as by their links to the financial world of the United States.[57]

Another group of civilians that collaborated extensively with the regime were the Gremialists, whose movement started in 1966 in the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile.[58] The founder of the Gremialist movement, lawyer Jaime Guzmán, never assumed any official position in the military dictatorship but he remained one of the closest collaborators with Pinochet, playing an important ideological role. He participated in the design of important speeches of Pinochet, and provided frequent political and doctrinal advice and consultancy.[59]

According to scholar Carlos Huneeus the Gremialists and the Chicago Boys shared a long-term power strategy and were linked to each other in many ways.[58] In Chile, it has been very hard for the outside world to fully understand the role that everyday civilians played in keeping Pinochet's government afloat. Partly because there has been scant research into the topic, partly because those who did help the regime from 1973 to 1990 have been unwilling to explore their own part. One of the exemptions being an Univision interview with Osvaldo Romo Mena, a civilian torturer in 1995, recounting his actions. Osvaldo Romo died while incarcerated for the murder of three political opponents. For the most part, civilian corroborators with Pinochet have not broken the code of silence held by the military of the 1970s to 1990s.[60]

Constitution of 1980[edit]

Establishing a new constitution was a core issue for the dictatorship since it provided a mean of legitimization.[3] For this purpose the junta selected notable civilians willing to join the draft commission. Dissidents to the dictatorship were not represented in the commission.[61]

Chile's new constitution was approved in a national plebiscite held on September 11, 1980. The constitution was approved by 66% of voters under a process which has been described as "highly irregular and undemocratic."[62] Critics of the 1980 Constitution argue that the constitution was created not to build a democracy, but to consolidate power within the central government while limiting the amount of sovereignty allowed to the people with little political presence.[63] The constitution came into force on March 11, 1981.

Removal of César Mendoza[edit]

In 1985, due to the Caso Degollados scandal ("case of the slit throats"), General César Mendoza resigned and was replaced by General Rodolfo Stange.[55]

Youth policy[edit]

One of the first measures of the dictatorship was to set up a Secretaría Nacional de la Juventud (SNJ, National Youth Office). This was done on October 28 1973, even before the Declaration of Principles of the junta made in March 1974. This was a way of mobilizing sympathetic elements of the civil society in support for the dictatorship. SNJ was created by advise of Jaime Guzmán, being an example of the dictatorship adopting a Gremialist thought.[64] From 1975 to 1980 the SNJ arranged a series of ritualized acts in cerro Chacarillas reminiscent of Francoist Spain. The policy towards the sympathetic youth contrasted with the murder, surveillance and forced disappearances the dissident youth faced from the regime. Most of the documents of the SNJ would have been destroyed by the dictatorship in 1988.[64]


Attacks on military personnel[edit]

One of the counter-Pinochet government organizations was named MIR, Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria, and it conducted several operations against the Pinochet government until the late 1980s. MIR assassinated the head of the Army Intelligence school, Lieutenant Roger Vergara, with machine gun fire in the late 1970s. The MIR also executed an attack on the base of the Chilean Secret Police (Centro Nacional de Informacion), as well as several attempts on the lives of carabinero officials and a judge of the Supreme Court in Chile.[65] Throughout the beginning years of the dictatorship the MIR was low-profile, but in August 1981 the MIR successfully killed the military leader of Santiago, General Carol Urzua Ibanez. Attacks on Chilean military official increased in the early 1980s, with the MIR killing several security forces personnel on a variety of occasions through extensive use of planted bombs in police stations or machine gun use [66]

Church opposition to human rights violations[edit]

Jornadas de Protesta Nacional[edit]

Economy and free market reforms[edit]

After the military took over the government in 1973, a period of dramatic economic changes began. The Chilean economy was still faltering in the months following the coup. As the military junta itself was not particularly skilled in remedying the persistent economic difficulties, it appointed a group of Chilean economists who had been educated in the United States at the University of Chicago. Given financial and ideological support from Pinochet, the U.S., and international financial institutions, the Chicago Boys advocated laissez-faire, free-market, neoliberal, and fiscally conservative policies, in stark contrast to the extensive nationalization and centrally-planned economic programs supported by Allende.[67] Chile was drastically transformed from an economy isolated from the rest of the world, with strong government intervention, into a liberalized, world-integrated economy, where market forces were left free to guide most of the economy's decisions.[67]

From an economic point of view, the era can be divided into two periods. The first, from 1975 to 1982, corresponds to the period when most of the reforms were implemented. The period ended with the international debt crisis and the collapse of the Chilean economy. At that point, unemployment was extremely high, above 20 percent, and a large proportion of the banking sector had become bankrupt. The following period was characterized by new reforms and economic recovery. Some economists argue that the recovery was due to an about-face turnaround of Pinochet's free market policy, since he nationalized many of the same industries that were nationalized under Allende and fired the Chicago Boys from their government posts.[68]


Chile's main industry, copper mining, remained in government hands, with the 1980 Constitution declaring them "inalienable," [69] but new mineral deposits were open to private investment.[69] Capitalist involvement was increased, the Chilean pension system and healthcare were privatized, and Superior Education was also placed in private hands. One of the junta's economic moves was fixing the exchange rate in the early 1980s, leading to a boom in imports and a collapse of domestic industrial production; this together with a world recession caused a serious economic crisis in 1982, where GDP plummeted by 14%, and unemployment reached 33%. At the same time, a series of massive protests were organized, trying to cause the fall of the regime, which were efficiently repressed.


In 1982-1983 Chile witnessed a severe economic crises with a surge in unemployment and a meltdown of the financial sector.[70] 16 out of 50 financial institutions faced bankruptcy.[71] In 1982 the two biggest banks were nationalized to prevent an even worse credit crunch. In 1983 another five banks were nationalized and two banks had to be put under government supervision.[72] The central bank took over foreign debts. Critics ridiculed the economic policy of the Chicago Boys as "Chicago way to socialism".[73]


After the economic crisis, Hernán Büchi became Minister of Finance from 1985 to 1989, introducing a return to a free market economic policy. He allowed the peso to float and reinstated restrictions on the movement of capital in and out of the country. He deleted some bank regulations, and simplified and reduced the corporate tax. Chile went ahead with privatizations, including public utilities and the re-privatization of companies that had briefly returned to government control during the 1982–83 crisis. From 1984 to 1990, Chile's gross domestic product grew by an annual average of 5.9%, the fastest on the continent. Chile developed a good export economy, including the export of fruits and vegetables to the northern hemisphere when they were out of season, and commanded high export prices.


Chilean (orange) and average Latin American (blue) rates of growth of GDP (1971–2007).

Initially the economic reforms were internationally praised. Milton Friedman wrote in his Newsweek column on 25 January 1982 about the Miracle of Chile. British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher credited Pinochet with bringing about a thriving, free-enterprise economy, while at the same time downplaying the junta's human rights record, condemning an "organised international Left who are bent on revenge."

With the economic crises of 1982 the "monetarist experiment" was widely regarded a failure.[74]

The pragmatic economic policy after the crises of 1982 is appreciated for bringing constant economic growth.[75] It is questionable whether the radical reforms of the Chicago Boys contributed to post-1983 growth.[76] According to Ricardo Ffrench-Davis, consultant of the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, the 1982 crises as well as the success of the pragmatic economic policy after 1982 proves that the 1975–1981 radical economic policy of the Chicago Boys actually harmed the Chilean economy.[77]

Social consequences[edit]

The economic policies espoused by the Chicago Boys and implemented by the junta initially caused several economic indicators to decline for Chile's lower classes.[78] Between 1970 and 1989, there were large cuts to incomes and social services. Wages decreased by 8%.[79] Family allowances in 1989 were 28% of what they had been in 1970 and the budgets for education, health and housing had dropped by over 20% on average.[79][80] The massive increases in military spending and cuts in funding to public services coincided with falling wages and steady rises in unemployment, which averaged 26% during the worldwide economic slump of 1982–85[79] and eventually peaked at 30%.

In 1990, the LOCE act on education initiated the dismantlement of public education.[69] According to Communist Party of Chile member and economist Manuel Riesco Larraín:

"Overall, the impact of neoliberal policies has reduced the total proportion of students in both public and private institutions in relation to the entire population, from 30 per cent in 1974 down to 25 per cent in 1990, and up only to 27 per cent today. If falling birth rates have made it possible today to attain full coverage at primary and secondary levels, the country has fallen seriously behind at tertiary level, where coverage, although now growing, is still only 32 per cent of the age group. The figure was twice as much in neighbouring Argentina and Uruguay, and even higher in developed countries—South Korea attaining a record 98 per cent coverage. Significantly, tertiary education for the upper-income fifth of the Chilean population, many of whom study in the new private universities, also reaches above 70 per cent."[69]

The junta relied on the middle class, the oligarchy, domestic business, foreign corporations, and foreign loans to maintain itself.[81] Under Pinochet, funding of military and internal defence spending rose 120% from 1974 to 1979.[82] Due to the reduction in public spending, tens of thousands of employees were fired from other state-sector jobs.[82] The oligarchy recovered most of its lost industrial and agricultural holdings, for the junta sold to private buyers most of the industries expropriated by Allende's Popular Unity government.

Financial conglomerates became major beneficiaries of the liberalized economy and the flood of foreign bank loans. Large foreign banks reinstated the credit cycle, as the Junta saw that the basic state obligations, such as resuming payment of principal and interest installments, were honored. International lending organizations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the Inter-American Development Bank lent vast sums anew.[79] Many foreign multinational corporations such as International Telephone and Telegraph (ITT), Dow Chemical, and Firestone, all expropriated by Allende, returned to Chile.[79]

Foreign relations[edit]

Having come to power with the self-proclaimed mission of fighting communism, Pinochet found common cause with the military dictatorships of Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and later, Argentina. The six countries eventually formulated a plan that became known as Operation Condor, in which one country's security forces would target active Marxist subversives, guerrillas, and their alleged sympathizers in the allied countries.[83] Pinochet's government received tacit approval and material support from the United States. The exact nature and extent of this support is disputed. (See U.S. role in 1973 Coup, U.S. intervention in Chile and Operation Condor for more details.) It is known, however, that the American Secretary of State at the time, Henry Kissinger, practiced a policy of supporting coups in nations which the United States viewed as leaning toward Communism.[84]

The new junta quickly broke off the diplomatic relations with Cuba and North Korea that had been established under the Allende government. Shortly after the junta came to power, several communist countries, including the Soviet Union, North Vietnam, East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia, severed diplomatic relations with Chile (however, Romania and the People's Republic of China both continued to maintain diplomatic relations with Chile).[85] The government broke diplomatic relations with Cambodia in January 1974[86] and renewed ties with South Korea in October 1973[citation needed] and with South Vietnam in March 1974.[87] Pinochet attended the funeral of General Francisco Franco, dictator of Spain from 1936–75, in late 1975.

Chile was on the brink of being invaded by Argentina (also ruled by a military government) as the Argentina Junta started the Operation Soberania on 22 December 1978 because of the strategic Picton, Lennox and Nueva islands at the southern tip of South America on the Beagle Canal. A full-scale war was prevented only by the call off of the operation by Argentina due to military and political reasons.[88] But the relations remained tense as Argentina invaded the Falklands (Operation Rosario). Chile along with Colombia, were the only countries in South America to criticize the use of force by Argentina in its war with the U.K. over the Falkland Islands. Chile actually helped the United Kingdom during the war. The two countries (Chile and Argentina) finally agreed to papal mediation over the Beagle canal that finally ended in the Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1984 between Chile and Argentina (Tratado de Paz y Amistad). Chilean sovereignty over the islands and Argentinian east of the surrounding sea is now undisputed.

In 1980, Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos had invited the entire Junta (consisting at this point of Pinochet, Merino, Matthei, and Mendoza) to visit the country as part of a planned tour of Southeast Asia in an attempt to help improve their image and bolster military and economic relations with the Philippines, Japan, South Korea, and Hong Kong. Due to intense U.S. Pressure at the last minute (while Pinochet's plane was halfway en-route over the Pacific), Marcos cancelled the visit and denied Pinochet landing rights in the country. Pinochet and the junta were further caught off guard and humiliated when they were forced to land in Fiji to refuel for the planned return to Santiago, only to be met with airport staff who refused to assist the plane in any way (the Fijian military was called in instead), invasive and prolonged customs searches, exorbitant fuel and aviation service charges, and hundreds of angry protesters who pelted his plane with eggs and tomatoes. The usually stoic and calm Pinochet became enraged, firing his Foreign Minister Hernan Cubillos, several diplomats, and expelling the Philippine Ambassador.[89] [90] Relations between the two countries were restored only on 1986 when Corazon Aquino assumed the presidency of the Philippines after Marcos was ousted in a non-violent revolution, the People Power Revolution.

United States[edit]

The U.S. provided material support to the military regime after the coup, although criticizing it in public. A document released by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in 2000, titled "CIA Activities in Chile", revealed that the CIA actively supported the military junta after the overthrow of Allende and that it made many of Pinochet's officers into paid contacts of the CIA or U.S. military, even though some were known to be involved in human rights abuses.[91]

The U.S. was significantly friendlier with Pinochet than it had been with Allende, and continued to give the junta substantial economic support between the years 1973–79, while simultaneously expressing opposition to the junta's repression in international forums such as the United Nations. The U.S. went beyond verbal condemnation in 1976, after the murder of Orlando Letelier in Washington D.C., when it placed an embargo on arms sales to Chile that remained in effect until the restoration of democracy in 1989. Presumably, with international concerns over Chilean internal repression and previous American hostility and intervention regarding the Allende government, the U.S. did not want to be seen as an accomplice in the junta's "security" activities. Prominent U.S. allies Britain, France, and West Germany did not block arms sales to Pinochet, benefitting from the lack of American competition.[92][dubious ]

United Kingdom[edit]

Chile was officially neutral during the Falkland War, but the Chilean US-built Westinghouse long-range radar deployed at Punta Arenas, in southern Chile, gave the British task force early warning of Argentinian air attacks, which allowed British ships and troops in the war zone to take defensive action.[93] Margaret Thatcher said that the day the radar was taken out of service for overdue maintenance was the day Argentinian fighter-bombers bombed the troopships Sir Galahad and Sir Tristram, leaving approximately 50 dead and 150 wounded.[94] According to Chilean Junta and former Air Force commander Fernando Matthei, Chilean support included military intelligence gathering, radar surveillance, British aircraft operating with Chilean colours and the safe return of British special forces, among other things.[95] In April and May 1982, a squadron of mothballed RAF Hawker Hunter fighter bombers departed for Chile, arriving on 22 May and allowing the Chilean Air Force to reform the No. 9 "Las Panteras Negras" Squadron. A further consignment of three frontier surveillance and shipping reconnaissance Canberras left for Chile in October. Some authors suggest that Argentina might have won the war had she been allowed to employ the VIth and VIIIth Mountain Brigades, which remained guarding the Andes mountain chain.[96] Pinochet subsequently visited Margaret Thatcher for tea on more than one occasion.[97] Pinochet's controversial relationship with Thatcher led Labour Prime Minister Tony Blair to mock Thatcher's Conservatives as "the party of Pinochet" in 1999.


Although France received many Chilean political refugees, it also secretly collaborated with Pinochet. French journalist Marie-Monique Robin has shown how Valéry Giscard d'Estaing's government secretly collaborated with Videla's junta in Argentina and with Augusto Pinochet's regime in Chile.[98]

Green deputies Noël Mamère, Martine Billard and Yves Cochet on September 10, 2003 requested a Parliamentary Commission on the "role of France in the support of military regimes in Latin America from 1973 to 1984" before the Foreign Affairs Commission of the National Assembly, presided by Edouard Balladur. Apart from Le Monde, newspapers remained silent about this request.[99] However, deputy Roland Blum, in charge of the Commission, refused to hear Marie-Monique Robin, and published in December 2003 a 12 pages report qualified by Robin as the summum of bad faith. It claimed that no agreement had been signed, despite the agreement found by Robin in the Quai d'Orsay [100][101]

When then Minister of Foreign Affairs Dominique de Villepin traveled to Chile in February 2004, he claimed that no cooperation between France and the military regimes had occurred.[102]


Reportedly one of Juan Velasco Alvarado's main goal was to militarily reconquer the lands lost by Peru to Chile in the War of the Pacific.[103] It is estimated that from 1970 to 1975 Peru spent up to 2 Billion USD (roughly 20 Billion USD in 2010's valuation) on Soviet armament.[104] According to various sources Velasco's government bought between 600 and 1200 T-55 Main Battle Tanks, APCs, 60 to 90 Sukhoi 22 warplanes, 500,000 assault rifles, and even considered the purchase of a British carrier Centaur-class light fleet carrier HMS Bulwark.[104]

The enormous amount of weaponry purchased by Peru caused a meeting between former US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and Pinochet in 1976.[104] Velasco's military plan was to launch a massive sea, air, and land invasion against Chile.[104] In 1999, General Pinochet claimed that if Peru had attacked Chile during 1973 or even 1978, Peruvian forces could have penetrated deep south into Chilean territory, possibly military taking the Chilean city of Copiapó located half way to Santiago.[103] The Chilean Armed Forces considered launching a preventive war to defend itself. Though, Pinochet's Chilean Air Force General Fernando Matthei opposed a preventive war and responded that "I can guarantee that the Peruvians would destroy the Chilean Air Force in the first five minutes of the war".[103] Some analysts believe the fear of attack by Chilean and US officials as largely unjustified but logical for them to experience, considering the Pinochet dictatorship had come into power with a coup against democratically elected president Salvador Allende. According to sources, the alleged invasion scheme could be seen from the Chilean's government perspective as a plan for some kind of leftist counterattack.[105] While acknowledging the Peruvian plans were revisionistic scholar Kalevi J. Holsti claim more important issues behind were the "ideological incompatibility" between the regimes of Velasco Alvarado and Pinochet and that Peru would have been concerned about Pinochet's geopolitical views on Chile's need of naval hegemony in the Southeastern Pacific.[106]

—Juan Velasco Alvarado[107]


Francoist Spain had enjoyed warm relations with Chile while Allende was in power. Pinochet admired and was very much influenced by Francisco Franco, but Franco's successors had a cold attitude towards Pinochet as they did not want to be linked to him.[108][109] When Pinochet traveled to the funeral of Francisco Franco in 1975 the President of France Valéry Giscard d'Estaing pressured the Spanish government to refuse Pinochet to be at the crowning of Juan Carlos I of Spain by letting Spanish authorities know that Giscard would not be there if Pinochet was present. Juan Carlos I personally called Pinochet to let him know he was not welcome at his crowning.[110]

Foreign aid[edit]

The previous drop in foreign aid during the Allende years was immediately reversed following Pinochet's ascension; Chile received US$ $322.8 million in loans and credits in the year following the coup.[111] There was considerable international condemnation of the military regime's human rights record, a matter that the United States expressed concern over as well after Orlando Letelier's 1976 assassination in Washington DC.(Kennedy Amendment, later International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976).

Cuban involvement[edit]

After the Chilean military coup in 1973, Fidel Castro promised Chilean revolutionaries far-reaching aid. Initially Cuban support for resistance consisted of clandestine distribution of funds to Chile, human rights campaigns at the UN to isolate the Chilean dictatorship, and efforts to undermine US-Chilean bilateral relations. Eventually Cuba's policy changed to arming and training insurgents. Once their training was completed, Cuba helped the guerrillas return to Chile, providing false passports and false identification documents.[112] Cuba's official newspaper, Granma, boasted in February 1981 that the "Chilean Resistance" had successfully conducted more than 100 "armed actions" throughout Chile in 1980. By late 1980, at least 100 highly trained MIR guerrillas had reentered Chile and the MIR began building a base for future guerrilla operations in Neltume, a mountainous forest region in southern Chile. In a massive operation spearheaded by Chilean Army Para-Commandos, security forces involving some 2,000 troops, were forced to deploy in the Neltume mountains from June to November 1981, where they destroyed two MIR bases, seizing large caches of munitions and killing a number of MIR commandos. In 1986, Chilean security forces discovered 80 tons of munitions, including more than three thousand M-16 rifles and more than two million rounds of ammunition, at the tiny fishing harbor of Carrizal Bajo, smuggled ashore from Cuban fishing trawlers off the coast of Chile.[113] The operation was overseen by Cuban naval intelligence, and also involved the Soviet Union. Cuban Special Forces had also instructed the FPMR guerrillas that ambushed President Augusto Pinochet's motorcade on 8 September 1986, killing five bodyguards and wounding 10.[114]

Cultural life[edit]

Charango, a musical instrument banned by the dictatorship.

The coup brought Chilean cultural life into what sociologist Soledad Bianchi has called a "cultural blackout".[115] The government censored non-sympathetic individuals while taking control of mass media.[115] The formerly thriving Nueva canción scene suffered from the exile or imprisonment of many bands and individuals.[115] A key musician, Víctor Jara, was tortured and killed by elements of the military.[115] According to Eduardo Carrasco of Quilapayún in the first week after the coup, the military organized a meeting with folk musicians where they announced that the traditional instruments charango and quena were banned.[115] Nueva Cancion resurfaced in Chile once again in 1975 due to the efforts of musicians who had been active before the coup. This was music of resistance and solidarity, a style that aimed to keep the memory of the Allende years alive.

The 1980s saw an invasion of Argentine rock bands into Chile. These included Charly García, the Enanitos Verdes, G.I.T. and Soda Stereo among others.[116] Contemporary Chilean rock group Los Prisioneros complained against the ease with which Argentine Soda Stereo made appearances on Chilean TV or in Chilean magazines and the ease they could obtain musical equipment for concerts in Chile.[117] Soda Stereo was invited to Viña del Mar International Song Festival while Los Prisioneros were ignored despite their popular status.[118] This situation was because Los Prisioneros were censored by media under the influence of the military dictatorship.[117][118] Los Prisioneros' marginalization by the media was further aggravated by their call to vote against the dictatorship on the plebiscite of 1988.[118]

Experimental theatre groups from Universidad de Chile and Pontifical Catholic University of Chile were restricted by the military regime to performing only theatre classics.[120] Some established groups like Grupo Ictus were tolerated while new formations like Grupo Aleph were repressed. This last group had its members jailed and forced to go into exile after performing a parody on the 1973 Chilean coup d'état.[120] In the 1980s a grassroots street theatre movement emerged.[120]

The dictatorship promoted the figure of Nobel laureate Gabriela Mistral who was presented as a symbol of "summission to the authority" and "social order".[121]

Plebiscite and return to civilian rule[edit]

1988 plebiscite[edit]

According to the transitional provisions of the 1980 Constitution, a plebiscite was scheduled for October 5, 1988, to vote on a new eight-year presidential term for Pinochet.

During the last years of dictatorship the commander in chiefs of the navy, air force and Carabineros disassociated themselves from Pinochet expressing their wishes that a civilian should represent the regime in the 1988 plebiscite.[3] Pinochet however imposed himself as candidate and when he lost the other junta members regarded it as Pinochet's personal defeat. The fact the dictatorship respected the results is attributed to pressure from the big business, the international community and unease with extended Pinochet-rule within the dictatorship.[3]

The Constitutional Court of Chile ruled that the plebiscite should be carried out as stipulated by the Law of Elections. That included an "Electoral Space" during which all positions, in this case two, (yes), and No, would have two free slots of equal and uninterrupted TV time, simultaneously broadcast by all TV channels, with no political advertising outside those spots. The allotment was scheduled in two off-prime time slots: one before the afternoon news and the other before the late-night news, from 22:45 to 23:15 each night (the evening news was from 20:30 to 21:30, and prime time from 21:30 to 22:30). The opposition No campaign, headed by Ricardo Lagos, produced colorful, upbeat programs, telling the Chilean people to vote against the extension of the presidential term. Lagos, in a TV interview, pointed his index finger towards the camera and directly called on Pinochet to account for all the "disappeared" persons. The campaign did not argue for the advantages of extension, but was instead negative, claiming that voting "no" was equivalent to voting for a return to the chaos of the UP government.

Pinochet lost the 1988 referendum, where 56% of the votes rejected the extension of the presidential term, against 44% for "", and, following the constitutional provisions, he stayed as President for one more year. The presidential election was held on December 1989, at the same time as congressional elections that would have taken place in either case. Pinochet left the presidency on March 11, 1990 and transferred power to political opponent Patricio Aylwin, the new democratically elected president. Due to the same transitional provisions of the constitution, Pinochet remained as Commander-in-Chief of the Army, until March 1998.

1989 general elections[edit]

From the 1989 elections onwards the military had officially left the political future of the country to civilians to be elected. Pinochet did not endorse any candidate publicly. Former dictatorship minister Hernán Büchi ran for president as candidate of the two right-wing parties RN and UDI. He had little political experience and was a relatively young (40 years) technocrat credited for Chile's good economic performance in the later half of the 1980s. The right parties faced several problems in the elections: there was considerable infighting between RN and UDI, Büchi had only very reluctantly accepted to run for president and right-wing politicians struggled to define their position towards the Pinochet regime. In addition to this right-wing populist Francisco Javier Errázuriz Talavera ran independently for president and made several election promises Büchi could not match.[3]

The centre-left coalition Concertación was rather united and confident. Its candidate Patricio Aylwin, a Christian Democrat, behaved as if he had won and refused a second television debate with Büchi. Büchi attacked Aylwin on a remark he had made concerning that inflation rate of 20% was not much and he also accused Aylwin of making secret agreements with the Communist Party of Chile, a party that was not part of Concertación.[3] Aylwin spoke with strength about the need to clarify human rights violations but did not confront the dictatorship for it, in contrast Büchi as a regime collaborator lacked any credibility when dealing with human right violations.[3]

Büchi and Errázuriz lost to Patricio Aylwin. The electoral system meant that the largely Pinochet-sympathetic right was overrepresented in parliament such way that it could block any reform to the constitution. This over-representation was crucial for UDI to obtain places in parliament and secure its political future. Pinochet declared to be satisfied with the election. The far-left and the far-right performed poorly in the election.[3]


Following the restoration of Chilean democracy and during the successive administrations that followed Pinochet, the Chilean economy has prospered, and today the country is considered a Latin American success story. Unemployment stands at 7% as of 2007, with poverty estimated at 18.2% for the same year, both relatively low for the region.[122]

The "Chilean Variation" has been seen as a potential model for nations that fail to achieve significant economic growth.[123] The latest is Russia, for whom David Christian warned in 1991 that "dictatorial government presiding over a transition to capitalism seems one of the more plausible scenarios, even if it does so at a high cost in human rights violations."[124]

On his 91st birthday on 25 November 2006, in a public statement to supporters, Pinochet for the first time claimed to accept "political responsibility" for what happened in Chile under his regime, though he still defended the 1973 coup against Salvador Allende. In a statement read by his wife Lucia Hiriart, he said, Today, near the end of my days, I want to say that I harbour no rancour against anybody, that I love my fatherland above all. ... I take political responsibility for everything that was done.[125] Despite this statement, Pinochet always refused to be confronted to Chilean justice, claiming that he was senile. He died two weeks later while indicted on human rights and corruption charges, but without having been sentenced.


  1. ^ "Country profile: Chile". BBC News. 16 December 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2009. 
  2. ^ Wright, T.C.; Oñate, R. (2005), "Chilean Diaspora", in Ember, M.; Ember, C. R.; Skoggard, I., Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World, II, pp. 57–65 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Angell, Alan; Pollack, Benny (1990). "The Chilean Elections of 1989". Bulletin of Latin American Research. Society for Latin American Studies. 9 (1): 1–23. 
  4. ^ Peter Kornbluh. "Chile and the United States: Declassified Documents Relating to the Military Coup, September 11, 1973". 
  5. ^ a b Winn, Peter (2010). Grandin & Joseph, Greg & Gilbert, ed. A Century of Revolution. Duke University Press. pp. 239–275. 
  6. ^ CIA Activities in Chile. Central Intelligence Agency. September 18, 2000.
  7. ^ Gabriel Garcia Marquez. "Why Allende had to die". New Statesman. 3 April 2013.
  8. ^ Historical Dictionary of Chile, Salvatore Bizzarro, p. 34, Scarecrow Press, 2005
  9. ^ "The Bloody End of a Marxist Dream". Time Magazine. 24 September 1973.
  10. ^ Authoritarian Regimes in Latin America: Dictators, Despots, and Tyrants, Paul H. Lewis, p. 204, Rowman & Littlefield, 2006
  11. ^ Latin America in the Era of the Cuban Revolution, Thomas C. Wright, p. 139, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001
  12. ^ "Chilean President Salvador Allende Committed Suicide, Autopsy Confirms". 
  13. ^ "DL-77 13-OCT-1973 MINISTERIO DEL INTERIOR - Ley Chile - Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional". 
  14. ^ [1] Pinochet Forms Panel to Consider Return of Chileans Sent Into Exile
  15. ^ [2] Radomiro Tomic, político chileno
  16. ^ [3] The legacy of human-rights violations in the Southern Cone
  17. ^ Stern, Steve J. Remembering Pinochet's Chile. 2004-09-30: Duke University Press. pp. 32, 90, 101, 180–81. ISBN 0-8223-3354-6. 
  18. ^ [4] BBC: Finding Chile's disappeared
  19. ^ Thinking about Terrorism. Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  20. ^ Gómez-Barris, Macarena (2010). "Witness Citizenship: The Place of Villa Grimaldi in Chilean Memory". Sociological Forum. 25 (1): 34. doi:10.1111/j.1573-7861.2009.01155.x. 
  21. ^ a b "El campo de concentración de Pinochet cumple 70 años". El País. 3 December 2008. 
  22. ^ [5] New Information on the Murders of U.S. Citizens Charles Horman and Frank Teruggi by the Chilean Military
  23. ^ [6] BBC: Caravan of Death
  24. ^ Pinochet is history: But how will it remember him? Archived 2007-06-15 at the Wayback Machine. National Review Symposium, December 11, 2006
  25. ^ [7] Valech Report
  26. ^ Augusto Pinochet's Chile, Diana Childress, p.92, Twenty First century Books, 2009
  27. ^ Chile en el umbral de los noventa: quince años que condicionan el futuro, Jaime Gazmuri & Felipe Agüero, p. 121, Planeta, 1988
  28. ^ "Chile: One Carrot, Many Sticks". 22 August 1983. Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  30. ^ Chile since the coup: ten years of repression, Cynthia G. Brown, pp.88-89, Americas Watch, 1983.
  31. ^ a b Wright, Thomas C.; Oñate Zúñiga, Rody (2007). "Chilean political exile". Latin American Perspectives. 34 (4): 31. doi:10.1177/0094582x07302902. 
  32. ^ Mauricio Saavedra (17 September 2003). "The lessons of Chile—30 years on - World Socialist Web Site". Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  33. ^ RJ, Rummel. "Table 4: Democide Rank Ordered (1970-1979)". 
  34. ^ Table 15.1A in Rummel, RJ (1997). Statistics of Democide. Charlottesville: School of Law, University of Virginia. Retrieved 23 March 2013. 
  35. ^ Graham, 1990; cited in Johnson 2006, pg. 85
  36. ^ "Archives: Sun-Sentinel - GUNMEN THREATEN MEDIA". Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  37. ^ Controversial victims on Chile's official list, By Eva Vergara, Omaha World-Herald, August 18, 2011 Archived October 2, 2013, at
  38. ^ Los Allende. Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  40. ^ "Frente Patriótico Manuel Rodríguez". Archived from the original on 4 November 2005. Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  41. ^ Vasallo, Mark (2002). "Truth and Reconciliation Commissions: General Considerations and a Critical Comparison of the Commissions of Chile and El Salvador". The University of Miami Inter-American Law Review. 33 (1): 163. 
  42. ^ Violencia sexual contra mujeres en dictadura: un crimen invisibilizado
  43. ^ Cultura Verdadera Programa Completo del Lunes 14 de Diciembre de 2015, minute 3:20.
  44. ^ Zwier, Paul J. (2013-04-22). Principled Negotiation and Mediation in the International Arena: Talking with Evil. Cambridge University Press. pp. 235–. ISBN 9781107026872. Retrieved 22 March 2014. 
  45. ^ [9]
  46. ^ "Organismos de DDHH denuncian un estado policial 'similar' al de Pinochet". El Mostrador. Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  47. ^ Casanova, Pablo González (1993-01-01). Latin America Today. United Nations University Press. pp. 233–. ISBN 9789280808193. Retrieved 22 March 2014. 
  48. ^ Nuevos condenados por falso enfrentamiento en dictadura
  49. ^ Silva Hidalgo, Robinson Humberto (2014). Resistencia política y origen del movimiento social anti dictatorial en Chile (1973-1988) (PDF) (Ph.D.) (in Spanish). Universitat de Barcelona. p. 341–349. 
  50. ^
  51. ^ Ensalaco, Mark. 2000. Chile Under Pinochet : Recovering the Truth. Pennsylvania Studies in Human Rights. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  52. ^ Barros, Robert. La Junta militar: Pinochet y la Constitución de 1980. Sudamericana, 2005.
  53. ^ Ensalaco, Mark. 2000. Chile Under Pinochet : Recovering the Truth. Pennsylvania Studies in Human Rights. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  54. ^ Carmen Gardeweg: El general Leigh: pensamiento y sentimiento 48 horas después de ser destituido en 1978. La Segunda, 30 de septiembre de 1999, página 8.
  56. ^ González, Mónica (August 6, 2009). "El día en que Manuel Contreras le ofreció al Sha de Irán matar a "Carlos, El Chacal"". (in Spanish). CIPER. Retrieved August 11, 2015. 
  57. ^ a b Winn, Peter (ed.). Victims of the Chilean miracle, pp. 26–27.
  58. ^ a b Huneeus, Carlos (2000). "Technocrats and politicians in an authoritarian regime. The 'ODEPLAN Boys' and the 'Gremialists' in Pinochet's Chile". Journal of Latin American Studies. 32: 461–501. Retrieved 22 November 2015. 
  59. ^ Carlos Huneeus (3 April 2001). "Jaime Guzmán no fue un defensor de los Derechos Humanos en el Régimen de Pinochet" (PDF). Archivo Chile. 
  60. ^
  61. ^ Cazor Aliste, Camel (2000). "Democracia y constitucion en Chile". Revista de Derecho. Austral University of Chile. IX: 25–34. Archived from the original on 2015-05-18. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  62. ^ Hudson, Rex A., ed. "Chile: A Country Study." GPO for the Library of Congress. 1995. March 20, 2005
  63. ^
  64. ^ a b González, Yanko (2015). "El "Golpe Generacional" y la Secretaría Nacional de la Juventud: purga, disciplinamiento y resocialización de las identidades juveniles bajo Pinochet (1973-1980)" [The "Generational Putsch" and the National youth Office: Purge, disciplining and resocialization of youth identities under Pinochet (1973-1980)]. Atenea (in Spanish). 512: 10.4067/S0718–04622015000200006. Retrieved December 4, 2017. 
  65. ^ Collier, Simon, and William F Sater. 1996. A History of Chile, 1808-1994. Cambridge Latin American Studies, 82. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  66. ^ Anderson, Sean, and Stephen Sloan. 2009. Historical Dictionary of Terrorism. 3Rd ed. Historical Dictionaries of War, Revolution, and Civil Unrest, 38. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press.
  67. ^ a b K. Remmer (1998). "Public Policy and Regime Consolidation: The First Five Years of the Chilean Junta": 5–55. Journal of the Developing Areas. 
  68. ^ Valenzuela, Arturo (2002). A Nation of Enemies. New York: W. W. Norton.  p. 197-8
  69. ^ a b c d Riesco, Manuel (September–October 2007). "Is Pinochet dead?". New Left Review. New Left Review. II (47).  Spanish pdf. Italian pdf.
  70. ^ Sebastián Edwards, Alejandra Cox Edwards: Monetarism and Liberalization: the Chilean Experiment. University of Chicago Press, 1991, S. xvii.
  71. ^ Karin Fischer: "The Influence of Neoliberals in Chile before, during, and after Pinochet." In: P. Mirowski, D. Plehwe (Hrsg.): The Road from Mont Pèlerin: The Making of the Neoliberal Thought Collective, Harvard University Press, Cambridge/London 2009, S. 305–346, hier S. 329.
  72. ^ Karin Fischer: "The Influence of Neoliberals in Chile before, during, and after Pinochet" In: P. Mirowski, D. Plehwe (Hrsg.): The Road from Mont Pèlerin: The Making of the Neoliberal Thought Collective, Harvard University Press, Cambridge/London 2009, p. 305–346, hier S. 329.
  73. ^ Robert G. Wesson: Politics, policies, and economic development in Latin America. Hoover Press, 1984, ISBN 0-8179-8062-8, S. 8.
  74. ^ Carlos Fortin: "The Failure of Repressive Monetarism: Chile, 1973–1983". In: Third World Quarterly, vol. 6, no. 2 (Apr., 1984), p. 310–326; Sebastian Edwards: "Monetarism in Chile, 1973–83: Some Economic Puzzles". In: Economic Development and Cultural Change vol. 34, no. 3 (April 1986), p. 535. Vgl. auch die Nachweise bei Jean Drèze, Amartya Kumar Sen: Hunger and Public Action. Oxford University Press, 1991, p. 231.
  75. ^ Enrique R. Carrasco: "Autocratic Transitions to Liberalism: A Comparison of Chilean and Russian Structural Adjustment." In: Law and Contemporary Problems, Bd. 5, S. 99–126, hier S. 101, Fn. 5.
  76. ^ J. M. Albala-Bertrand: "Monetarism and Liberalization: The Chilean Experiment: With a New Afterword." In: The Economic Journal, vol. 102, no. 414 (Sep., 1992), p. 1258–1260, p. 1259f; Jorge Nef: "The Chilean Model Fact and Fiction." In: Latin American Perspectives. vol. 30, no. 5, (Sep., 2003), p. 16–40; Eduardo Silva: "From Dictatorship to Democracy: The Business-State Nexus in Chile's Economic Transformation, 1975–1994." In: Comparative Politics vol. 28 (1996), p. 299–320; Ricardo French-Davis: Economic Reforms in Chile: From Dictatorship to Democracy. University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbour, 2002.
  77. ^ Helmut Wittelsbürger, Albrecht von Hoff: Chiles Weg zur Sozialen Marktwirtschaft. (PDF; 118 kB); Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung -Auslandsinfo. 1/2004, p. 97, 104.
  78. ^ K. Remmer (1998). "The Politics of Neoliberal Economic Reform in South America". 33: 3–29. doi:10.1007/bf02687406. Studies in Comparative International Development. 
  79. ^ a b c d e James Petras; Steve Vieux (1990). "The Chilean "Economic Miracle": An Empirical Critique": 57–72. Critical Sociology. 
  80. ^ Sznajder, 1996
  81. ^ [11] Chile under Pinochet: recovering the truth
  82. ^ a b Remmer, 1989
  83. ^ "Operation Condor". Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  84. ^ [12] The Kissinger Telcons: Kissinger Telcons on Chile
  85. ^ J. Samuel Valenzuela and Arturo Valenzuela (eds.), Military Rule in Chile: Dictatorship and Oppositions, p. 317
  86. ^ El Mercurio, 20 January 1974
  87. ^ El Mercurio, 6 April 1975
  88. ^ See Alejandro Luis Corbacho "Predicting the probability of war during brinkmanship crisis: The Beagle and the Malvinas conflicts" about the reasons of the call off (p.45): The newspaper Clarín explained some years later that such caution was based, in part, on military concerns. In order to achieve a victory, certain objectives had to be reached before the seventh day after the attack. Some military leaders considered this not enough time due to the difficulty involved in transportation through the passes over the Andean Mountains. and in cite 46: According to Clarín, two consequences were feared. First, those who were dubious feared a possible regionalization of the conflict. Second, as a consequence, the conflict could acquire great power proportions. In the first case decisionmakers speculated that Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Brazil might intervene. Then the great powers could take sides. In this case, the resolution of the conflict would depend not on the combatants, but on the countries that supplied the weapons.
  89. ^ [13]
  90. ^ Helen Spooner, Soldiers in a narrow land: the Pinochet regime in Chile, url
  91. ^ Peter Kornbluh, CIA Acknowledges Ties to Pinochet’s Repression Report to Congress Reveals U.S. Accountability in Chile, Chile Documentation Project, National Security Archive, September 19, 2000. Accessed online November 26, 2006.
  92. ^ Falcoff, 2003
  93. ^ "Speech on Pinochet at the Conservative Party Conference". Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  94. ^ The Falklands Conflict Part 5 - Battles of Goose Green & Stanley HMFORCES.CO.UK
  95. ^ ""US support to UK in Falklands' war was decisive" — MercoPress". MercoPress. Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  96. ^ Nicholas van der Bijl and David Aldea, 5th Infantry Brigade in the Falklands , page 28, Leo Cooper 2003
  97. ^ "Pinochet death 'saddens' Thatcher". BBC News. December 11, 2006. Retrieved April 28, 2010. 
  98. ^ Conclusion of Marie-Monique Robin's Escadrons de la mort, l'école française (in French)/ Watch here film documentary (French, English, Spanish)
  99. ^ MM. Giscard d'Estaing et Messmer pourraient être entendus sur l'aide aux dictatures sud-américaines, Le Monde, September 25, 2003 (in French)
  100. ^ « Série B. Amérique 1952-1963. Sous-série : Argentine, n° 74. Cotes : 18.6.1. mars 52-août 63 ».
  101. ^ RAPPORT FAIT AU NOM DE LA COMMISSION DES AFFAIRES ÉTRANGÈRES SUR LA PROPOSITION DE RÉSOLUTION (n° 1060), tendant à la création d'une commission d'enquête sur le rôle de la France dans le soutien aux régimes militaires d'Amérique latine entre 1973 et 1984, PAR M. ROLAND BLUM, French National Assembly (in French)
  102. ^ Argentine : M. de Villepin défend les firmes françaises, Le Monde, February 5, 2003 (in French)
  103. ^ a b c "La veces que Pinochet casi Ataca al Perú de Sorpresa". June 3, 2004.
  104. ^ a b c d Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum. KISSINGER, HENRY
  105. ^ "La veces que Pinochet casi Ataca al Perú de Sorpresa", Caretas, June 3, 2004 (in Spanish)
  106. ^ Holsti, Kalevi J. (1996). The State, War and the State of War. Cambridge Studies in International Relations. p. 158. 
  107. ^ Masterson, Daniel M. (1991). Militarism and politics in Latin America: Peru from Sánchez Cerro to Sendero Luminoso. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 228–229. ISBN 978-0-313-27213-4. 
  108. ^ Fermandois, Joaquín. "Chile en el mundo". Chile. La búsqueda de la democracia. 5 (1960-2010). 
  109. ^ Corbatta, Jorgelina. "The Pinochet Affair in London and Spain". Remapping the Humanities: Identity, Community, Memory, (post)modernity. 1. p. 125. 
  110. ^ Cedéo Alvarado, Ernesto (February 4, 2008). "Rey Juan Carlos abochornó a Pinochet". Panamá América. Retrieved April 4, 2016. 
  111. ^ Petras & Morley, 1974
  112. ^ Tanya Harmer, 'The View from Havana: Chilean Exiles in Cuba and Early Resistance to Chile's Dictatorship's, Hispanic American Historical Review 1 (2016), 109-13
  113. ^ The Day Pinochet Nearly Died.
  114. ^ Castro's Secrets, Brian Latell, p. 125, Macmillan, 2013
  115. ^ a b c d e Morris, Nancy. 1986. Canto Porque es Necesario Cantar: The New Song Movement in Chile, 1973-1983. Latin American Research Review, Vol. 21, pp. 117-136.
  116. ^ Torres Quezada, Rodrigo Guillermo. 2007. El imaginario de rebeldía y disconformidad a través de la música rock en los años ´90. Desadaptados/as chilenos/as dejan su mensaje.
  117. ^ a b Fuentes, Jorge. La histórica rivalidad de Los Prisioneros y Soda Stereo, ¿quién ganó?, retrieved on December 12, 2012.
  118. ^ a b c Leiva, Jorge. "Los Prisioneros". La enciclopedia de la música chilena en Internet. Archived from the original on 2012-10-17. Retrieved 2012-11-29. 
  119. ^ Sol y Lluvia on a live recording of their song "Voy a hacer el amor"
  120. ^ a b c Richards, Keith (2005), Pop culture Latin America!: media, arts, and lifestyle, pp. 121–122 
  121. ^ "Gabriela Mistral: poeta y lesbiana". El Tiempo. June 7, 2003. Retrieved June 23, 2017. 
  122. ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  123. ^ Australian Slavonic and East European Studies: Journal of the Australian and ... - Google Books. 2008-04-23. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  124. ^ Christian, 1992
  125. ^ "BBC NEWS - Americas - Pinochet 'takes responsibility'". Retrieved 25 February 2015. 


  • Bawden, JR. (2016). The Pinochet Generation: The Chilean Military in the Twentieth Century, Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
  • Christian, D. (1992). "Perestroika and World History", Australian Slavonic and East European studies, 6(1), pp. 1–28.
  • Falcoff, M. (2003). "Cuba: The Morning After", p. 26. AEI Press, 2003.
  • Petras, J., & Vieux, S. (1990). "The Chilean 'Economic Miracle': An Empirical Critique", Critical Sociology, 17, pp. 57–72.
  • Roberts, K.M. (1995). "From the Barricades to the Ballot Box: Redemocratization and Political Realignment in the Chilean Left", Politics & Society, 23, pp. 495–519.
  • Schatan, J. (1990). "The Deceitful Nature of Socio-Economic Indicators". Development, 3-4, pp. 69–75.
  • Sznajder, M. (1996). "Dilemmas of economic and political modernisation in Chile: A jaguar that wants to be a puma", Third World Quarterly, 17, pp. 725–736.
  • Valdes, J.G. (1995). Pinochet's economists: The Chicago School in Chile, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Steve Anderson Body of Chile's Former President Frei May Be Exumed, The Santiago Times, April 5, 2005

External links[edit]